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  • geography

    Geography, the study of the diverse environments, places, and spaces of Earth’s surface and their interactions. It seeks to answer the questions of why things are as they are, where they are. The modern academic discipline of geography is rooted in ancient practice, concerned with the

  • Geography (work by Strabo)

    Strabo: …Greek geographer and historian whose Geography is the only extant work covering the whole range of peoples and countries known to both Greeks and Romans during the reign of Augustus (27 bce–14 ce). Its numerous quotations from technical literature, moreover, provide a remarkable account of the state of Greek geographical…

  • Geography (work by Khwārizmī)

    al-Khwārizmī: …of the Earth”; translated as Geography), which presented the coordinates of localities in the known world based, ultimately, on those in the Geography of Ptolemy (flourished 127–145 ce) but with improved values for the length of the Mediterranean Sea and the location of cities in Asia and Africa. He also…

  • Geography (work by Ptolemy)

    map: Revival of Ptolemy: …old Greek manuscripts, including Ptolemy’s Geography, from destruction. The rediscovery of this great work came at a fortunate time because the recent development of a printing industry capable of handling map reproduction made possible its circulation far beyond the few scholars who otherwise would have enjoyed access to it. This,…

  • Geography III (work by Bishop)

    Elizabeth Bishop: Questions of Travel (1965) and Geography III (1976) offer spare, powerful meditations on the need for self-exploration, on the value of art (especially poetry) in human life, and on human responsibility in a chaotic world. The latter collection includes some of Bishop’s best-known poems, among them “In the Waiting Room,”…

  • Geography Made Easy (work by Morse)

    Jedidiah Morse: …published in the United States, Geography Made Easy (1784). His geographical writings dominated the field in the United States until his death.

  • Geography of a Horse Dreamer (play by Shepard)

    Sam Shepard: …of Crime (produced 1972) and Geography of a Horse Dreamer (produced 1974)—premiered in London. In late 1974 he became playwright-in-residence at the Magic Theatre in San Francisco, where most of his plays over the next decade were first produced.

  • Geography=War (work by Jaar)

    Alfredo Jaar: Geography=War (1990) utilized proportionately accurate maps of the world (in which North America is much smaller than on traditional maps) to force viewers to confront their assumptions about geography and power. These maps illustrated the journey taken by toxic waste sent to Koko, Nigeria, by…

  • geoid (geology)

    Geoid, model of the figure of Earth—i.e., of the planet’s size and shape—that coincides with mean sea level over the oceans and continues in continental areas as an imaginary sea-level surface defined by spirit level. It serves as a reference surface from which topographic heights and ocean depths

  • geologic column

    dating: Geologic column and its associated time scale: The end product of correlation is a mental abstraction called the geologic column. It is the result of integrating all the world’s individual rock sequences into a single sequence. In order to communicate the fine structure of this…

  • geologic cycle

    geology: …rocks, thereby completing a full cycle of the transfer of matter from an old continent to a young ocean and ultimately to the formation of new sedimentary rocks. Knowledge of the processes of interaction of the atmosphere and the hydrosphere with the surface rocks and soils of the Earth’s crust…

  • geologic disposal (engineering)

    nuclear reactor: Geologic disposal: …nuclear power plants is called geologic disposal. This means that all conditioned nuclear wastes are to be deposited in mined cavities deep underground. Shafts are to be sunk into a solid rock stratum, with tunnel corridors extending horizontally from the central shaft region and tunnel “rooms” laterally from the corridors.…

  • geologic map

    geochronology: Early attempts at mapping and correlation: …one of the first large-scale geologic maps of a region is its essential accuracy in portraying what is now known to be the geologic succession for the particular area of Britain covered.

  • Geologic Map of England and Wales with Part of Scotland (work by Smith)

    Earth sciences: William Smith and faunal succession: …when William Smith published his Geologic Map of England and Wales with Part of Scotland (1815). A self-educated surveyor and engineer, Smith had the habit of collecting fossils and making careful note of the strata that contained them. He discovered that the different stratified formations in England contain distinctive assemblages…

  • geologic oceanography

    Marine geology, scientific discipline that is concerned with all geological aspects of the continental shelves and slopes and the ocean basins. In practice, the principal focus of marine geology has been on marine sedimentation and on the interpretation of the many bottom samples that have been

  • geologic province

    dating: Multiple ages for a single rock: the thermal effect: These are called geologic provinces. By contrast, rocks that have approached their melting point—say, 750 °C (1,382 °F), which can cause new zircon growth during a second thermal event—are rare, and those that have done this more than once are almost nonexistent.

  • geologic time

    Geologic time, the extensive interval of time occupied by the geologic history of Earth. Formal geologic time begins at the start of the Archean Eon (4.0 billion to 2.5 billion years ago) and continues to the present day. Modern geologic time scales additionally often include the Hadean Eon, which

  • geological dike (igneous rock)

    Dike, in geology, tabular or sheetlike igneous body that is often oriented vertically or steeply inclined to the bedding of preexisting intruded rocks; similar bodies oriented parallel to the bedding of the enclosing rocks are called sills. A dike set is composed of several parallel dikes; when the

  • geological engineering

    Engineering geology, the scientific discipline concerned with the application of geological knowledge to engineering problems—e.g., to reservoir design and location, determination of slope stability for construction purposes, and determination of earthquake, flood, or subsidence danger in areas

  • Geological Essays (work by Kirwan)

    Richard Kirwan: …books on chemistry, Kirwan wrote Geological Essays (1799), a controversial response to the pioneering work of geologist James Hutton; a work on comparative climatology; a two-volume work on logic; and a volume of essays on metaphysics.

  • Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic (hydrography)

    undersea exploration: Exploration of the seafloor and the Earth’s crust: …those that employ Seabeam and Gloria (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) permit mapping two-dimensional swaths with great accuracy from a single ship. These methods are widely used to ascertain the major features of the seafloor. The Gloria system, for example, can produce a picture of the morphology of a region at…

  • Geological Museum (museum, Lima, Peru)

    museum: South America: …in the case of the Geological Museum in Lima, Peru (1891), or the Geographical and Geological Museum at São Paulo, Brazil (1895). Others were created by provincial bodies: the regional museums at Córdoba (1887) and Gualeguaychu (1898), both in Argentina, and at Ouro Prêto, Brazil (1876); the Hualpen Museum in…

  • geological oceanography

    Marine geology, scientific discipline that is concerned with all geological aspects of the continental shelves and slopes and the ocean basins. In practice, the principal focus of marine geology has been on marine sedimentation and on the interpretation of the many bottom samples that have been

  • geological record

    dating: Analysis of separated minerals: …mineral is widespread in the geologic record, it is more valuable for dating as more units can be measured for age and compared by the same method. However, if a single parent-daughter pair that is amenable to precise analysis can be measured in a variety of minerals, the ages of…

  • geological science (science)

    Geology, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth. Included are sciences such as mineralogy, geodesy, and stratigraphy. An introduction to the geochemical and geophysical sciences logically begins with mineralogy, because Earth’s rocks are composed of minerals—inorganic elements or

  • geological sciences (science)

    Geology, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth. Included are sciences such as mineralogy, geodesy, and stratigraphy. An introduction to the geochemical and geophysical sciences logically begins with mineralogy, because Earth’s rocks are composed of minerals—inorganic elements or

  • Geological Society of America (American organization)

    Arthur L. Day: …and president (1938) of the Geological Society of America, which created the Arthur L. Day Award in his honour.

  • Geological Survey of Canada (science organization, Canada)

    Sir William Edmond Logan: In 1842, when the Geological Survey of Canada was formed, Logan was made its director, and he served in this capacity until 1869. His chief work for the Geological Survey was his monumental Report on the Geology of Canada (1863), a compilation of 20 years of research. Another of…

  • Geological Survey of Great Britain (British science organization)

    Sir Henry Thomas De La Beche: …London), geologist who founded the Geological Survey of Great Britain, which made the first methodical geologic survey of an entire country ever undertaken.

  • Geological Survey, United States (geological organization, United States)

    Rocky Mountains: Study and exploration: …surveys were organized by the U.S. government following the American Civil War: the survey of the 40th parallel led by Clarence King (1867–78), the geologic survey of Nebraska and Wyoming led by Ferdinand Hayden (1867–78), the 100th-meridian survey led by George Wheeler (1872–79), and the expeditions to the Green and…

  • geological thermometry (Earth science)

    geology: Isotopic geochemistry: …used as a form of geologic thermometer. The ratio of oxygen-16 to oxygen-18 in calcium carbonate secreted by various marine organisms from calcium carbonate in solution in seawater is influenced by the temperature of the seawater. Precise measurement of the proportions of oxygen-16 with respect to oxygen-18 in calcareous shells…

  • geological time scale

    Geologic time, the extensive interval of time occupied by the geologic history of Earth. Formal geologic time begins at the start of the Archean Eon (4.0 billion to 2.5 billion years ago) and continues to the present day. Modern geologic time scales additionally often include the Hadean Eon, which

  • geology (science)

    Geology, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth. Included are sciences such as mineralogy, geodesy, and stratigraphy. An introduction to the geochemical and geophysical sciences logically begins with mineralogy, because Earth’s rocks are composed of minerals—inorganic elements or

  • Geology of New York (work by Hall)

    James Hall: …culminated in his massive report Geology of New York (part 4, 1843), a classic in American geology. Although he could not explain the uplift of the sedimentary beds that formed the Appalachians, his observations were instrumental in forming the geosynclinal theory.

  • Geology of the Comstock Lode and Washoe District (work by Becker)

    George Ferdinand Becker: …report from this work is Geology of the Comstock Lode and Washoe District (1882).

  • Geology of the Marysville Mining District, Montana (work by Barrell)

    Joseph Barrell: …he presented his ideas in Geology of the Marysville Mining District, Montana (1907). In this classic work on geology he proposed the then new concept that molten magma from the Earth’s interior infiltrated fissures in the crust and created intrusions, lavas, and metamorphism.

  • Geology’s Anthropocene Debate

    Though scientists had known for decades that humans exerted an enormous pull on Earth’s natural resources, geologists and other scholars pondered in 2015 whether that influence was so great that a new geologic interval, the Anthropocene, should be created. Much of the discussion focused on the

  • Geolycosa (spider genus)

    wolf spider: ” Burrowing wolf spiders (Geolycosa), which spend most of their lives in burrows, have heavy front legs that are used for digging. The wolf spiders with the largest bodies are mostly of the genus Lycosa, a large group that includes L. tarentula of southern Europe (see tarantula).

  • geomagnetic anomaly (geophysics)

    paleogeography: Linear magnetic anomalies: Earth’s magnetic field has another important property. Like the Sun’s magnetic field, Earth’s magnetic field periodically “flips,” or reverses polarity—that is, the North and South poles switch places. Fluctuations, or anomalies in the intensity of the magnetic field, occur at the boundaries between…

  • geomagnetic dynamo (geophysics)

    Dynamo theory, geophysical theory that explains the origin of Earth’s main magnetic field in terms of a self-exciting (or self-sustaining) dynamo. In this dynamo mechanism, fluid motion in Earth’s outer core moves conducting material (liquid iron) across an already existing weak magnetic field and

  • geomagnetic field (geophysics)

    Geomagnetic field, magnetic field associated with Earth. It is primarily dipolar (i.e., it has two poles, the geomagnetic North and South poles) on Earth’s surface. Away from the surface the dipole becomes distorted. In the 1830s the German mathematician and astronomer Carl Friedrich Gauss studied

  • Geomagnetic North Pole (geophysics)

    North Pole: …steadily migrating northwest)—or with the geomagnetic North Pole, the northern end of Earth’s geomagnetic field (about 79°30′ N 71°30′ W). The geographic pole, located at a point where the ocean depth is about 13,400 feet (4,080 metres) deep and covered with drifting pack ice, experiences six months of complete sunlight…

  • geomagnetic polar reversal (geophysics)

    Geomagnetic reversal, an alternation of the Earth’s magnetic polarity in geologic time. See polar

  • geomagnetic pole (geophysics)

    geomagnetic field: Dipolar field: …hemispheres not far from the geomagnetic poles. The weakest field occurred along the magnetic equator, with the lowest value being observed on the Atlantic coast of South America.

  • geomagnetic reversal (geophysics)

    Geomagnetic reversal, an alternation of the Earth’s magnetic polarity in geologic time. See polar

  • Geomagnetic South Pole (geophysics)

    South Pole: …it coincide with the geomagnetic South Pole, the southern end of the Earth’s geomagnetic field (this pole also moves; during the early 1990s it was located about 79°13′ S, 108°44′ E). The geographic pole, at an elevation of some 9,300 feet (2,830 m; the elevation also changes constantly) above sea…

  • geomagnetic storm (atmospheric science)

    Geomagnetic storm, disturbance of Earth’s upper atmosphere brought on by coronal mass ejections—i.e., large eruptions from the Sun’s outer atmosphere, or corona. The material associated with these eruptions consists primarily of protons and electrons with an energy of a few thousand electron volts.

  • geomagnetic storm of 1859 (atmospheric phenomenon)

    Geomagnetic storm of 1859, largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded. The storm, which occurred on Sept. 2, 1859, produced intense auroral displays as far south as the tropics. It also caused fires as the enhanced electric current flowing through telegraph wires ignited recording tape at telegraph

  • geomagnetic substorm (atmospheric science)

    geomagnetic field: Magnetospheric substorms—unbalanced flux transfer: Magnetospheric substorm is the name applied to the collection of processes that occur throughout the magnetosphere at the time of an auroral and magnetic disturbance. The term substorm was originally used to signify that the processes produce an event, localized in…

  • geomagnetic-polarity time scale (geology)

    geologic history of Earth: Time scales: A magnetic-polarity time scale for the stratigraphy of normal and reversed magnetic stripes can be constructed back as far as 280–260 million years ago, which is the age of the oldest extant segment of ocean floor.

  • geomagnetics (physics)

    Geomagnetics, branch of geophysics concerned with all aspects of the Earth’s magnetic field, including its origin, variation through time, and manifestations in the form of magnetic poles, the remanent magnetization of rocks, and local or regional magnetic anomalies. The latter reflect the

  • geomagnetism (geophysics)

    Geomagnetic field, magnetic field associated with Earth. It is primarily dipolar (i.e., it has two poles, the geomagnetic North and South poles) on Earth’s surface. Away from the surface the dipole becomes distorted. In the 1830s the German mathematician and astronomer Carl Friedrich Gauss studied

  • geomancy (architectural siting technique)

    Beijing: City layout: …plan, based on traditional Chinese geomantic practices, was composed about a single straight line, drawn north and south through the centre of the Forbidden City, on which the internal coherence of the city hinged. All the city walls, important city gates, main avenues and streets, religious buildings, and daily shopping…

  • geomancy (method of divination)

    augury: …other marks on paper (geomancy), fire and smoke (pyromancy), the shoulder blades of animals (scapulimancy), entrails of sacrificed animals (haruspicy), or their livers, which were considered to be the seat of life (hepatoscopy).

  • geomechanics

    rock: Rock mechanics: …of study is known as geotectonics.

  • Geometres, John (Byzantine poet, official, and monk)

    John Geometres, Byzantine poet, official, and monk, known for his short poems in classical metre. Geometres held the post of protospatharios (commander of the guards) at the Byzantine court and later was ordained priest. His poems, on both contemporary politics and religious subjects, are

  • Geometria Indivisibilibus Continuorum Nova Quadam Ratione Promota (work by Cavalieri)

    Archimedes' Lost Method: Bonaventura Cavalieri in his Geometria Indivisibilibus Continuorum Nova Quadam Ratione Promota (1635; “A Certain Method for the Development of a New Geometry of Continuous Indivisibles”). Cavalieri observed what happens when a hemisphere and its circumscribing cylinder are cut by the family of planes parallel to the base of the…

  • Geometriae Pars Universalis (work by Gregory)

    James Gregory: …and of the Hyperbola”) and Geometriae Pars Universalis (1668; “The Universal Part of Geometry”). In the former work he used a modification of the method of exhaustion of Archimedes (287–212/211 bce) to find the areas of the circle and sections of the hyperbola. In his construction of an infinite sequence…

  • geometric algebra

    Emil Artin: Artin’s books include Geometric Algebra (1957) and, with John T. Tate, Class Field Theory (1961). Most of his technical papers are found in The Collected Papers of Emil Artin (1965).

  • geometric growth (statistics)

    population ecology: Exponential and geometric population growth: …of organisms whose growth is geometric. In these species a population grows as a series of increasingly steep steps rather than as a smooth curve.

  • geometric isomerism (chemistry)

    fat and oil processing: Isomerization reactions: …of natural oils has the cis configuration, in which hydrogen atoms lie on one side of a plane cutting through the double bond and alkyl groups lie on the other side. During hydrogenation some of the unsaturation is converted to the trans configuration, with like groups on opposite sides of…

  • geometric locus (geometry)

    mathematics: The Elements: …constructions and proofs of plane geometric figures: Book I deals with the congruence of triangles, the properties of parallel lines, and the area relations of triangles and parallelograms; Book II establishes equalities relating to squares, rectangles, and triangles; Book III covers basic properties of circles; and Book IV sets out…

  • geometric mean (mathematics)

    mean: geometric mean of x1 and x2. The geometric mean of n numbers x1, x2, …, xn is defined to be the nth root of their product:

  • geometric ornament (decorative arts)

    pottery: Central America: …was painted with black curvilinear geometric motifs, in contrast to their earlier rectilinear style. During the period of Montezuma I in the 15th century, designs became more naturalistic, and birds, fish, and plant forms were freely utilized. European motifs first appear after the conquest, and such techniques as tin glazing…

  • geometric perspective (industrial engineering)

    drafting: Perspective: Geometric perspective is a drawing method by which it is possible to depict a three-dimensional form as a two-dimensional image that closely resembles the scene as visualized by the human eye. The camera produces photographs with such resemblance. Images produced by the eye, the camera,…

  • geometric scaling (mathematics)

    allometry: …common example of allometry is geometric scaling, in which surface area is a function of body mass. In general, for organisms that preserve their basic shape as they vary in size, the organism’s linear dimensions vary as the 13 and their surface area as the 23 powers of their body…

  • geometric sequence (mathematics)

    mathematics: Numerical calculation: By correlating the geometric sequence of numbers a, a2, a3,…(a is called the base) and the arithmetic sequence 1, 2, 3,…and interpolating to fractional values, it is possible to reduce the problem of multiplication and division to one of addition and subtraction. To do this Napier chose a…

  • geometric series (mathematics)

    Geometric series, in mathematics, an infinite series of the form a + ar + ar2 + ar3+⋯, where r is known as the common ratio. A simple example is the geometric series for a = 1 and r = 1/2, or 1 + 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 +⋯, which converges to a sum of 2 (or 1 if the first term is excluded). The Achilles

  • Geometric style (Greek art)

    Geometric style, style of ancient Greek art, primarily of vase painting, that began about 900 bc and represents the last purely Mycenaean-Greek art form that originated before the influx of foreign inspiration by about 800 bc. Athens was its centre, and the growing moneyed population of new Greek

  • Geometrica Organica; Sive Descriptio Linearum Curvarum Universalis (work by Maclaurin)

    Colin Maclaurin: In his first work, Geometrica Organica; Sive Descriptio Linearum Curvarum Universalis (1720; “Organic Geometry, with the Description of the Universal Linear Curves”), Maclaurin developed several theorems similar to some in Newton’s Principia, introduced the method of generating conic sections (the circle, ellipse, hyperbola, and parabola) that bears his name,…

  • geometrical isomerism (chemistry)

    fat and oil processing: Isomerization reactions: …of natural oils has the cis configuration, in which hydrogen atoms lie on one side of a plane cutting through the double bond and alkyl groups lie on the other side. During hydrogenation some of the unsaturation is converted to the trans configuration, with like groups on opposite sides of…

  • Geometrical Lectures (work by Barrow)

    mathematics: The precalculus period: …Cambridge, published in 1670 his Geometrical Lectures, a treatise that more than any other anticipated the unifying ideas of the calculus. In it he adopted a purely geometric form of exposition to show how the determinations of areas and tangents are inverse problems. He began with a curve and considered…

  • geometrical optics

    optics: Geometrical optics: An optical image may be regarded as the apparent reproduction of an object by a lens or mirror system, employing light as a carrier. An entire image is generally produced simultaneously, as by the lens in a camera,…

  • geometrid moth (insect)

    Geometrid moth, (family Geometridae), any member of a group of moths (order Lepidoptera) that includes the species commonly known as pug, wave, emerald, and carpet moths. The larvae of geometrid moths are called by a variety of common names, including inchworm, cankerworm, looper, and measuring

  • Geometridae (insect)

    Geometrid moth, (family Geometridae), any member of a group of moths (order Lepidoptera) that includes the species commonly known as pug, wave, emerald, and carpet moths. The larvae of geometrid moths are called by a variety of common names, including inchworm, cankerworm, looper, and measuring

  • Géométrie descriptive (work by Monge)

    Gaspard Monge, count de Péluse: In Géométrie descriptive (1799; “Descriptive Geometry”), based on his lectures at the École Normale, he developed his descriptive method for representing a solid in three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional plane by drawing the projections—known as plans, elevations, and traces—of the solid on a sheet of paper.…

  • Géométrie, La (work by Descartes)

    mathematics: Analytic geometry: Descartes’s La Géométrie appeared in 1637 as an appendix to his famous Discourse on Method, the treatise that presented the foundation of his philosophical system. Although supposedly an example from mathematics of his rational method, La Géométrie was a technical treatise understandable independently of philosophy. It…

  • geometrization conjecture (mathematics)

    topology: Fundamental group: Thurston’s conjecture implies the Poincaré conjecture, and in recognition of his work toward proving these conjectures, the Russian mathematician Grigori Perelman was awarded a Fields Medal at the 2006 International Congress of Mathematicians.

  • Geometroidea (moth superfamily)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Superfamily Geometroidea Almost 22,000 species; adults with abdominal tympana; some authorities classify each of the 3 major families as a separate superfamily. Family Geometridae (measuring worm, or inchworm, moths) Approximately 21,000 species, abundant worldwide; adults and larvae commonly very cryptic, resembling

  • geometry (mathematics)

    Geometry, the branch of mathematics concerned with the shape of individual objects, spatial relationships among various objects, and the properties of surrounding space. It is one of the oldest branches of mathematics, having arisen in response to such practical problems as those found in

  • geometry, coordination (chemistry)

    boron group element: Less-common compounds: …gallium, indium, and thallium are coordinated to five or six atoms. These compounds have structures of the following types, M again representing any boron group element, D any donor molecule, and X any halogen (again, the solid lines are bonds in the plane of the screen, the atoms so bonded…

  • geōmoroi (Greek social class)

    Geōmoroi, class of citizens in ancient Greek society. In 7th-century-bc Attic society, geōmoroi were freemen, generally peasant farm holders, lower on the social and political scale than the eupatridae, the aristocracy, but above the dēmiourgoi, the artisans. The geōmoroi were ineligible for any

  • geomorphic cycle

    Geomorphic cycle, theory of the evolution of landforms. In this theory, first set forth by William M. Davis between 1884 and 1934, landforms were assumed to change through time from “youth” to “maturity” to “old age,” each stage having specific characteristics. The initial, or youthful, stage of

  • geomorphology

    Geomorphology, scientific discipline concerned with the description and classification of the Earth’s topographic features. A brief treatment of geomorphology follows. For full treatment, see geology: Geomorphology. Much geomorphologic research has been devoted to the origin of landforms. Such

  • geomungo (musical instrument)

    Kŏmungo, Korean long board zither that originated in the 7th century. The kŏmungo is about 150 cm (5 feet) long and has three movable bridges and 16 convex frets supporting six silk strings. The front plate of the instrument is made of paulownia wood and the back plate is made of chestnut wood.

  • Geomyidae (rodent)

    Pocket gopher, (family Geomyidae), any of 38 species of predominantly North and Central American rodents named for their large, fur-lined cheek pouches. The “pockets” open externally on each side of the mouth and extend from the face to the shoulders; they can be everted for cleaning. The lips can

  • Geonemertes (nemertean genus)

    ribbon worm: Within the genera Prostoma and Geonemertes, the species may be either dioecious (i.e., separate male and female animals) or hermaphroditic (i.e. male and female reproductive organs in one animal). All ribbon worms have the ability to regenerate lost or damaged parts of their bodies; some species actually break up and…

  • geonim (medieval Jewish scholar)

    Gaon, (Hebrew: “excellency”, ) the title accorded to the Jewish spiritual leaders and scholars who headed Talmudic academies that flourished, with lengthy interruptions, from the 7th to the 13th century in Babylonia and Palestine. The chief concern of the geonim was to interpret and develop

  • Geonoma (plant genus)

    palm: Ecology: …palm and some species of Geonoma, they grow at elevations as high as 3,000 metres in the Andes. There are exceptions, however, for palms are also found in swamps or poorly drained areas (bussu palm, Mauritia, date palm, sago palm, raffia palm) or brackish estuaries and lagoons (nipa palm) or…

  • Geonoma cuneata (plant species)

    palm: Ecology: …forest floor (Asterogyne martiana and Geonoma cuneata, for example) are being used to study light relationships, especially as regards simple versus dissected leaves. These studies are promising but in their preliminary stages.

  • Geonoma triandra (plant species)

    palm: Characteristic morphological features: …rarely be 3 (Areca triandra, Geonoma triandra, Nypa fruticans) or more numerous, ranging from 6 to 36 in Heterospathe, to more than 200 in such groups as Caryota, Phytelephas, and Veitchia. Sterile stamens may differ only slightly from fertile stamens, or they may consist of a filament alone without an…

  • Geophilida (arthropod)

    skeleton: Skeletomusculature of arthropods: …sclerites of burrowing centipedes (Geophilomorpha) enable them to change their shape in an earthwormlike manner while preserving a complete armour of surface sclerites at all times. The marginal zones of the sclerites bear cones of sclerotization that are set in the flexible cuticle, thus permitting flexure in any direction…

  • Geophilomorpha (arthropod)

    skeleton: Skeletomusculature of arthropods: …sclerites of burrowing centipedes (Geophilomorpha) enable them to change their shape in an earthwormlike manner while preserving a complete armour of surface sclerites at all times. The marginal zones of the sclerites bear cones of sclerotization that are set in the flexible cuticle, thus permitting flexure in any direction…

  • geophone (instrument)

    Geophone, trade name for an acoustic detector that responds to ground vibrations generated by seismic waves. Geophones—also called jugs, pickups, and tortugas—are placed on the ground surface in various patterns, or arrays, to record the vibrations generated by explosives in seismic reflection and

  • Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution (laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    George Ferdinand Becker: …in the establishment of the Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. In 1896 Becker went to South Africa to study the gold and diamond fields, and in 1898–99 he served as geologist to the U.S. Army in the Philippines.

  • geophysical prospecting

    archaeology: Preliminary work: and magnetic fields (geophysical prospecting). A method of electrical prospecting had been developed in large-scale oil prospecting: this technique, based on the degree of electrical conductivity present in the soil, began to be used by archaeologists in the late 1940s and has since proved very useful. Magnetic methods…

  • Geophysical Service Inc. (American company)

    Texas Instruments Incorporated (TI), American manufacturer of calculators, microprocessors, and digital signal processors with its headquarters in Dallas, Texas. The direct antecedent to the company was founded May 16, 1930, by John Clarence (“Doc”) Karcher and Eugene McDermott to provide

  • geophysics

    Geophysics, major branch of the Earth sciences that applies the principles and methods of physics to the study of the Earth. A brief treatment of geophysics follows. For full treatment, see geology: Geophysics. Geophysics deals with a wide array of geologic phenomena, including the temperature

  • geopolitics (political science)

    Geopolitics, analysis of the geographic influences on power relationships in international relations. The word geopolitics was originally coined by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén about the turn of the 20th century, and its use spread throughout Europe in the period between World

  • geopolitik (political science)

    Geopolitics, analysis of the geographic influences on power relationships in international relations. The word geopolitics was originally coined by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén about the turn of the 20th century, and its use spread throughout Europe in the period between World

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