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  • Gebhart v. Belton (law case)

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: In Gebhart v. Belton (1952), however, the Delaware Court of Chancery, also relying on Plessy, found that the plaintiffs’ right to equal protection had been violated because the African American schools were inferior to the white schools in almost all relevant respects. The defendants in the…

  • Gebrauchsmusik (music)

    Gebrauchsmusik, (German: “music for use”) music intended, by virtue of its simplicity of technique and style, primarily for performance by the talented amateur rather than the virtuoso. Gebrauchsmusik is, in fact, a modern reaction against the intellectual and technical complexities of much 19th-

  • Gebre Kristos Desta (Ethiopian artist and poet)

    African art: African art in the 20th century and beyond: …the striking images of Ethiopian Gebre Kristos Desta, a leading painter, poet, and teacher who studied clerical literature and the religious art of the Eastern Coptic Orthodox tradition before becoming an artist; and the beautiful and evocative abstractions of Kamala Ishaq, from Sudan, reveal the richness and variety of African…

  • Gebre Medhin Wolde Yohannes (Ethiopian cleric)

    Paulos, (Gebre Medhin Wolde Yohannes), Ethiopian cleric (born Nov. 3, 1935, Adwa, Tigray province, Eth.—died Aug. 16, 2012, Addis Ababa, Eth.), was from 1992 the patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which in 2012 had some 40 million adherents, mainly within Ethiopia. He was educated

  • Gebroeders Jurgens (Netherlands company)

    Unilever: …and Johannes, formed a partnership, Gebroeders Jurgens, at Oss and began concentrating on butter export, chiefly to Britain. The heavy demand for increasingly expensive butter, however, led the company in 1871 to start producing the newly invented margarine. Meanwhile, another family in Oss, the Van den Berghs, had established themselves…

  • Gebrselassie, Haile (Ethiopian athlete)

    Kenenisa Bekele: …Ethiopian Olympic gold medal-winning runners Haile Gebrselassie, Fatuma Roba, and Bekoji native Derartu Tulu, but his first athletic love was football (soccer). Bekele attended school through the ninth grade, and it was at school that he was introduced to running. He finished fourth in his first race, but in 1998…

  • Gebrüder Thonet (German corporation)

    Michael Thonet: …his sons, renaming his firm Gebrüder Thonet. By 1856 he had perfected the bending by heat of solid beechwood into curvilinear shapes, and he was ready for mass production, exporting as far as South America. Factories were later established in Hungary and Moravia. Catapulting to success, he opened salons throughout…

  • Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District (law case)

    Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on June 22, 1998, ruled (5–4) that, under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, damages cannot be awarded in a teacher-student sexual harassment case unless a school official “who at a minimum has

  • Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik, Die (work by Nietzsche)

    The Birth of Tragedy, book by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1872 as Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik. A speculative rather than exegetical work, The Birth of Tragedy examines the origins and development of poetry, specifically Greek tragedy. Nietzsche

  • Gécamines (African company)

    Democratic Republic of the Congo: Economy: …a newly created state company, Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines), but daily operations were contracted out to a private management company created by the former UMHK.

  • Gecarcinidae (invertebrate)

    Land crab, any crab of the family Gecarcinidae (order Decapoda of the class Crustacea), typically terrestrial, square-bodied crabs that only occasionally, as adults, return to the sea. They occur in tropical America, West Africa, and the Indo-Pacific region. All species feed on both animal and

  • Gecarcinus lateralis (crustacean)

    land crab: Gecarcinus lateralis, occurring from Bermuda to Guyana, is 9 cm wide. Like Cardisoma, it may live a considerable distance from the ocean.

  • Gecko (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Surface-to-air: The SA-8 Gecko, first deployed in the mid-1970s, was a fully mobile system mounted on a novel six-wheeled amphibious vehicle. Each vehicle carried four canister-launched, semiactive radar homing missiles, with a range of about 7.5 miles, plus guidance and tracking equipment in a rotating turret. It…

  • gecko (reptile)

    Gecko, (suborder Gekkota), any of more than 1,000 species of lizards making up six families of the suborder Gekkota. Geckos are mostly small, usually nocturnal reptiles with a soft skin. They also possess a short stout body, a large head, and typically well-developed limbs. The ends of each limb

  • Ged, William (Scottish goldsmith)

    William Ged, Scottish goldsmith who invented (1725) stereotyping, a process in which a whole page of type is cast in a single mold so that a printing plate can be made from it. His work was opposed by typefounders and compositors, and the process was abandoned until the early 1800s. Although Ged’s

  • Gedaliah (governor of Judah)

    Jeremiah: Life and times: So he was entrusted to Gedaliah, a Judaean from a prominent family whom the Babylonians appointed as governor of the province of Judah. The prophet continued to oppose those who wanted to rebel against Babylonia and promised the people a bright and joyful future.

  • Gedaliah, Fast of (Judaism)

    Fast of Gedaliah, a minor Jewish observance (on Tishri 3) that mournfully recalls the assassination of Gedaliah, Jewish governor of Judah and appointee of Nebuchadrezzar, the Babylonian king. Gedaliah, a supporter of Jeremiah, was slain by Ishmael, a member of the former royal family of Judah. When

  • Gedancken über die Nachahmung der griechischen wercke in der Mahlerey und Bildhauer-Kunst (essay by Winckelmann)

    Johann Winckelmann: …der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst (1755; Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks, 1765), in which he maintained, “The only way for us to become great, or even inimitable if possible, is to imitate the Greeks.” His essay became a manifesto of the Greek ideal in education and art…

  • Gedanken über die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst (essay by Winckelmann)

    Johann Winckelmann: …der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst (1755; Reflections on the Painting and Sculpture of the Greeks, 1765), in which he maintained, “The only way for us to become great, or even inimitable if possible, is to imitate the Greeks.” His essay became a manifesto of the Greek ideal in education and art…

  • Gedanken über Tod und Unsterblichkeit (work by Feuerbach)

    Ludwig Feuerbach: …years later his first book, Gedanken über Tod und Unsterblichkeit (“Thoughts on Death and Immortality”), was published anonymously. In this work Feuerbach attacked the concept of personal immortality and proposed a type of immortality by which human qualities are reabsorbed into nature. His Abälard und Heloise (1834) and Pierre Bayle…

  • Gedankenexperiment (science)

    Gedankenexperiment, (German: “thought experiment”) term used by German-born physicist Albert Einstein to describe his unique approach of using conceptual rather than actual experiments in creating the theory of relativity. For example, Einstein described how at age 16 he watched himself in his

  • Gedaref (Sudan)

    Gedaref, town, southeastern Sudan, situated about 120 miles (200 km) southwest of Kassala town. Located at an elevation of 1,975 feet (608 metres), it is a commercial centre for the cotton, cereals, sesame seeds, and fodder produced in the surrounding area. The Gash Irrigation Project is located to

  • Gedaref, El- (Sudan)

    Gedaref, town, southeastern Sudan, situated about 120 miles (200 km) southwest of Kassala town. Located at an elevation of 1,975 feet (608 metres), it is a commercial centre for the cotton, cereals, sesame seeds, and fodder produced in the surrounding area. The Gash Irrigation Project is located to

  • Gedda, Luigi (Italian politician)

    Pius XII: After World War II: In 1952 Luigi Gedda, president of Catholic Action, fearing that the Christian Democrats might lose the municipal elections in Rome, proposed a Christian Democratic coalition with the parties of the right, an idea rejected by Alcide De Gasperi, the party leader and Italian prime minister, though apparently…

  • Gedda, Nicolai (Swedish tenor)

    Nicolai Gedda, Swedish tenor (born July 11, 1925, Stockholm, Swed.—died Jan. 8, 2017, Tolochenaz, Switz.), was widely considered to be among the most versatile singers of the 20th century, known for his exceptional tonal quality and diction and his imposing stage presence. Abandoned by his parents

  • Geddes, James (American engineer, lawyer, and politician)

    James Geddes, American civil engineer, lawyer, and politician who played a leading role in the construction of the Erie Canal, one of the first great engineering works in North America. About 1794 Geddes moved from his birthplace to Syracuse, N.Y., where he worked in the salt industry. He later

  • Geddes, Jane (American golfer)

    Karrie Webb: …veteran, defeating Martha Nause and Jane Geddes on the fourth hole of a sudden-death play-off. Shortly thereafter, Webb began to rewrite the record books. Three more tournament victories in 1996, along with 12 top-five finishes, led her to a single-season earnings record of $1,002,000—the first time that a rookie on…

  • Geddes, Norman Bel (American theatrical designer)

    Norman Bel Geddes, American theatrical designer whose clean, functional decors contributed substantially to the trend away from naturalism in 20th-century stage design. As an important industrial designer, he helped popularize “streamlining” as a distinct modern style. Following brief study at the

  • Geddes, Norman Melancton (American theatrical designer)

    Norman Bel Geddes, American theatrical designer whose clean, functional decors contributed substantially to the trend away from naturalism in 20th-century stage design. As an important industrial designer, he helped popularize “streamlining” as a distinct modern style. Following brief study at the

  • Geddes, Sir Patrick (Scottish biologist and sociologist)

    Sir Patrick Geddes, Scottish biologist and sociologist who was one of the modern pioneers of the concept of town and regional planning. Greatly influenced by Charles Darwin’s evolutionary arguments and their application to society, Geddes chose to study biology in London under Darwin’s champion,

  • Gede, Mount (mountain, Indonesia)

    West Java: …to east includes Mounts Sanggabuana, Gede, Pangrango, Kendang, and Cereme. The highest of these peaks rise to elevations of about 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). A series of these volcanoes cluster to form a great tangle of upland that includes the Priangan plateau, which has an elevation of about 1,000 feet…

  • Gedenklider (book by Glatstein)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in New York: …was taking place, Glatstein published Gedenklider (1943; “Memorial Poems”). A persona poem, “Der bratslaver tsu zayn soyfer” (“The Bratslav Rebbe to His Scribe”), in the voice of Rabbi Naḥman of Bratslav, continues his reappropriation of Jewish culture. Shtralndike yidn (1946; “Radiant Jews”) expresses sadness and despair following the Holocaust. In…

  • Gedeon (biblical figure)

    Gideon, a judge and hero-liberator of Israel whose deeds are described in the Book of Judges. The author apparently juxtaposed two traditional accounts from his sources in order to emphasize Israel’s monotheism and its duty to destroy idolatry. Accordingly, in one account Gideon led his clansmen

  • Gedge, Ernest (British explorer)

    Mount Elgon: …Sir Frederick) Jackson and Ernest Gedge traversed the caldera from north to south.

  • Gedhun Choekyi Nyima (Tibetan Buddhist)

    Panchen Lama: …the Dalai Lama recognized six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as the 11th Panchen Lama, but this choice was rejected by the Chinese government, which took the boy into custody. The Chinese government appointed Gyancain Norbu the 11th Panchen Lama in late 1995.

  • Gedicht eines Skalden (work by Gerstenberg)

    Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg: During that time he wrote Gedicht eines Skalden (1766; “Poems of an Old Norse Bard”), in which he introduced bardic poetry into German literature with the use of material and themes from Norse antiquity. His powerful and gruesome tragedy Ugolino (1768) ranges in its expression from the heroic to the…

  • Gedichte (collection of poetry)

    Annette, Freiin von Droste-Hülshoff: Her first collection of poetry, Gedichte (1838; “Poems”), included poems of a deeply religious nature. Between 1829 and 1839 she wrote a cycle of religious poems, Das geistliche Jahr (1851; “The Spiritual Year”), which contains some of the most earnest religious poetry of the 19th century and reflects the inner…

  • Gedichte 1853 und 1854 (work by Heine)

    Heinrich Heine: Later life and works: …Gedichte 1853 und 1854 (Poems 1853 and 1854), is of the same order. After nearly eight years of torment, Heine died and was buried in the Montmartre Cemetery.

  • Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten (poetry by Müller)

    Wilhelm Müller: …reputation was established by the Gedichte aus den hinterlassenen Papieren eines reisenden Waldhornisten, 2 vol. (1821–24; “Poems from the Posthumous Papers of a Traveling Bugler”), folk lyrics that attempt to display emotion with complete simplicity, and Lieder der Griechen (1821–24; “Songs of the Greeks”), a collection that succeeded in evoking…

  • Gedichte eines Lebendigen (work by Herwegh)

    Georg Herwegh: …publisher for his best-known collection, Gedichte eines Lebendigen (1841, 1843; “Poems of One Living”), political poems expressing the aspirations of German youth. Although the book was confiscated, it made his reputation overnight and ran through several editions.

  • Gedichten (poetry by Ostaijen)

    Paul van Ostaijen: …Use”) and embodied it in Gedichten (1928; “Poems”), a collection of evocative fragments of exceptional sensibility and haunting musicality that represents his best and most original poems.

  • Gedichten, 1904–1938 (work by Nijlen)

    Jan van Nijlen: …one-volume selection from his poems, Gedichten, 1904–1938. Subsequent publications included De Dauuwtrapper (1947; “The Dew Trapper”) and Te laat voor deze wereld (1957; “Too Late for This World”).

  • Gedik Paşa Theatre (theatre, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Islamic arts: Turkey: The Gedik Paşa Theatre, named for the area in Istanbul where it was located, was the first theatre in which Turkish plays were produced by native actors speaking in Turkish. The actors received a salary, and local writers presented their own plays. Originally built for foreign…

  • Gediminas (grand duke of Lithuania)

    Gediminas, grand duke of Lithuania, the strongest contemporary ruler of eastern Europe. Gediminas succeeded his brother Vytenis (Witen) in 1316 and started the Gediminian dynasty, which included his grandson Jagiełło, later Władysław II of Poland. Gediminas’ domain was composed not only of

  • Gedling (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Gedling, borough (district), administrative and historic county of Nottinghamshire, east-central England. The district takes its name from the former village of Gedling, which was engulfed in the expansion of the eastern suburbs of the city of Nottingham. The district extends from the River Trent

  • Gedrosia (historical region, Pakistan)

    Gedrosia, historic region west of the Indus River, in what is now the Baluchistan region of Pakistan. In 325 bc Alexander the Great’s forces suffered disastrous losses there from the effects of the desert, supply shortages, and monsoons. They captured the area, but after Alexander’s death his

  • Gedung Kesenian Jakarta (arts centre, Jakarta, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: Cultural institutions: …(1821) theatre to become the Jakarta Arts Building (Gedung Kesenian Jakarta); this institution also hosts major musical and theatrical productions from across the globe. Both institutions sponsor an array of international festivals featuring music, dance, film, spoken word, and other arts.

  • Gedymin (grand duke of Lithuania)

    Gediminas, grand duke of Lithuania, the strongest contemporary ruler of eastern Europe. Gediminas succeeded his brother Vytenis (Witen) in 1316 and started the Gediminian dynasty, which included his grandson Jagiełło, later Władysław II of Poland. Gediminas’ domain was composed not only of

  • Gee (British radar-beam system)

    air warfare: Strategic bombing: …used two radar-beam systems called Gee and Oboe to guide its Lancaster and Halifax bombers to cities on the Continent. In addition, the bombers carried a radar mapping device, code-named H2S, that displayed reasonably detailed pictures of coastal cities such as Hamburg, where a clear contrast between land and water…

  • Gee, Kenneth (British rugby player)

    Kenneth Gee, English rugby player, a member of the powerful Wigan club that won the Rugby Football League (RFL) Challenge Cup in 1948. Gee was also vital as forward in Wigan’s RFL championship wins of 1945–46, 1946–47, and 1949–50 and in its Challenge Cup victory of 1951. During his career Gee

  • Gee, Maurice (New Zealand author)

    Maurice Gee, novelist best known for his realistic evocations of New Zealand life and his fantastical tales for young adults. Gee earned a master’s degree in English (1954) from Auckland University College of the University of New Zealand (later the University of Auckland). After gaining

  • Gee, Maurice Gough (New Zealand author)

    Maurice Gee, novelist best known for his realistic evocations of New Zealand life and his fantastical tales for young adults. Gee earned a master’s degree in English (1954) from Auckland University College of the University of New Zealand (later the University of Auckland). After gaining

  • Geechee (language)

    Gullah, English-based creole vernacular spoken primarily by African Americans living on the seaboard of South Carolina and Georgia (U.S.), who are also culturally identified as Gullahs or Geechees (see also Sea Islands). Gullah developed in rice fields during the 18th century as a result of contact

  • Geechee (people)

    sweetgrass basket: …makers are members of the Gullah community, a group descended from former slaves who established themselves on the Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. The numbers of producers are dwindling, however, and materials are growing difficult to find.

  • Geel (Belgium)

    Geel, commune, Flanders Region, northern Belgium, located in the Kempenland (Campine) Plateau, east of Antwerp. Renowned for its unique system of family care for the mentally ill, it is linked with the Irish martyr St. Dymphna. According to tradition, in the 7th century she was beheaded there by

  • Geel, Jacob (Dutch writer)

    Dutch literature: Romanticism: Although Jacob Geel’s essays in Onderzoek en phantasie (1838; “Inquiry and Fantasy”) set a new standard in philological and philosophical criticism in Dutch literature, Geel’s liberal rationalism was almost swept aside by the growing wave of Romanticism. Simultaneously, the freethinking born of the Enlightenment roused the…

  • geeldikopp (veterinary science)

    radiation: Photodynamic action: In geeldikopp (“yellow thick head”), the photodynamic agent is produced in the animal’s own intestinal tract from chlorophyll derived from plants. In humans the heritable condition of porphyria frequently is associated with light sensitivity, as are a number of somewhat ill-defined dermatologic conditions that result from…

  • Geelong (Victoria, Australia)

    Geelong, second largest city of Victoria, Australia, and a major port on Corio Bay (an extension of Port Phillip Bay). Founded in 1837, its name is a derivation of the Aboriginal word jillong, which means “the place of the native companion,” referring to a long-legged water bird. Formally declared

  • Geelong and Dutigalla Association (Tasmanian settler organization)

    Port Phillip Association, (1836–39), organization of settlers from Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) formed to purchase and develop the grazing land of the unsettled Port Phillip District (later the colony of Victoria) of southeastern Australia; its efforts precipitated the large-scale colonization of

  • Geelong Cats (Australian football team)

    Gary Ablett: …in 1984, signing with the Geelong Football Club. He stayed at Geelong for the remainder of his career, playing 242 games for the Cats before retiring in 1996. He won Geelong’s Best and Fairest (top player) Award in 1984 and served as the team’s cocaptain (1995–96). Ablett was Geelong’s greatest…

  • Geelong Football Club (Australian football team)

    Gary Ablett: …in 1984, signing with the Geelong Football Club. He stayed at Geelong for the remainder of his career, playing 242 games for the Cats before retiring in 1996. He won Geelong’s Best and Fairest (top player) Award in 1984 and served as the team’s cocaptain (1995–96). Ablett was Geelong’s greatest…

  • Geelvink Bay (bay, New Guinea)

    Oceanic art and architecture: Geelvink Bay: The Geelvink Bay area, including several offshore islands, is located at the northwestern end of New Guinea between the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua. Its style of sculpture seems closely related to those of such eastern Indonesian islands as Tanimbar and…

  • Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media (American organization)

    Geena Davis: In 2004 she founded the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media, an organization that highlights and seeks to correct gender imbalance and to challenge demeaning stereotypes within the entertainment media. The institute partnered with the UN women’s agency and the Rockefeller Foundation to produce (2014) the first international study…

  • geer (Indian dance)

    Rajasthan: Dance: Other well-known dances include the geer, which is performed by men and women; the panihari, a graceful dance for women; and the kacchi ghori, in which male dancers ride dummy horses. Performances of khyal, a type of dance-drama composed in verse with celebratory, historical, or romantic themes, is also widely…

  • Geer, Dirk Jan de (prime minister of the Netherlands)

    Dirk Jan de Geer, conservative statesman and prime minister of the Netherlands (1926–29, 1939–40) who was disgraced for attempting to negotiate a peace settlement between Great Britain and Nazi Germany in 1940. After receiving his doctorate in law in 1895, de Geer worked as a journalist and acted

  • Geer, Gerhard Jakob, Friherre De (Swedish geologist)

    Gerhard, Baron De Geer, Swedish geologist, originator of the varve-counting method used in geochronology. De Geer was appointed to the Swedish Geological Survey in 1878 and received a master’s degree in geology from Uppsala University in 1879. He studied the glaciers of Spitsbergen in a series of

  • Geer, Will (American actor)

    Harry Hay: …affairs, most notably with actor Will Geer and an architect.

  • geeraar (style of poetry)

    African literature: Somali: …chanted and usually moody, the geeraar, short and dealing with war, the buraambur, composed by women, the heello, or balwo, made up of short love poems and popular on the radio, and the hees, popular poetry. Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan (Mohammed Abdullah Hassan) created poetry as a weapon,

  • Geertgen tot Sint Jans (Netherlandish painter)

    Geertgen tot Sint Jans, North Netherlandish painter of religious subjects, notable for his harmonious fusion of the elements of the landscape. Little is known of Geertgen’s life: his surname derived from his living with the religious order of the Knights of St. John at Haarlem (now in the

  • Geertz, Clifford (American anthropologist)

    Clifford Geertz, American cultural anthropologist, a leading rhetorician and proponent of symbolic anthropology and interpretive anthropology. After service in the U.S. Navy in World War II (1943–45), Geertz studied at Antioch College, Ohio (B.A., 1950), and Harvard University (Ph.D., 1956). He

  • Geertz, Clifford James (American anthropologist)

    Clifford Geertz, American cultural anthropologist, a leading rhetorician and proponent of symbolic anthropology and interpretive anthropology. After service in the U.S. Navy in World War II (1943–45), Geertz studied at Antioch College, Ohio (B.A., 1950), and Harvard University (Ph.D., 1956). He

  • Geesink, Anton (Dutch judoka)

    Anton Geesink, Dutch athlete who was the first non-Japanese competitor to win a world championship in judo. Standing 6 feet 6 inches and weighing 267 pounds, Geesink made his mark in the Japanese-dominated sport of judo when he won the 1961 world championship. He was a two-time world champion by

  • Geesink, Antonius Johannes (Dutch judoka)

    Anton Geesink, Dutch athlete who was the first non-Japanese competitor to win a world championship in judo. Standing 6 feet 6 inches and weighing 267 pounds, Geesink made his mark in the Japanese-dominated sport of judo when he won the 1961 world championship. He was a two-time world champion by

  • Geeson, Judy (British actress)

    To Sir, with Love: Cast: Assorted Referencesrole of Poitier

  • Geestmünde (Germany)

    Bremerhaven: …on territory ceded by Hanover; Geestemünde, founded by Hanover in competition in 1845; and Lehe, a borough dating from medieval times that attained town status in 1920. The union of Lehe and Geestemünde in 1924 formed the town of Wesermünde, which in turn absorbed Bremerhaven in 1939 under Prussian jurisdiction.…

  • Geez language

    Geʿez language, liturgical language of the Ethiopian church. Geʿez is a Semitic language of the Southern Peripheral group, to which also belong the South Arabic dialects and Amharic, one of the principal languages of Ethiopia. Both Geʿez and the related languages of Ethiopia are written and read f

  • Gefäller, Georg (German engineer)

    skibobbing: In 1948 the German Georg Gefäller manufactured the Gefäller Ei (“Gefäller Egg”), which he called a skibob. The sport slowly became international as it spread from Austria to Switzerland, West Germany, France, Italy, and Czechoslovakia and then from Europe to the United States, Canada, Japan, and elsewhere.

  • Gefangenen Befreiung; Predigten aus den Jahren 1954–59, Den (work by Barth)

    Karl Barth: International reputation and influence: …aus den Jahren 1954–59 (1959; Deliverance to the Captives), reveal in a unique way the combination of evangelical passion and social concern that had characterized all of his life. Barth died in Basel at age 82.

  • Gefara (plain, Africa)

    Al-Jifārah, coastal plain of northern Africa, on the Mediterranean coast of extreme northwestern Libya and of southeastern Tunisia. Roughly semicircular, it extends from Qābis (Gabes), Tunisia, to about 12 miles (20 km) east of Tripoli, Libya. Its maximum inland extent is approximately 80 miles

  • Geffen, David (American businessman)

    Laura Nyro: …agent and later music mogul David Geffen, she grew more popular with the release of the cult-classic albums Eli and the Thirteenth Confession (1968) and New York Tendaberry (1969). Nyro incorporated a diversity of influences in her writing and performing, drawing on rhythm and blues, soul, gospel, folk, jazz, and…

  • Geffrard, Fabre (president of Haiti)

    Haiti: Trials of a young nation: …1859 one of his generals, Fabre Geffrard, overthrew him. Geffrard encouraged educated mulattoes to join his government and established Haitian respectability abroad.

  • Gefion (Nordic mythology)

    Gefion, in Nordic mythology, a minor goddess associated with unmarried

  • Gefjun (Nordic mythology)

    Gefion, in Nordic mythology, a minor goddess associated with unmarried

  • Gefn (Norse mythology)

    Freyja, (Old Norse: “Lady”), most renowned of the Norse goddesses, who was the sister and female counterpart of Freyr and was in charge of love, fertility, battle, and death. Her father was Njörd, the sea god. Pigs were sacred to her, and she rode a boar with golden bristles. A chariot drawn by

  • Geg (people)

    Albania: Ethnic groups: …subgroups of Albanians are the Gegs (Ghegs) in the north and the Tosks in the south. Differences between the two groups were quite pronounced before World War II. Until the communist takeover in 1944, Albanian politics were dominated by the more numerous Gegs. Renowned for their independent spirit and fighting…

  • Geg (language)

    Albania: Languages: There are two principal dialects: Geg, spoken north of the Shkumbin River, and Tosk, spoken in the south. Geg dialects are also spoken in Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and North Macedonia, and Tosk dialects, though somewhat archaic as a result of centuries of separation from their place of origin in Albania,…

  • Gegenbaur, Karl (German anatomist)

    Karl Gegenbaur, German anatomist who demonstrated that the field of comparative anatomy offers important evidence in support of evolutionary theory. A professor of anatomy at the universities of Jena (1855–73) and Heidelberg (1873–1903), Gegenbaur was a strong supporter of Charles Darwin’s theory

  • gegenschein (astronomy)

    Gegenschein, oval patch of faint luminosity exactly opposite to the Sun in the night sky. The patch of light is so faint it can be seen only in the absence of moonlight, away from city lights, and with the eyes adapted to darkness. The gegenschein is lost in the light of the Milky Way in the s

  • Geguyaolun (work by Cao Zhao)

    art market: East Asia: …first connoisseur’s manual, Cao Zhao’s Geguyaolun (1388; “Essential Criteria of Antiquities”). It included advice on handling dealers and other collectors.

  • Geharnischte Sonette (poem by Rückert)

    Friedrich Rückert: …works is a martial poem, Geharnischte Sonette (published in Deutsche Gedichte,1814; “Armoured Sonnets”), a stirring exhortation to Prussians to join in the Wars of Liberation (1813–15) from Napoleonic domination; Rückert stayed home during the war at his parents’ request. Kindertotenlieder (“Songs on the Deaths of Children”), written in 1834 on…

  • Geheime Staatspolizei (Nazi political police)

    Gestapo, the political police of Nazi Germany. The Gestapo ruthlessly eliminated opposition to the Nazis within Germany and its occupied territories and, in partnership with the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; “Security Service”), was responsible for the roundup of Jews throughout Europe for deportation to

  • Geheimes Jagdbuch (work by Maximilian I)

    Maximilian I: Legacy: … (both largely autobiographical), and the Geheimes Jagdbuch, a treatise on hunting, and kept a bevy of poets and artists busy with projects that glorified his reign. His military talents were considerable and led him to use war to attain his ends. He carried out meaningful administrative reforms, and his military…

  • Geheimnisse einer Seele (film by Pabst)

    G.W. Pabst: …was Geheimnisse einer Seele (1926; Secrets of a Soul), a realistic consideration of psychoanalysis that recalls Expressionist themes in its detailed examination of a disturbed consciousness. Die Liebe der Jeanne Ney (1927; The Love of Jeanne Ney) incorporates documentary shots to heighten the realism of its postwar setting. These three…

  • Gehenna (eschatology)

    Gehenna, abode of the damned in the afterlife in Jewish and Christian eschatology (the doctrine of last things). Named in the New Testament in Greek form (from the Hebrew Ge Hinnom, meaning “valley of Hinnom”), Gehenna originally was a valley west and south of Jerusalem where children were burned a

  • Gehenna Press (American company)

    Leonard Baskin: In 1942 he founded Gehenna Press, which published finely illustrated books—most notably, editions by poets Ted Hughes and Anthony Hecht that featured Baskin’s art. During World War II Baskin served in the U.S. Navy, and, after a stint with the merchant marine, he returned to New York, where he…

  • Gehinnom (eschatology)

    Gehenna, abode of the damned in the afterlife in Jewish and Christian eschatology (the doctrine of last things). Named in the New Testament in Greek form (from the Hebrew Ge Hinnom, meaning “valley of Hinnom”), Gehenna originally was a valley west and south of Jerusalem where children were burned a

  • Gehlen Organization (German organization)

    BND: …1956, it absorbed the “Gehlen Organization,” a covert intelligence force which was created by Major General Reinhard Gehlen after World War II and which cooperated with U.S. intelligence agencies. Gehlen had headed the Foreign Armies East section of the Abwehr, the intelligence service of the German general staff. He…

  • Gehlen, Reinhard (German general)

    BND: …was created by Major General Reinhard Gehlen after World War II and which cooperated with U.S. intelligence agencies. Gehlen had headed the Foreign Armies East section of the Abwehr, the intelligence service of the German general staff. He directed the BND until 1968, when he was succeeded by General Gerhard…

  • gehlenite (mineral)

    Gehlenite, mineral composed of calcium aluminum silicate, Ca2Al2SiO7, one end-member of the melilite mineral series (see

  • Gehrels, Neil (American astrophysicist)

    Swift: …was renamed after American astrophysicist Neil Gehrels, who was the satellite’s principal investigator until his death in 2017.

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