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  • gemmulation

    sponge: Asexual reproduction: …best known method is called gemmulation. Gemmulation begins when aggregates of cells, mostly archaeocytes, which, when they become laden with reserve food granules become isolated at the surface of a sponge and surrounded by a protective covering. These so-called “gemmules” are expelled from the adult sponge and, in some marine…

  • gemmule

    sponge: Asexual reproduction: These so-called “gemmules” are expelled from the adult sponge and, in some marine species, serve as a normal reproductive process or, sometimes, as a means to carry the sponges over periods of unfavourable conditions when the adults degenerate; e.g., drought, temperature extremes.

  • Gempei War (Japanese history)

    Gempei War, (1180–85), final struggle in Japan between the Taira and Minamoto clans that resulted in the Minamoto’s establishment of the Kamakura shogunate, a military dictatorship that dominated Japan from 1192 to 1333. The Taira clan had dominated the Imperial government from 1160 to 1185.

  • Gempylidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Gempylidae (snake mackerels) Eocene to present. Elongated, laterally compressed; mouth large, with large, cutting teeth; spinous part of dorsal fin longer than soft-rayed part, the latter often broken up into finlets posteriorly; pelvic fins usually not rudimentary. Some 24 species; tropical and temperate seas; down to…

  • Gems, Pam (British playwright)

    Pam Gems, (Iris Pamela Price), British playwright (born Aug. 1, 1925, Bransgore, Hampshire, Eng.—died May 13, 2011, London, Eng.), wrote unsentimental feminist plays and television scripts that were celebrated for their lack of pretension and frank depiction of female characters, most notably Piaf,

  • gemsbok (mammal)

    oryx: The gemsbok (Oryx gazella gazella) is the largest; it stands up to 138 cm (54 inches) tall and weighs 238 kg (524 pounds). It also has the most striking coloration: gray-brown with contrasting black and white body and facial markings. The Arabian, or white, oryx (O.…

  • gemstone (mineral)

    Gemstone, any of various minerals highly prized for beauty, durability, and rarity. A few noncrystalline materials of organic origin (e.g., pearl, red coral, and amber) also are classified as gemstones. Gemstones have attracted humankind since ancient times, and have long been used for jewelry. The

  • Gemzar (drug)

    pancreatic cancer: Treatment: …the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine (Gemzar), an antimetabolite that inhibits the synthesis of genetic material in dividing cells, patient survival is improved, although only modestly. Several other targeted drugs such as cetuximab (Erbitux), a monoclonal antibody that binds to EGFR and thus prevents kinase activation and cell division, are being…

  • Gen X (demographic group)

    punk: …coinciding with the ascendance of Generation X—a new, disaffected generation born in the 1960s, many members of which identified with punk’s charged, often contradictory mix of intelligence, simplicity, anger, and powerlessness.

  • Gen Y (demographic group)

    capitalism: …in the United States, especially millennials (persons born in the 1980s or ’90s), a group that had been particularly hard-hit by the recession. Polls conducted during 2010–18 found that a slight majority of millennials held a positive view of socialism and that support for socialism had increased in every age…

  • Genale River (river, Africa)

    Jubba River, principal river of Somalia in northeastern Africa. Originating via its headwater streams in the Mendebo Mountains of southern Ethiopia, it flows about 545 miles (875 km) from Doolow on the Ethiopian frontier to the Indian Ocean just north of Kismaayo, one of Somalia’s three main ports.

  • Genbaku dōmu (dome, Hiroshima, Japan)

    Hiroshima: Atomic Bomb Dome (Genbaku dōmu), which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996, is the remains of one of the few buildings not obliterated by the blast. Pop. (2015) 1,194,034; (2018 est.) 1,199,252.

  • Genç Osman (Ottoman sultan)

    Osman II, Ottoman sultan who came to the throne as an active and intelligent boy of 14 and who during his short rule (1618–22) understood the need for reform within the empire. Ambitious and courageous, Osman undertook a military campaign against Poland, which had interfered in the Ottoman vassal

  • Gencer, Leyla (Turkish singer)

    Leyla Gencer, (Ayshe Leyla Ceyrekgil), Turkish soprano (born Oct. 10, 1928?, Istanbul, Tur.—died May 9/10, 2008, Milan, Italy), performed more than 70 roles throughout her 35-year operatic career. Known as the Turkish Diva, Gencer was most famous for her roles in the operas of Gaetano Donizetti and

  • Genda Minoru (Japanese naval officer)

    Genda Minoru, Japanese naval officer and air strategist who was chosen by Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku to draft the plan for the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor (in Oahu Island, Hawaii, U.S.), which crippled the American Pacific Fleet and precipitated the entry of the United States into World War II.

  • gendai mono (Japanese theatre)

    Noh theatre: …varied in content, includes the gendai mono (“present-day play”), in which the story is contemporary and “realistic” rather than legendary and supernatural, and the kyōjo mono (“madwoman play”), in which the protagonist becomes insane through the loss of a lover or child; and the fifth type, the kiri or kichiku…

  • gendai-geki (film genre)

    history of the motion picture: Japan: …of the feudal shogunate), or gendai-geki, films of contemporary life, set any time thereafter. Although, as a matter of geopolitical circumstance, there was hardly any export market for Japanese films prior to World War II, the domestic popularity of sound films enabled the Japanese motion-picture industry to become one of…

  • Gendarmeria Pontifica (Vatican City police)

    Pontifical Gendarmerie, former police force of Vatican City. The Pontifical, or Papal, Gendarmerie was created in the 19th century under the formal supervision of the pope. The gendarmes were responsible for maintaining the internal order and security of Vatican City. In the late 19th and early

  • gendarmerie (French army)

    France: Military and financial organization: …d’ordonnance, known collectively as the gendarmerie, consisted of noble volunteers. The infantry, however, was made up of non-nobles, and by the middle of the 16th century there were more than 30,000 infantrymen to a mere 5,000 noble horsemen. As this infantry force grew in number, its organization changed. After a…

  • Gendarmes, Corps of (Russian organization)

    Third Department: …functioned in conjunction with the Corps of Gendarmes (formed in 1836), a well-organized military force that operated throughout the empire, and with a network of anonymous spies and informers.

  • gender (grammar)

    Gender, in language, a phenomenon in which the words of a certain part of speech, usually nouns, require the agreement, or concord, through grammatical marking (or inflection), of various other words related to them in a sentence. In languages that exhibit gender, two or more classes of nouns

  • gender (musical instrument)

    percussion instrument: Idiophones: …Java, and the frame metallophone gender, now usually supplied with tubular resonators, which has been known since the 12th century. Introduced to China by a Turkic people in the 7th century, the horizontal type of metallophone reached Korea in the 12th century and is still occasionally played there. In Japan…

  • gender continuum

    feminism: Foundations: …to the concept of a gender continuum. From this perspective each person is seen as possessing, expressing, and suppressing the full range of traits that had previously been associated with one gender or the other. For third-wave feminists, therefore, “sexual liberation,” a major goal of second-wave feminism, was expanded to…

  • gender determination (genetics)

    Sex determination, the establishment of the sex of an organism, usually by the inheritance at the time of fertilization of certain genes commonly localized on a particular chromosome. This pattern affects the development of the organism by controlling cellular metabolism and stimulating the

  • gender difference (society)

    androgyny: …in which characteristics of both sexes are clearly expressed in a single individual. In biology, androgyny refers to individuals with fully developed sexual organs of both sexes, also called hermaphrodites. Body build and other physical characteristics of these individuals are a blend of normal male and female features.

  • gender dysphoria (psychology)

    Gender dysphoria (GD), formal diagnosis given by mental health professionals to people who experience distress because of a significant incongruence between the gender with which they personally identify and the gender with which they were born. The GD diagnosis appears in the Diagnostic and

  • gender egalitarianism

    Gender equality, condition of parity regardless of an individual’s gender. Gender equality addresses the tendency to ascribe, in various settings across societies, different roles and status to individuals on the basis of gender. In this context, the term gender generally refers to an individual’s

  • gender equality

    Gender equality, condition of parity regardless of an individual’s gender. Gender equality addresses the tendency to ascribe, in various settings across societies, different roles and status to individuals on the basis of gender. In this context, the term gender generally refers to an individual’s

  • gender fluidity

    drag queen: …premised on the belief in gender fluidity. Dragging is intended to make this fluidity visible through performance.

  • gender gap (sociology)

    Gender gap, Difference in opinions or attitudes between men and women concerning a variety of public and private issues, including political candidates, parties, or programs. Until the 1980s men and women in the U.S. exhibited similar voting habits. Since then, however, women have been more likely

  • gender identity (sexual behaviour)

    Gender identity, an individual’s self-conception as a man or woman or as a boy or girl or as some combination of man/boy and woman/girl or as someone fluctuating between man/boy and woman/girl or as someone outside those categories altogether. It is distinguished from actual biological sex—i.e.,

  • gender identity disorder (psychology)

    Gender dysphoria (GD), formal diagnosis given by mental health professionals to people who experience distress because of a significant incongruence between the gender with which they personally identify and the gender with which they were born. The GD diagnosis appears in the Diagnostic and

  • Gender issues in Malawi

    In Malawi, the male-female ratio in schools, universities, and higher positions in public service and industry generally favours the male gender. In the past, parents assumed that the destiny of daughters was to get married, have children, and serve their husbands and society. Although such

  • gender parody (cultural theory)

    Judith Butler: …most-overt examples of such “gender parody” involve cross-dressing, especially drag (see transvestism). According to Butler:

  • gender polarity (linguistics)

    Afro-Asiatic languages: The nominal system: …a feature known as “gender polarity.” For example, in the Cushitic language Burunge, kori ‘year’ is a masculine noun, but korara ‘years’ is feminine. Other languages use common gender in the plural (i.e., there is no gender distinction in the plural).

  • gender role (human behaviour)

    human behaviour: Self-concept, or identity: …on gender and is called sex-role identity. Children develop a rudimentary gender identity by age three, having learned to classify themselves and others as either males or females. They also come to prefer the activities and roles traditionally assigned to their own sex; as early as two years of age,…

  • gender stability (linguistics)

    Afro-Asiatic languages: The nominal system: …notable historical feature is “gender stability,” meaning that words for common things tend to share the same gender across the languages of the Afro-Asiatic phylum, no matter whether or not the particular words are cognate across the specific languages in question. For instance, the word for “blood” is always…

  • gender studies (sociology)

    William Shakespeare: Feminist criticism and gender studies: Gender studies such as those of Bruce R. Smith and Valerie Traub also dealt importantly with issues of gender as a social construction and with changing social attitudes toward “deviant” sexual behaviour: cross-dressing, same-sex relationships, and bisexuality.

  • Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (work by Butler)

    Judith Butler: In her best-known work, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1990), and its sequel, Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’ (1993), Butler built upon the familiar cultural-theoretic assumption that gender is socially constructed (the result of socialization, broadly conceived) rather than innate and that…

  • gender wage gap (economics and society)

    Gender wage gap, in many industrialized countries, systemic differences between the average wages or salaries of men and those of women. One of the most important economic trends of the late 20th century was the dramatic increase in the number of women entering the paid labour force. As more women

  • genderqueer (gender identity)

    Genderqueer, identity adopted by individuals who characterize themselves as neither female nor male, as both, or as somewhere in between. The term was coined in the 1990s. Although genderqueer individuals describe and express their identities differently and may or may not consider themselves to be

  • Gendje carpet

    Genje carpet, floor covering handwoven in Azerbaijan in or near the city of Gäncä (also spelled Gendje or Gänjä; in the Soviet era it was named Kirovabad, and under Imperial Russia, Yelizavetpol). The carpets are characterized by simple, angular designs and saturated (intense) colours. Genje

  • Gendre de Monsieur Poirier, Le (play by Augier and Sandeau)

    Émile Augier: His best-known play, Le Gendre de Monsieur Poirier (1854; “Monsieur Poirier’s Son-in-Law”), written in collaboration with Jules Sandeau, advocated the fusion of the new prosperous middle class with the dispossessed nobility.

  • Gendre, Louis Robert (French actor)

    Louis Jourdan, (Louis Robert Gendre), French actor (born June 19, 1921, Marseille, France—died Feb. 13, 2015, Beverly Hills, Calif.), epitomized the suave Gallic leading man—tall, dark, and handsome with slightly hooded eyes and a silky Continental-accented voice—in such romantic films as Madame

  • gene (heredity)

    Gene, unit of hereditary information that occupies a fixed position (locus) on a chromosome. Genes achieve their effects by directing the synthesis of proteins. In eukaryotes (such as animals, plants, and fungi), genes are contained within the cell nucleus. The mitochondria (in animals) and the

  • gene amplification (genetics)

    cancer: Gene amplification: Gene amplification is another type of chromosomal abnormality exhibited by some human tumours. It involves an increase in the number of copies of a proto-oncogene, an aberration that also can result in excessive production of the protein encoded by the proto-oncogene. Amplification of the…

  • gene bank (conservation)

    Kew Gardens: In 1996 the seed bank endeavour grew to become the Millennium Seed Bank Project (later the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership) to mitigate the extinction of at-risk and useful plants through seed preservation. Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank is the largest wild plant seed bank in the world. By 2018…

  • gene cloning (genetics)

    Cloning, the process of generating a genetically identical copy of a cell or an organism. Cloning happens often in nature—for example, when a cell replicates itself asexually without any genetic alteration or recombination. Prokaryotic organisms (organisms lacking a cell nucleus) such as bacteria

  • gene conversion (biology)

    nucleic acid: General recombination: …of the other—a process called gene conversion.

  • gene deletion (genetics)

    radiation: Damage to chromosomes: …of genetic material is called gene deletion. A germ cell thus affected may be capable of taking part in the fertilization process, but the resulting zygote may be incapable of full development and may therefore die in an embryonic state.

  • gene disruption (genetics)

    recombinant DNA: In vitro mutagenesis: …of in vitro mutagenesis is gene disruption, or gene knockout. Here, the resident functional gene is replaced by a completely nonfunctional copy. The advantage of this technique over random mutagenesis is that specific genes can be knocked out at will, leaving all other genes untouched by the mutagenic procedure.

  • gene doping (genetics and sports)

    Gene doping, use of substances or techniques to manipulate cells or genes in order to improve athletic performance. Since the latter half of the 20th century, the manipulation of human genes has formed an important area of biomedical research, with much effort focused in particular on refining gene

  • gene editing (genetics)

    Gene editing, the ability to make highly specific changes in the DNA sequence of a living organism, essentially customizing its genetic makeup. Gene editing is performed using enzymes, particularly nucleases that have been engineered to target a specific DNA sequence, where they introduce cuts into

  • Gene Editing Takes a Giant Leap Forward

    By 2015 gene editing—the ability to change specific bases in the DNA sequence of a living organism, essentially customizing its genetic makeup—had moved from a complex and inefficient laboratory endeavour to the cusp of clinical application. The advance, enabled by a molecular tool known as

  • gene expression (biology)

    cell: Genetic expression through RNA: The process of genetic expression takes place over several stages, and at each stage is the potential for further differentiation of cell types.

  • gene flow (genetics)

    Gene flow, the introduction of genetic material (by interbreeding) from one population of a species to another, thereby changing the composition of the gene pool of the receiving population. The introduction of new alleles through gene flow increases variability within the population and makes

  • gene flow (social practice)

    Miscegenation, marriage or cohabitation by persons of different race. Theories that the anatomical disharmony of children resulted from miscegenation were discredited by 20th-century genetics and anthropology. Although it is now accepted that modern populations are the result of the continuous

  • gene frequency (genetics)

    evolution: Processes of gene-frequency change: The allelic variations that make evolution possible are generated by the process of mutation, but new mutations change gene frequencies very slowly, because mutation rates are low. Assume that the gene allele A1 mutates to allele A2 at a rate m per…

  • gene III (biology)

    George P. Smith: …foreign DNA fragments into phage gene III, which encoded a coat protein expressed on the phage virion surface. When taken up by a phage, fusion proteins generated via gene III were displayed on the virion surface. Phage display enabled purification through antibody recognition, whereby antibodies directed against the foreign amino…

  • gene knockout (genetics)

    recombinant DNA: In vitro mutagenesis: …of in vitro mutagenesis is gene disruption, or gene knockout. Here, the resident functional gene is replaced by a completely nonfunctional copy. The advantage of this technique over random mutagenesis is that specific genes can be knocked out at will, leaving all other genes untouched by the mutagenic procedure.

  • Gene Krupa Story, The (American film)

    Gene Krupa: …of a fictionalized Hollywood biography, The Gene Krupa Story (1959), which featured Sal Mineo as Krupa and Krupa’s own drumming on the sound track.

  • Gene Leahy Mall (business complex, Omaha, Nebraska, United States)

    Omaha: The contemporary city: The Leahy Mall and the fountain were part of a massive modernization project of the downtown and the riverfront that began in the 1970s. Changes in the riverfront landscape since 2002 include the addition of the Qwest Center, a convention hall and arena; a river walk;…

  • gene migration (genetics)

    Gene flow, the introduction of genetic material (by interbreeding) from one population of a species to another, thereby changing the composition of the gene pool of the receiving population. The introduction of new alleles through gene flow increases variability within the population and makes

  • gene pool (genetics)

    Gene pool, sum of a population’s genetic material at a given time. The term typically is used in reference to a population made up of individuals of the same species and includes all genes and combinations of genes (sum of the alleles) in the population. The composition of a population’s gene pool

  • gene regulation

    gene: Gene regulation: Experiments have shown that many of the genes within the cells of organisms are inactive much or even all of the time. Thus, at any time, in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, it seems that a gene can be switched on or off. The…

  • gene repressor (biochemistry)

    gene: Gene regulation: …small protein molecule called a repressor. The repressor binds to the operator gene and prevents it from initiating the synthesis of the protein called for by the operon. The presence or absence of certain repressor molecules determines whether the operon is off or on. As mentioned, this model applies to…

  • gene splicing

    heredity: Transcription: …in a process called intron splicing. Molecular complexes called spliceosomes, which are composed of proteins and RNA, have RNA sequences that are complementary to the junction between introns and adjacent coding regions called exons. The intron is twisted into a loop and excised, and the exons are linked together. The…

  • gene targeting (medicine)

    Mario R. Capecchi: …which helped give rise to gene targeting. He developed a technique using recombinant DNA technology whereby DNA could be injected into the nucleus of mammalian cells, greatly enhancing the effectiveness of gene transfer. He further refined his procedure, incorporating the work of Evans and Smithies into his research, and the…

  • gene therapy (medicine)

    Gene therapy, introduction of a normal gene into an individual’s genome in order to repair a mutation that causes a genetic disease. When a normal gene is inserted into the nucleus of a mutant cell, the gene most likely will integrate into a chromosomal site different from the defective allele;

  • gene transfer therapy (medicine)

    Gene therapy, introduction of a normal gene into an individual’s genome in order to repair a mutation that causes a genetic disease. When a normal gene is inserted into the nucleus of a mutant cell, the gene most likely will integrate into a chromosomal site different from the defective allele;

  • gene-for-gene coevolution (biology)

    Gene-for-gene coevolution, a specific form of reciprocal evolutionary change based on the idea that, if one member of a coevolving relationship has a gene that affects the relationship, the other member has a gene to counter this effect. These genes evolve reciprocally and provide the genetic basis

  • Genealogia (work by Hecataeus of Miletus)

    Hecataeus of Miletus: …Hecataeus’s two known works, the Genealogia (also known as Historiai or Heroologia), seems to have been a systematic account in four books of the traditions and mythology of the Greeks, but comparatively few fragments of it survive. More than 300 fragments (most of them place names), however, remain of the…

  • genealogical approach (textual criticism)

    textual criticism: Recension: In the “genealogical” or “stemmatic” approach, the attempt to reconstruct an original text here relies on the witnesses themselves regarded as physical objects related to each other chronologically and genealogically; the text and the textual vehicle (the book itself) are treated as a single entity. On the basis of…

  • Genealogical Office (government organization, Ireland)

    heraldry: Ireland: …Office became known as the Genealogical Office. A civil servant was then appointed as Chief Herald of Ireland. The office of Ulster King of Arms has now been united with that of Norroy King of Arms in the College of Arms in London. The Irish Herald undertakes the duties formerly…

  • genealogy (anthropology)

    Genealogy, the study of family origins and history. Genealogists compile lists of ancestors, which they arrange in pedigree charts or other written forms. The word genealogy comes from two Greek words—one meaning “race” or “family” and the other “theory” or “science.” Thus is derived “to trace

  • genealogy research on the Internet

    By 2003 the number of people who had discovered the benefit of using the Internet to research their ancestry had increased dramatically. Many Web sites provide access to databases containing indexes to vital records and population censuses useful for genealogical research. For example, in September

  • genecenter (genetics)

    Genecentre, any of a number of areas on the Earth from which arose important crop plants and domestic animals. As few as four of these centres of origin have probably provided the great majority of the most useful plants and animals: (1) tropical southeastern Asia—rice, chickens; (2) temperate s

  • genecentre (genetics)

    Genecentre, any of a number of areas on the Earth from which arose important crop plants and domestic animals. As few as four of these centres of origin have probably provided the great majority of the most useful plants and animals: (1) tropical southeastern Asia—rice, chickens; (2) temperate s

  • Genée, Dame Adeline (British dancer)

    Dame Adeline Genée, dancer, choreographer, and teacher who was founder-president of the Royal Academy of Dancing. The daughter of a farmer, Anina Jensen was adopted at age eight by her uncle, Alexander Genée, director of a modest touring ballet company. Trained by her uncle and his wife, Antonia

  • Geneen, Harold Sydney (American businessman)

    Harold Geneen, American business executive who built the International Telephone and Telegraph Corp. (ITT) into a worldwide business conglomerate. During Geneen’s tenure (1959-77) as president and CEO of ITT, the company came to exemplify the modern international corporation, with business

  • Geneina Fort (Sudan)

    Al-Junaynah, town in the Darfur region of western Sudan. It lies about 15 miles (24 km) east of the Chad border and about 220 miles (350 km) west of Al-Fāshir, with which it is linked by a road. Al-Junaynah is located at an elevation of about 2,800 feet (853 metres). It has a domestic airport and

  • Genentech Inc. (American corporation)

    South San Francisco: …the biotechnology industry, which includes Genentech (founded 1976). South San Francisco boasts an attractive residential section with a view of San Francisco Bay. The most visible city attraction is a large sign, constructed in 1923, that reads “South San Francisco The Industrial City,” located on Sign Hill. San Francisco International…

  • genera (taxon)

    Genus, biological classification ranking between family and species, consisting of structurally or phylogenetically related species or a single isolated species exhibiting unusual differentiation (monotypic genus). The genus name is the first word of a binomial scientific name (the species name is

  • Genera of North American Plants, The (work by Nuttall)

    Thomas Nuttall: …information for his principal work, The Genera of North American Plants (1818).

  • Genera Plantarum (work by Linnaeus)

    Carolus Linnaeus: Classification by natural characters: …contained in Clifford’s collection; and Genera Plantarum (1737; “Genera of Plants”), which modified and updated definitions of plant genera first offered by Tournefort.

  • Genera Plantarum (work by Bentham and Hooker)

    George Bentham: …of specimens for the work Genera Plantarum (3 vol., 1862–83). It was published in Latin and covered 200 “orders” (analogous to what are now known as families) of 7,569 genera, which included more than 97,200 species.

  • Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines Naturales Disposita (work by Endlicher)

    Stephan Endlicher: …botanical collections, he wrote the Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines Naturales Disposita (1836–40; “Plant Genera Arranged According to a Natural Order”), a system of classification in which he treated 6,835 genera of plants (6,285 of vascular plants). He was appointed professor of botany at the University of Vienna in 1840. Having…

  • Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines Naturales Disposita, Juxia Methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi Exaratam, Anno 1774 (work by Jussieu)

    Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu: His Genera Plantarum Secundum Ordines Naturales Disposita, Juxta Methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi Exaratam, Anno 1774 (1789; “Genera of Plants Arranged According to Their Natural Orders, Based on the Method Devised in the Royal Garden in Paris in the Year 1774”) extended his method of classification,…

  • Generación del ’98 (Spanish literature)

    Generation of 1898, in Spain, the novelists, poets, essayists, and thinkers active at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898), who reinvigorated Spanish letters and restored Spain to a position of intellectual and literary prominence that it had not held for centuries. The shock of Spain’s

  • Generación del 1898 (Spanish literature)

    Generation of 1898, in Spain, the novelists, poets, essayists, and thinkers active at the time of the Spanish-American War (1898), who reinvigorated Spanish letters and restored Spain to a position of intellectual and literary prominence that it had not held for centuries. The shock of Spain’s

  • general (military rank)

    General, title and rank of a senior army officer, usually one who commands units larger than a regiment or its equivalent or units consisting of more than one arm of the service. Frequently, however, a general is a staff officer who does not command troops but who plans their operations in the

  • general account (Japanese government)

    government budget: Japan: …the budget system is the general account, which theoretically includes all revenue and expenditure directly applicable to the overall fiscal operation of the government. There is also a system of special accounts for the operation of government enterprises and other special aspects of government finance. Theoretically, each special account is…

  • General Accounting Office (United States government agency)

    Government Accountability Office (GAO), agency of the U.S. federal government that reports to Congress and bills itself as independent and nonpartisan. Founded in 1921 as the General Accounting Office, it was renamed the Government Accountability Office (GAO) in 2004. The name change was intended

  • general adaptation syndrome (psychology)

    motivation: Sleep processes and stress reactions: …a stressor is called the general adaptation syndrome and appears to have evolved primarily to deal with systemic stressors. As noted earlier, however, this same set of processes is also triggered by psychological stressors and is often inappropriate to the situation. For example, the stress of an important upcoming test…

  • general administration

    business organization: Types of business associations: …essential feature, a system of management, varies greatly. In a simple form of business association the members who provide the assets are entitled to participate in the management unless otherwise agreed. In the more complex form of association, such as the company or corporation of the Anglo-American common-law countries, members…

  • General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (Chinese government)

    China: Aviation: …out solely by the state-run General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (CAAC) from 1949 until the mid-1980s. In an effort to improve efficiency and service, regional airlines were then introduced in competition with the airlines operated by the CAAC. In the early 21st century the CAAC’s airline-operating responsibilities were…

  • General Agreement (United States-Mexico [1941])

    Mexico: World War II, 1941–45: …in November 1941 signed a general agreement that resolved most of their outstanding quarrels. The old problem of U.S. agrarian claims was settled, a reciprocal-trade treaty was outlined, and the Mexican peso was stabilized and supported to maintain a constant dollar ratio. The United States agreed to continue silver purchases…

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (international relations)

    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), set of multilateral trade agreements aimed at the abolition of quotas and the reduction of tariff duties among the contracting nations. When GATT was concluded by 23 countries at Geneva, in 1947 (to take effect on Jan. 1, 1948), it was considered an

  • General American (language)

    English language: Phonology: …often popularly referred to as General American), are in the pronunciation of certain individual vowels and diphthongs. Inland Northern American vowels sometimes have semiconsonantal final glides (i.e., sounds resembling initial w, for example, or initial y). Aside from the final glides, that American accent shows four divergences from British English:…

  • General and Municipal Workers’ Union (British trade union)

    GMB, one of the largest trade unions in Great Britain and one of the two giant general unions (the other being Unite). The National Union of General and Municipal Workers (NUGMW) was formed in 1924 by the merger of the National Union of Gas and General Workers, the National Amalgamated Union of

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