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  • Garner, Alan (British author)

    Alan Garner, English writer whose works, noted for their idiosyncratic style, were rooted in the myth and legend of the British Isles. Garner attended local schools before spending two years in the Royal Artillery and studying at Magdalen College, Oxford. His first book, The Weirdstone of

  • Garner, Cactus Jack (vice president of United States)

    John Nance Garner, 32nd vice president of the United States (1933–41) in the Democratic administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He maintained his conservatism despite his prominent position in Roosevelt’s New Deal administration. Garner was the son of farmers John Nance Garner III and

  • Garner, Eric (American citizen)

    Barack Obama: Executive action and the 2014 midterm election: …responsibility in the death of Eric Garner, an unarmed African American man who died after having a choke hold applied to him during his arrest on Staten Island in July. The president and New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio established a task force charged with improving relations between minority…

  • Garner, Erroll (American musician)

    Erroll Garner, American pianist and composer, one of the most virtuosic and popular pianists in jazz. Garner was influenced by Fats Waller and was entirely self-taught. He substituted for Art Tatum in the latter’s trio in 1945 and subsequently formed his own three-piece group, achieving commercial

  • Garner, Erroll Louis (American musician)

    Erroll Garner, American pianist and composer, one of the most virtuosic and popular pianists in jazz. Garner was influenced by Fats Waller and was entirely self-taught. He substituted for Art Tatum in the latter’s trio in 1945 and subsequently formed his own three-piece group, achieving commercial

  • Garner, James (American actor)

    James Garner, American actor who was noted for his portrayal of good-natured characters and reluctant heroes. He was perhaps best known for his roles in the television series Maverick and The Rockford Files. After serving in the U.S. Army during the Korean War, Garner pursued an acting career. He

  • Garner, Jennifer (American actress)

    Ben Affleck: Starring roles in Armageddon, Pearl Harbor, and The Sum of All Fears: Affleck then starred opposite Jennifer Garner in Daredevil (2003), the film adaptation of the popular comic book series.

  • Garner, Joel (West Indian cricketer)

    Joel Garner, West Indian cricketer who was one of the game’s dominant bowlers in the 1970s and ’80s. Garner grew up in Barbados. He made his Test (international two-innings, five-day match) debut for the West Indies in 1977 and became an integral part of the outstanding West Indian cricket teams of

  • Garner, John Nance (vice president of United States)

    John Nance Garner, 32nd vice president of the United States (1933–41) in the Democratic administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He maintained his conservatism despite his prominent position in Roosevelt’s New Deal administration. Garner was the son of farmers John Nance Garner III and

  • Garneray, Auguste (French ballet designer)

    stagecraft: Costume of the 18th and 19th centuries: Auguste Garneray and Hippolyte Lecomte were leading French ballet designers in the 19th century. The former’s work shows ingenuity in adapting contemporary dress to suggest different lands and other periods. The latter was originally a painter of historical episodes; accuracy rather than imagination is the…

  • Garnerin, André-Jacques (French parachutist)

    André-Jacques Garnerin, French aeronaut, the first person to use a parachute regularly and successfully. He perfected the parachute and made jumps from greater altitudes than had been possible before. As a young man Garnerin studied physics. In 1793 he became an inspector in the French army, where

  • garnet (mineral)

    Garnet, any member of a group of common silicate minerals that have similar crystal structures and chemical compositions. They may be colourless, black, and many shades of red and green. Garnets, favoured by lapidaries since ancient times and used widely as an abrasive, occur in rocks of each of

  • Garnet, Henry Highland (American abolitionist and clergyman)

    Henry Highland Garnet, leading African American abolitionist and clergyman. Born a slave, Garnet escaped in 1824 and made his way to New York. There he pursued an education and eventually became a Presbyterian minister. Garnet became associated with the American Anti-Slavery Society, and his career

  • Garnett, Constance (English translator)

    Constance Garnett, English translator who made the great works of Russian literature available to English and American readers in the first half of the 20th century. In addition to being the first to render Dostoyevsky and Chekhov into English, she translated the complete works of Turgenev and

  • Garnett, David (English writer)

    David Garnett, English novelist, son of Edward and Constance Garnett, who was the most popularly acclaimed writer of this literary family. A prolific writer, he is best known for his satirical fantasies Lady into Fox (1922), the tale of a man whose wife is suddenly transformed into a fox, and A Man

  • Garnett, Edward (British critic)

    Edward Garnett, influential English critic and publisher’s reader who discovered, advised, and tutored many of the great British writers of the early 20th century. The son of the writer and librarian Richard Garnett, he was more influenced by his family’s literary interests than by his slight

  • Garnett, Edward William (British critic)

    Edward Garnett, influential English critic and publisher’s reader who discovered, advised, and tutored many of the great British writers of the early 20th century. The son of the writer and librarian Richard Garnett, he was more influenced by his family’s literary interests than by his slight

  • Garnett, Eve (English author)

    children's literature: Coming of age (1865–1945): …in the late 1930s, with Eve Garnett’s The Family from One End Street, of stories showing a sympathetic concern with the lives of slum children; the reflection, also in the 30s, of a serious interest, influenced by modern psychology, in the structure of the child’s vision of the world; the…

  • Garnett, Henry (English conspirator)

    Henry Garnett, English Jesuit superior implicated in the Gunpowder Plot, an abortive conspiracy to destroy the Protestant king James I of England and Parliament while in assembly on Nov. 5, 1605, in retaliation for stricter penal laws against Roman Catholics. Garnett was raised in the Anglican

  • Garnett, Kevin (American basketball player)

    Kevin Garnett, American professional basketball player who was one of the most versatile and dominant players of his time. Garnett played three seasons of high school basketball in South Carolina before transferring to a school in Chicago for his senior year. In 1995 the 6-foot 11-inch (2.1-metre)

  • Garnett, Kevin Maurice (American basketball player)

    Kevin Garnett, American professional basketball player who was one of the most versatile and dominant players of his time. Garnett played three seasons of high school basketball in South Carolina before transferring to a school in Chicago for his senior year. In 1995 the 6-foot 11-inch (2.1-metre)

  • Garnett, Richard (English librarian)

    Richard Garnett, English writer, librarian, and the head of the Garnett family, which exerted a formative influence on the development of modern British writing. From the age of 15 until his retirement in 1899 he was in the employ of the British Museum. After initially working as a clerk, Garnett

  • Garnett, Tay (American director)

    Tay Garnett, American director who, during a career that spanned more than four decades, worked in a variety of genres but was best known for the film-noir classic The Postman Always Rings Twice (1946). Garnett sold cartoons and stories to pulp magazines before serving in World War I as a pilot in

  • Garnier, Bernard (antipope)

    Benedict (XIV), counter-antipope from 1425 to c. 1430. In 1417 the Council of Constance deposed the antipope Pope Benedict (XIII) and elected Martin V, thus officially terminating the Western Schism between Avignon and Rome. However, Benedict, protected in his castle of Peñíscola in Valencia,

  • Garnier, Charles (French architect)

    Charles Garnier, French architect of the Beaux-Arts style, famed as the creator of the Paris Opera House. He was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts in 1842 and was awarded the Grand Prix de Rome in 1848 to study in Italy. He won the 1860 competition for the new Paris Opera House. One of the most

  • Garnier, Francis (French naval officer)

    Francis Garnier, French naval officer, colonial administrator, and explorer. Garnier, the son of an army officer, overcame parental opposition to enter the naval school at Brest in 1856. Upon completion of his training he was posted as an ensign aboard a ship forming part of the French

  • Garnier, Jean-Louis-Charles (French architect)

    Charles Garnier, French architect of the Beaux-Arts style, famed as the creator of the Paris Opera House. He was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts in 1842 and was awarded the Grand Prix de Rome in 1848 to study in Italy. He won the 1860 competition for the new Paris Opera House. One of the most

  • Garnier, Jean-Pierre (French scientist and business executive)

    Jean-Pierre Garnier, French scientist and business executive who oversaw the merger of two of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies, SmithKline Beecham PLC and Glaxo Wellcome PLC, serving as CEO (2000–08) of the resulting firm, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). Garnier was the son of an advertising

  • Garnier, Marie-Joseph-François (French naval officer)

    Francis Garnier, French naval officer, colonial administrator, and explorer. Garnier, the son of an army officer, overcame parental opposition to enter the naval school at Brest in 1856. Upon completion of his training he was posted as an ensign aboard a ship forming part of the French

  • Garnier, Palais (opera house, Paris, France)

    Opéra, Parisian opera house designed by Charles Garnier. The building, considered one of the masterpieces of the Second Empire style, was begun in 1861 and opened with an orchestral concert on Jan. 5, 1875. The first opera performed there was Fromental Halévy’s work La Juive on Jan. 8, 1875. A

  • Garnier, Robert (French dramatist)

    Robert Garnier, outstanding French tragic dramatist of his time. While a law student at Toulouse, Garnier won two prizes in the jeux floraux, or floral games (an annual poetry contest held by the Académié des Jeux Floraux). He published his first collection of lyrical pieces (now lost), Plaintes

  • Garnier, Tony (French architect)

    Tony Garnier, a forerunner of 20th-century French architects, notable for his Cité Industrielle, a farsighted plan for an industrial city. He is also remembered, along with Auguste Perret, for the pioneering use of reinforced concrete. On his Prix de Rome grant Garnier developed plans (beginning in

  • Garnier-Pagès, Louis-Antoine (French politician)

    Louis-Antoine Garnier-Pagès, republican political figure prominent in the opposition to France’s monarchical regimes from 1830 to 1870. Garnier-Pagès was an active participant in the antiroyalist uprising of 1830, but he did not formally enter politics until 1842, when he was elected to the Chamber

  • garnierite (mineral)

    mineral deposit: Laterites: …water table as the mineral garnierite, H4Ni3Si2O9. Although garnierite is a silicate mineral (the most difficult type to smelt), an efficient method has been discovered to recover its nickel content, and it is therefore an excellent ore mineral. The most famous nickeliferous laterites are those of New Caledonia, which have…

  • garnish (food)

    Garnish, an embellishment added to a food to enhance its appearance or taste. Simple garnishes such as chopped herbs, decoratively cut lemons, parsley and watercress sprigs, browned breadcrumbs, sieved hardcooked eggs, and broiled tomatoes are appropriate to a wide variety of foods; their purpose

  • garnishment

    Garnishment, (from Middle French garnir, meaning “to warn”), a process by which a creditor can obtain satisfaction of an indebtedness of the debtor by initiating a proceeding to attach property or other assets. A common form of garnishment involves a creditor attaching the wages of an employee owed

  • Garo (people)

    Bangladesh: Ethnic groups: the Khasi, the Garo, and the Hajang. The Santhal peoples live in the northwestern part of Bangladesh, the Khasi in Sylhet in the Khasi Hills near the border with Assam, India, and the Garo and Hajang in the northeastern part of the country.

  • Garo Hills (region, India)

    Garo Hills, physiographic region, western Meghalaya state, northeastern India. It comprises the western margin of the Shillong Plateau and rises to a top elevation of about 4,600 feet (1,400 metres). Drained by various tributaries of the Brahmaputra River, it has extremely high rainfall and is

  • Garo language

    Meghalaya: People: Khasi and Garo along with Jaintia and English are the state’s official languages; other languages spoken in the state include Pnar-Synteng, Nepali, and Haijong, as well as the plains languages of Bengali, Assamese, and Hindi.

  • Garofalo (whirlpool, Italy)

    whirlpool: …oceanic whirlpools include those of Garofalo (supposedly the Charybdis of ancient legend), along the coast of Calabria in southern Italy, and of Messina, in the strait between Sicily and peninsular Italy. The Maelstrom (from Dutch for “whirling stream”) located near the Lofoten Islands, off the coast of Norway, and whirlpools…

  • Garofalo, Benvenuto (Italian painter)

    Benvenuto Garofalo, Italian painter, one of the most prolific 16th-century painters of the Ferrarese school. Garofalo’s first apprenticeship was with Domenico Panetti and later with the Cremonese painter Boccaccio Boccaccino. Garofalo’s two visits to Rome in the first and second decades of the

  • garofano rosso, Il (work by Vittorini)

    Elio Vittorini: …rosso (written 1933–35, published 1948; The Red Carnation), while overtly portraying the personal, scholastic, and sexual problems of an adolescent boy, also conveys the poisonous political atmosphere of fascism. In 1936 Vittorini began writing his most important novel, Conversazione in Sicilia (1941, rev. ed. 1965; Eng. trans., Conversation in Sicily;…

  • Garonne River (river, Europe)

    Garonne River, most important river of southwestern France, rising in the Spanish central Pyrenees and flowing into the Atlantic by way of the estuary called the Gironde. It is 357 miles (575 km) long, excluding the Gironde Estuary (45 miles in length). Formed by two headstreams in the Maladeta

  • Garota de Ipanema, A (song by Moraes and Jobim)

    Stan Getz: …Jobim; for one track, “The Girl from Ipanema,” Gilberto’s wife, Astrud, who had never sung professionally, was a last-minute addition on vocals. Her somewhat naive, blasé delivery suited the tune and complimented Getz’s sax playing perfectly, and the recording became the biggest hit of Getz’s career when it was…

  • Garoua (Cameroon)

    Garoua, town located in northeastern Cameroon. The town lies along the right bank of the Benue River, north-northeast of Yaoundé, the national capital. It is situated at the junction of the road between Maroua and Ngaoundéré and the Benue waterway and is the chief commercial centre of the region.

  • Garrard, Lewis (American writer)

    primitive culture: Nomadic societies: …attest the following remarks by Lewis Garrard, who traveled with a Cheyenne Indian camp in 1846:

  • Garrec, Toussaint Le (French writer)

    Celtic literature: Prose: …and religious lessons, such as Toussaint Le Garrec and Abbé J. Le Bayon, who revived several great mystery plays—Nicolazig, Boeh er goed (“The Voice of the Blood”), Ar hent en Hadour (“In the Steps of the Sower”), and Ar en hent de Vethleem (“On the Way to Bethlehem”).

  • Garrett (county, Maryland, United States)

    Garrett, county, extreme western Maryland, U.S., lying between West Virginia to the west and south and Pennsylvania to the north. Parklands and lakes occupy one-fifth of the county area. Waterways such as the Casselman, Savage, and Youghiogheny rivers as well as Deep Creek Lake, the state’s largest

  • Garrett Corporation (American corporation)

    The Signal Companies, Inc.: …the aerospace field by acquiring Garrett Corporation, which manufactured engines, control systems, and other aircraft and missile components used on nearly all U.S. commercial and military aircraft of the time. In 1975 the company acquired a controlling interest in UOP Inc. (formerly Universal Oil Products Company), which produced environmental control…

  • Garrett, Betty (American actress)

    Betty Garrett, American actress (born May 23, 1919, St. Joseph, Mo.—died Feb. 12, 2011, Los Angeles, Calif.), was best known for her humorous and energetic performances as man-hungry characters in three 1949 MGM film musicals: Take Me Out to the Ball Game, Neptune’s Daughter, and, especially, On

  • Garrett, Emma (American educator)

    Mary Smith Garrett and Emma Garrett: Emma graduated from Alexander Graham Bell’s course for teachers of the deaf at the Boston University School of Oratory in 1878 and became a teacher of speech at the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb in Mount Airy. She was given charge of the…

  • Garrett, George W. (British clergyman and inventor)

    submarine: Toward diesel-electric power: In 1880 an English clergyman, George W. Garrett, successfully operated a submarine with steam from a coal-fired boiler that featured a retractable smokestack. The fire had to be extinguished before the craft would submerge (or it would exhaust the air in the submarine), but enough steam remained in the boilers…

  • Garrett, João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida, visconde de Almeida Garrett (Portuguese writer)

    João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett, viscount de Almeida Garrett, writer, orator, and statesman who was one of Portugal’s finest prose writers, an important playwright, and chief of the country’s Romantic poets. Garrett graduated in law from the University of Coimbra in 1820, having

  • Garrett, Mary (American educator)

    Mary Smith Garrett and Emma Garrett: Mary also became a teacher at the institution. In 1884, at the invitation of civic leaders in Scranton, Pennsylvania, Emma moved to that city to become principal of a day school that shortly afterward was named the Pennsylvania Oral School for Deaf-Mutes. In 1885 Mary…

  • Garrett, Mary Smith; and Garrett, Emma (American educators)

    Mary Smith Garrett and Emma Garrett, American educators who, in the contemporary debate over whether to teach sign language or speech and lipreading to deaf children, were prominent advocates of teaching speech. Emma graduated from Alexander Graham Bell’s course for teachers of the deaf at the

  • Garrett, Pat (American lawman)

    Pat Garrett, Western U.S. lawman known as the man who killed Billy the Kid (q.v.). Born in Alabama and reared in Louisiana, Garrett left home at about the age of 17 and headed for Texas and the life of a cowboy and buffalo hunter. In 1879 he married and settled in Lincoln County, N.M., where he

  • Garrett, Patrick Floyd (American lawman)

    Pat Garrett, Western U.S. lawman known as the man who killed Billy the Kid (q.v.). Born in Alabama and reared in Louisiana, Garrett left home at about the age of 17 and headed for Texas and the life of a cowboy and buffalo hunter. In 1879 he married and settled in Lincoln County, N.M., where he

  • Garrett, Snuff (American record producer)

    Del Shannon: …a misguided attempt by producer Snuff Garrett and arranger Leon Russell to make him into a teen idol. Between battles with alcoholism in the 1970s, he recorded with Electric Light Orchestra and Dave Edmunds. Drop Down and Get Me (1982), a strong album and a modest chart success, was produced…

  • Garrick Theatre (theatre, London, United Kingdom)

    Sir John Hare: …London), English actor-manager of London’s Garrick Theatre from 1889 to 1895, excelling in old men’s parts and recognized as the greatest character actor of his day.

  • Garrick, David (English actor, poet, and producer)

    David Garrick, English actor, producer, dramatist, poet, and comanager of the Drury Lane Theatre. Garrick was of French and Irish descent, the son of Peter Garrick, a captain in the English army, and Arabella Clough, the daughter of a vicar at Lichfield cathedral who was of Irish extraction. David

  • garrigue (plant)

    maquis: Garigue, or garrigue, a poorer version of this vegetation, is found in areas with a thin, rocky soil. Maquis occurs primarily on the lower slopes of mountains bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Many of the shrubs are aromatic, such as mints, laurels, and myrtles. Olives, figs,…

  • Garrincha (Brazilian athlete)

    Garrincha, Brazilian football (soccer) player considered by many to be the best right winger in the history of the sport. An imaginative and skillful dribbler, he starred along with Pelé and Didí on the Brazilian national teams that won two World Cup Championships (1958, 1962). His brother gave him

  • Garriott, Owen (American astronaut)

    Owen Garriott, American astronaut, selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as one of the first scientist-astronauts. After completing a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Oklahoma in 1953, Garriott received an M.A. (1957) and a Ph.D. (1960),

  • Garriott, Owen Kay (American astronaut)

    Owen Garriott, American astronaut, selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as one of the first scientist-astronauts. After completing a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Oklahoma in 1953, Garriott received an M.A. (1957) and a Ph.D. (1960),

  • Garriott, Richard (American computer game developer and space tourist)

    Richard Garriott, British-born American computer-game developer who became the sixth space tourist and the first second-generation American to go into space. Garriott grew up in Houston the son of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut Owen Garriott, who first flew into

  • Garriott, Richard Allen (American computer game developer and space tourist)

    Richard Garriott, British-born American computer-game developer who became the sixth space tourist and the first second-generation American to go into space. Garriott grew up in Houston the son of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut Owen Garriott, who first flew into

  • Garrison Dam (dam, North Dakota, United States)

    North Dakota: North Dakota since 1900: Construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River, completed in 1954, created an enormous reservoir, Lake Sakakawea. But while important for hydroelectric production and irrigation, the dam flooded Native American farmland. (At the beginning of the 21st century, Native Americans’ claims for compensation were still not resolved.)…

  • Garrison, Jim (American public official)

    assassination of John F. Kennedy: Conspiracy theories: …most-developed theories was pushed by Jim Garrison, the district attorney of New Orleans, who alleged that anti-Castro and anticommunist elements within the CIA were behind a conspiracy that involved Oswald and a coterie of rabid New Orleans anticommunists—businessman Clay Shaw, private detective and former FBI agent Guy Banister, and David…

  • Garrison, Wendell Phillips (American editor and author)

    The Nation: …editor of the Post and Wendell Phillips Garrison editor of The Nation, which became a weekly edition of the paper until 1914. The journal began to increase its international coverage and its attention to the arts.

  • Garrison, William Lloyd (American editor, writer, and abolitionist)

    William Lloyd Garrison, American journalistic crusader who published a newspaper, The Liberator (1831–65), and helped lead the successful abolitionist campaign against slavery in the United States. Garrison was the son of an itinerant seaman who subsequently deserted his family. The son grew up in

  • Garrity, Freddie (British singer)

    Freddie Garrity, (Frederick Garrity), British singer and entertainer (born Nov. 14, 1936, Manchester, Eng.—died May 19, 2006, Bangor, Wales), was the lead singer for Freddie and the Dreamers, a British Invasion–era rock group that had a series of U.K. hits (including “If You Gotta Make a Fool of S

  • Garrity, Frederick (British singer)

    Freddie Garrity, (Frederick Garrity), British singer and entertainer (born Nov. 14, 1936, Manchester, Eng.—died May 19, 2006, Bangor, Wales), was the lead singer for Freddie and the Dreamers, a British Invasion–era rock group that had a series of U.K. hits (including “If You Gotta Make a Fool of S

  • Garro, Elena (Mexican writer)

    Elena Garro, Mexican writer whose novels, plays, and short stories revealed an intelligence and lyric intensity that made her one of the country’s leading literary voices; she became politically active during her marriage to writer Octavio Paz (q.v.) and spent more than 20 years in exile after

  • Garrod, Dorothy Annie Elizabeth (British archaeologist)

    Dorothy Annie Elizabeth Garrod, English archaeologist who directed excavations at Mount Carmel, Palestine (1929–34), uncovering skeletal remains of primary importance to the study of human evolution. Garrod carried out Paleolithic, or Old Stone Age, research in Gibraltar (1925–26) and in southern

  • Garrod, Sir Archibald Edward (British physician)

    heredity: Universality of Mendel’s laws: …and 1909, English physician Sir Archibald Garrod initiated the analysis of inborn errors of metabolism in humans in terms of biochemical genetics. Alkaptonuria, inherited as a recessive, is characterized by excretion in the urine of large amounts of the substance called alkapton, or homogentisic acid, which renders the urine black…

  • Garros, Pey de (French poet)

    Pey de Garros, Provençal poet whose work raised the Gascon dialect to the rank of a literary language in 16th-century France. A Protestant, Garros studied law, theology, and Hebrew at the University of Toulouse and later became avocat-général of Pau. In the preface to his Poesias gasconas (1567;

  • Garros, Roland (French aviator)

    Jean Cocteau: Heritage and youth: …a friend of the aviator Roland Garros and dedicated to him the early poems inspired by aviation, Le Cap de Bonne-Espérance (1919; The Cape of Good Hope). At intervals during the years 1916 and 1917, Cocteau entered the world of modern art, then being born in Paris; in the bohemian…

  • garrote (execution device)

    Garrote, device used in strangling condemned persons. In one form it consists of an iron collar attached to a post. The victim’s neck is placed in the collar, and the collar is slowly tightened by a screw until asphyxiation occurs. Another form of garrote is a length of wire with wooden handles at

  • Garrulus glandarius (bird)

    jay: The Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) occurs over most of the continental Old World except sub-Saharan Africa. About 33 cm (13 inches) long, it is pinkish brown with blue-and-black-barred shoulders, a white rump, and white wing-patches. Among brightly coloured forms in tropical America is the green jay…

  • Garry Moore Show, The (American television program)

    Carol Burnett: …Burnett to the cast of The Garry Moore Show. That same year she received excellent reviews—as well as a Tony Award nomination—for her stage work in the Broadway musical comedy Once upon a Mattress.

  • Garryaceae (plant family)

    Garryales: …18 species in two families, Garryaceae and Eucommiaceae. Members of the order are woody, with distinct male and female plants. Garryales is placed in the asterid clade (organisms with a single common ancestor), or sympetalous lineage of flowering plants, at the base of the euasterid I group of the Angiosperm…

  • Garryales (plant order)

    Garryales, small order of flowering plants consisting of 18 species in two families, Garryaceae and Eucommiaceae. Members of the order are woody, with distinct male and female plants. Garryales is placed in the asterid clade (organisms with a single common ancestor), or sympetalous lineage of

  • Garshin, Vsevolod Mikhaylovich (Russian writer)

    Vsevolod Mikhaylovich Garshin, Russian short-story writer whose works helped to foster the vogue enjoyed by that genre in Russia in the late 19th century. Garshin was the son of an army officer whose family was wealthy and landed. The major Russo-Turkish war of the 19th century broke out when

  • Garson, Eileen Evelyn Greer (British-American actress)

    Greer Garson, motion-picture actress whose classic beauty and screen persona of elegance, poise, and maternal virtue made her one of the most popular and admired Hollywood stars of the World War II era. Garson often claimed to have been born in County Down, Ireland, where her grandparents lived and

  • Garson, Greer (British-American actress)

    Greer Garson, motion-picture actress whose classic beauty and screen persona of elegance, poise, and maternal virtue made her one of the most popular and admired Hollywood stars of the World War II era. Garson often claimed to have been born in County Down, Ireland, where her grandparents lived and

  • Garstang, John (British archaeologist)

    John Garstang, English archaeologist who made major contributions to the study of the ancient history and prehistory of Asia Minor and Palestine. Best known for his excavation of Jericho (1930–36), Garstang entered the field of archaeology by excavating Roman remains in Britain, notably at

  • Gartenlaube (German magazine)

    history of publishing: General periodicals: One example was the Gartenlaube (1853–1937; “Arbour”), which enjoyed great popular influence and a circulation of 400,000 in the 1870s. There were no national magazines in the United States before about 1850, but two of its best-known early periodicals were the Saturday Evening Post (1821–1969; revived 1971) and Youth’s…

  • garter snake (reptile)

    Garter snake, (genus Thamnophis), any of more than a dozen species of nonvenomous snakes having a striped pattern suggesting a garter: typically, one or three longitudinal yellow to red stripes, between which are checkered blotches. Forms in which the stripes are obscure or lacking are often called

  • garter stitch (knitting)

    knitting: …the preceding loop, and the purl stitch, drawn through the back. Some filling knits are fragile because of the dependency of each loop in a vertical row on the stitch next to it. Runs can occur when one loop breaks, releasing other loops in the same row. Filling knits have…

  • Garter, The Most Noble Order of the (English knighthood)

    The Most Noble Order of the Garter, English order of knighthood founded by King Edward III in 1348, ranked as the highest British civil and military honour obtainable. Because the earliest records of the order were destroyed by fire, it is difficult for historians to be certain of its original

  • Garthorne, George (English silversmith)

    chocolate pot: …made by the English silversmith George Garthorne. The drinking of chocolate in coffee houses was very fashionable during the last quarter of the 17th and the first quarter of the 18th century, but by the middle of the century it had fallen out of favour.

  • Gärtner, Friedrich von (German architect)

    Western architecture: Germany and Austria: …architects Leo von Klenze and Friedrich von Gärtner into a major cultural capital. Their twin models were Periclean Athens and Renaissance Florence, the former providing the inspiration for Klenze’s Greek Doric Ruhmeshalle (1843–54) and Propylaeon (1846–60) and the latter for Gärtner’s Bavarian State Library (1832–43). The most poetic product of…

  • Gartner, Mike (Canadian hockey player)

    Washington Capitals: Right wing Mike Gartner and defensemen Larry Murphy and Rod Langway led the team to five consecutive second-place divisional finishes between 1983–84 and 1987–88. Washington won its first division title in 1988–89 and appeared in the conference finals in 1989–90, but the Capitals failed to advance any…

  • Gartok (China)

    Gartok, town, western Tibet Autonomous Region, western China. It is located at an elevation of 14,630 feet (4,460 metres) at the foot of the Kailas Range (Gangdisi Shan) on the Gar River, which is one of the headwaters of the Indus River (in Tibet Sindhu, or Yindu, River). Gartok is an important

  • Garua (Cameroon)

    Garoua, town located in northeastern Cameroon. The town lies along the right bank of the Benue River, north-northeast of Yaoundé, the national capital. It is situated at the junction of the road between Maroua and Ngaoundéré and the Benue waterway and is the chief commercial centre of the region.

  • garúa (meteorology)

    Lima: Climate: …throughout the winter, and the garúa (dense sea mist) often rolls in to blanket areas of the city. Precipitation, which rarely exceeds 2 inches (50 mm) per annum, usually results from the condensation of the garúa. Lima is perhaps best described as cold and damp in winter and hot and…

  • Garuda (Hindu mythology)

    Garuda, in Hindu mythology, the bird (a kite or an eagle) and the vahana (mount) of the god Vishnu. In the Rigveda the sun is compared to a bird in its flight across the sky, and an eagle carries the ambrosial soma plant from heaven to earth. The mythological account of Garuda’s birth in the

  • garum (sauce)

    cooking: Ancient Rome: …today would be considered desserts—included garum, a fermented fish sauce similar to Asian fish sauce and thought to be an early predecessor of Worcestershire sauce. The Romans added that fish sauce to nearly everything, but it does not appear in Italian recipes today. Romans also used lovage (an herb) extensively,…

  • Garusi (anthropological and archaeological site, Tanzania)

    Laetoli, site of paleoanthropological excavations in northern Tanzania about 40 km (25 miles) from Olduvai Gorge, another major site. Mary Leakey and coworkers discovered fossils of Australopithecus afarensis at Laetoli in 1978, not far from where a group of hominin (of human lineage) fossils had

  • Garvey, Marcus (Jamaican black nationalist leader)

    Marcus Garvey, charismatic black leader who organized the first important American black nationalist movement (1919–26), based in New York City’s Harlem. Largely self-taught, Garvey attended school in Jamaica until he was 14. After traveling in Central America and living in London from 1912 to

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