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  • Garavito, Pedro (Spanish mystic)

    Saint Peter of Alcántara, ; canonized 1669; feast day October 19), Franciscan mystic who founded an austere form of Franciscan life known as the Alcantarines or Discalced (i.e., barefooted) Friars Minor. He is the patron saint of Brazil. Of noble birth, he entered the Franciscan order at Alcántara

  • Garay, Juan de (Spanish explorer)

    Mar del Plata: Juan de Garay, the second founder of Buenos Aires, first explored the coastal area of Mar del Plata in 1581. In 1746 Father Thomas Falkner and Father José Cardiel founded the Indian work mission Nuestra Señora del Pilar (“Our Lady of Pilar”) at the site…

  • garba (dance)

    Garba, type of Indian dance commonly performed at festivals and on other special occasions in the state of Gujarat, India. It is a joyful style of dance, based on a circular pattern and characterized by a sweeping action from side to side. Garba performances often include singing and a musical

  • Garba, Joseph Nanven (Nigerian military officer and diplomat)

    Joseph Nanven Garba, Nigerian military officer and diplomat (born July 17, 1943, Langtang, Nigeria—died June 1, 2002, Abuja, Nigeria), participated in the 1975 bloodless coup that deposed Gen. Yakubu Gowon as head of state, then served as external affairs commissioner (foreign minister) until 1

  • garbage (waste management)

    solid-waste management: Composition and properties: Refuse includes garbage and rubbish. Garbage is mostly decomposable food waste; rubbish is mostly dry material such as glass, paper, cloth, or wood. Garbage is highly putrescible or decomposable, whereas rubbish is not. Trash is rubbish that includes bulky items such as old refrigerators, couches, or large…

  • garbage disposal system

    Refuse disposal system, technique for the collection, treatment, and disposal of the solid wastes of a community. The development and operation of these systems is often called solid-waste

  • garbage grease (lubricant)

    grease: Bone grease, hide grease, and garbage grease are named according to their origin. In some factories, food offal is used along with animal carcasses, butcher-shop scraps, and garbage from restaurants for recovery of fats.

  • garbanzo bean (plant)

    Chickpea, (Cicer arietinum), annual plant of the pea family (Fabaceae), widely grown for its nutritious seeds. Chickpeas are an important food plant in India, Africa, and Central and South America. The seeds are high in fibre and protein and are a good source of iron, phosphorus, and folic acid.

  • Garbett, Cyril Forster (British archbishop)

    Cyril Forster Garbett, archbishop of York and ecclesiastical writer who promoted a social conscience among the membership of the Church of England by his reports on the human misery in the areas he administered as bishop, particularly London’s Southwark district (1919–32). Educated at Keble

  • garbha-dhātu (Buddhist mandala)

    Japanese art: Esoteric Buddhism: …kongō-kai (“diamond world”) and the taizō-kai (“womb world”)—that organized the Buddhist divinities and their relationships in a prescribed gridlike configuration. The deities or spiritual entities portrayed in these paired paintings represent, in the kongō-kai, the realm of transcendent, clear enlightenment and, in the taizō-kai, the humane, compassionate aspects of the…

  • Garbhadhatu (Buddhist mandala)

    Japanese art: Esoteric Buddhism: …kongō-kai (“diamond world”) and the taizō-kai (“womb world”)—that organized the Buddhist divinities and their relationships in a prescribed gridlike configuration. The deities or spiritual entities portrayed in these paired paintings represent, in the kongō-kai, the realm of transcendent, clear enlightenment and, in the taizō-kai, the humane, compassionate aspects of the…

  • garbhagriha (Indian architecture)

    North Indian temple architecture: …plan, consists of a square garbhagriha preceded by one or more adjoining pillared mandapas (porches or halls), which are connected to the sanctum by an open or closed vestibule (antarala). The entrance doorway of the sanctum is usually richly decorated with figures of river goddesses and bands of floral, figural,…

  • garbo (dance)

    Garba, type of Indian dance commonly performed at festivals and on other special occasions in the state of Gujarat, India. It is a joyful style of dance, based on a circular pattern and characterized by a sweeping action from side to side. Garba performances often include singing and a musical

  • Garbo, Greta (Swedish American actress)

    Greta Garbo, Swedish American actress who was one of the most glamorous and popular motion-picture stars of the 1920s and ’30s. She was best known for her portrayals of strong-willed heroines, most of them as compellingly enigmatic as Garbo herself. The daughter of an itinerant labourer, Greta

  • Garborg, Adne Evensen (Norwegian author)

    Arne Evensen Garborg, novelist, poet, playwright, and essayist, one of the first great writers to show the literary possibilities of Nynorsk, a language that many writers wished to establish in place of the standard Dano-Norwegian literary medium. The demand for social reform was central to

  • Garborg, Arne Evensen (Norwegian author)

    Arne Evensen Garborg, novelist, poet, playwright, and essayist, one of the first great writers to show the literary possibilities of Nynorsk, a language that many writers wished to establish in place of the standard Dano-Norwegian literary medium. The demand for social reform was central to

  • Garção, Pedro António Correia (Portuguese poet)

    Pedro António Correia Garção, one of Portugal’s principal Neoclassical poets. Garção studied law at Coimbra but apparently took no degree. His marriage in 1751 brought him a rich dowry, and he had a moderately lucrative government post in the India House as an administrator, but later a lawsuit

  • Garcés, Francisco (Spanish missionary)

    Gila Bend: …Bautista de Anza and Father Francisco Garcés, who called it Santos Apóstoles San Simón y Judas. A colony of white men began a settlement in 1865 at the site of the old rancheria, and the settlement came to be known as Gila Bend. The town location later shifted because a…

  • Garcés, Francisco Tomás (Spanish missionary)

    Gila Bend: …Bautista de Anza and Father Francisco Garcés, who called it Santos Apóstoles San Simón y Judas. A colony of white men began a settlement in 1865 at the site of the old rancheria, and the settlement came to be known as Gila Bend. The town location later shifted because a…

  • Garcetti, Eric (American politician)

    Eric Garcetti, American politician, four-time president of the Los Angeles City Council who was elected mayor of Los Angeles in 2013. Garcetti was the grandson of Mexican immigrants on one side of his family and Russian Jewish immigrants on the other. His father, Gil, was Los Angeles county

  • Garcetti, Eric Michael (American politician)

    Eric Garcetti, American politician, four-time president of the Los Angeles City Council who was elected mayor of Los Angeles in 2013. Garcetti was the grandson of Mexican immigrants on one side of his family and Russian Jewish immigrants on the other. His father, Gil, was Los Angeles county

  • Garches (France)

    Western architecture: Europe: The villa, Les Terrasses, at Garches, France (1927), was a lively play of spatial parallelepipeds (six-sided solid geometric forms the faces of which are parallelograms) ruled by horizontal planes, but his style seemed to culminate in the most famous of his houses, the Villa Savoye at Poissy, France (1929–31). The…

  • Garci, José Luis (Spanish writer, producer, director, and actor)
  • García Bernal, Gael (Mexican actor and director)

    Gael García Bernal, Mexican actor and director who became known for his work in films that portrayed men and women in taboo or nonconformist relationships. García Bernal’s parents—his mother was an actress and his father a director—involved him in theatrical productions at an early age. In 1989 he

  • García de la Huerta, Vicente Antonio (Spanish writer)

    Vicente García de la Huerta, playwright, poet, and critic whose Neoclassical tragedy Raquel (1778) was once considered the most distinguished tragic drama of 18th-century Spain. García held a position in the Royal (later National) Library and was a political prisoner in Oran, where Raquel was

  • García de la Torre, Ana (Spanish author)

    Spanish literature: Revival of the Spanish novel: Ana García de la Torre (Ana García del Espinar), a more progressive contemporary, treated problems of class, gender, and the proletariat, writing especially on the “working girl” and portraying utopian workers’ socialist movements.

  • García del Espinar, Ana (Spanish author)

    Spanish literature: Revival of the Spanish novel: Ana García de la Torre (Ana García del Espinar), a more progressive contemporary, treated problems of class, gender, and the proletariat, writing especially on the “working girl” and portraying utopian workers’ socialist movements.

  • García el Restaurador (king of Pamplona)

    García IV (or V), king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 1134 to 1150, grandson of Sancho IV and son of El Cid’s daughter Cristina and Ramiro Sánchez, lord of Monzón. When Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre died in 1134 and the Aragonese proclaimed the succession for his brother Ramiro II, the Navarrese r

  • García el Trémulo (king of Pamplona and Aragon)

    García II (or III), king of Pamplona (Navarre) and of Aragon from about 994 to about 1000, son of Sancho II Garcés. Coming to the aid of besieged Castile, García fought against the Muslim forces of Abū ʿĀmir al-Manṣūr. Manṣūr then turned his armies against Navarre (1002), burning the monastery of

  • García Granados, Miguel (president of Guatemala)

    Guatemala: The postcolonial period: …1871 a revolution headed by Miguel García Granados and Justo Rufino Barrios overthrew Gen. Vicente Cerna, Carrera’s conservative successor in office, and inaugurated a period of liberal ascendancy that extended almost unbroken to 1944. After a brief period in the presidency, García Granados ceded to Barrios (1873), who became known…

  • García Gutiérrez, Antonio (Spanish writer)

    Antonio García Gutiérrez, dramatist whose play El trovador (1836; “The Troubadour”) was the most popular and successful drama of the Romantic period in Spain. It formed the basis for the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi’s opera Il trovatore (performed 1853). After studying medicine briefly, he

  • García I (king of Navarre)

    García (I), self-styled king or chief of the Navarrese, centred in Pamplona. He is partly legendary, perhaps originally a count and vassal of Asturias, and is said to have reconquered many towns from the Moors. His son Fortún (or Fortunio) was captured and imprisoned by the Moors in 860, and not

  • García I (king of Spain)

    Spain: The Christian states, 711–1035: …of the Asturian kingdom encouraged García I (910–914) to transfer the seat of his power from Oviedo southward to the city of León. Nevertheless, any expectation that Islamic rule was set to end was premature. During the 10th century the caliphs of Cordóba (Qurṭabah) not only restored order and unity…

  • García I (or II) Sanchez (king of Pamplona)

    García I (or II) Sanchez, king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 925 to 970, son of Sancho I Garcés and Queen Toda Aznar. He owed his throne to the support of his cousin ʿAbd ar-Rahman III, the Umayyad caliph of Cordoba. The end of his reign was taken up with wars against the count of Castile, Fernán

  • García II (king of Galicia)

    García II, king of Galicia from 1065 to 1071. His father, Ferdinand I the Great, divided his lands among his three sons: Alfonso VI received Leon; Sancho II received Castile; and García II, the youngest, received Galicia with a portion of Portugal (1065). Despotic and suspicious, García was

  • García II (or III) (king of Pamplona and Aragon)

    García II (or III), king of Pamplona (Navarre) and of Aragon from about 994 to about 1000, son of Sancho II Garcés. Coming to the aid of besieged Castile, García fought against the Muslim forces of Abū ʿĀmir al-Manṣūr. Manṣūr then turned his armies against Navarre (1002), burning the monastery of

  • Garcia II Nkanga a Lukeni (king of Kongo)

    Kongo: Later, Garcia II Nkanga a Lukeni (reigned 1641–61) sided with the Dutch against Portugal when the former country seized portions of Angola from 1641 to 1648. Further disputes between Kongo and Portugal over joint claims in the region led to skirmishes in the small district of…

  • García III (or IV) (king of Pamplona)

    García III (or IV), king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 1035 to 1054. Following an old custom, Sancho III the Great divided his Spanish lands among his four sons: Ferdinand I received Castile; Gonzalo received Sobrarbe and Ribagorza (modern Huesca); Ramiro I received Aragon; and García III received the

  • García Iñiguez (king of Navarre)

    García (I), self-styled king or chief of the Navarrese, centred in Pamplona. He is partly legendary, perhaps originally a count and vassal of Asturias, and is said to have reconquered many towns from the Moors. His son Fortún (or Fortunio) was captured and imprisoned by the Moors in 860, and not

  • García Iñiguez, Calixto (Cuban revolutionary leader)

    Andrew Summers Rowan: Calixto Garcia y Íñiguez to determine the strength of the insurgent armies and obtain their cooperation. After completing his mission, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. Rowan’s exploit was somewhat imaginatively described in Elbert Hubbard’s oft-reprinted essay “ A Message to Garcia ” (1899).

  • García IV (or V) (king of Pamplona)

    García IV (or V), king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 1134 to 1150, grandson of Sancho IV and son of El Cid’s daughter Cristina and Ramiro Sánchez, lord of Monzón. When Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre died in 1134 and the Aragonese proclaimed the succession for his brother Ramiro II, the Navarrese r

  • García Lorca, Federico (Spanish writer)

    Federico García Lorca, Spanish poet and playwright who, in a career that spanned just 19 years, resurrected and revitalized the most basic strains of Spanish poetry and theatre. He is known primarily for his Andalusian works, including the poetry collections Romancero gitano (1928; Gypsy Ballads)

  • García Márquez, Gabriel (Colombian author)

    Gabriel García Márquez, Colombian novelist and one of the greatest writers of the 20th century, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1982 (see Nobel Lecture: “The Solitude of Latin America”), mostly for his masterpiece Cien años de soledad (1967; One Hundred Years of Solitude). He was

  • García Meza, Luis (Bolivian military leader)

    Bolivia: Transition to civilian rule: …military government led by General Luis García Meza committed widespread murders, incidents of torture, forced exiles, and political persecution. The government hired militant fascists (including ex-Nazis) and other paramilitary groups to attack opposition political and labour leaders, and corruption was widespread among military officers.

  • García Moreno, Gabriel (president of Ecuador)

    Gabriel García Moreno, initiator of a church-oriented dictatorship in Ecuador (1861–75). His rule, oppressive but often effective in its reformist aims, eventually cost him his life. García Moreno was educated at the university in Quito and in Europe. Versed in political theory, he early took an

  • García Padilla, Alejandro (Puerto Rican politician)

    Puerto Rico: The debate over political status: Alejandro García Padilla announced that Puerto Rico could no longer meet its debt obligations. Although not a U.S. state, Puerto Rico was treated like a state (and not a municipality) under the U.S. federal bankruptcy code and therefore could not declare bankruptcy. Repeated attempts to…

  • García Pérez, Alan (president of Peru)

    Alan García, Peruvian politician who twice served as president of Peru (1985–90; 2006–11). García studied at Pontifical Catholic University in Lima and earned a law degree (1971) from the Main National University of San Marcos of Lima. After several years of additional study in Madrid and Paris, he

  • García Ponce, Juan (Mexican author)

    Juan García Ponce, (pen name Jorge Olmo), Mexican man of letters (born Sept. 22, 1932, Mérida, Mex.—died Dec. 27, 2003, Mexico City, Mex.), wrote more than 40 imaginative works noted for their lush descriptions. Three of these works—La casa en la playa (1966; The House on the Beach, 1994), E

  • García Ramírez (king of Pamplona)

    García IV (or V), king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 1134 to 1150, grandson of Sancho IV and son of El Cid’s daughter Cristina and Ramiro Sánchez, lord of Monzón. When Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre died in 1134 and the Aragonese proclaimed the succession for his brother Ramiro II, the Navarrese r

  • García Robles, Alfonso (Mexican diplomat)

    Alfonso García Robles, Mexican diplomat and advocate of nuclear disarmament, corecipient with Alva Myrdal of Sweden of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1982. After receiving his law degree in Mexico and completing graduate study at the University of Paris and at the International Law Academy in The

  • García the Restorer (king of Pamplona)

    García IV (or V), king of Pamplona (Navarre) from 1134 to 1150, grandson of Sancho IV and son of El Cid’s daughter Cristina and Ramiro Sánchez, lord of Monzón. When Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre died in 1134 and the Aragonese proclaimed the succession for his brother Ramiro II, the Navarrese r

  • García the Trembler (king of Pamplona and Aragon)

    García II (or III), king of Pamplona (Navarre) and of Aragon from about 994 to about 1000, son of Sancho II Garcés. Coming to the aid of besieged Castile, García fought against the Muslim forces of Abū ʿĀmir al-Manṣūr. Manṣūr then turned his armies against Navarre (1002), burning the monastery of

  • García, Alan (president of Peru)

    Alan García, Peruvian politician who twice served as president of Peru (1985–90; 2006–11). García studied at Pontifical Catholic University in Lima and earned a law degree (1971) from the Main National University of San Marcos of Lima. After several years of additional study in Madrid and Paris, he

  • García, Anastasio Somoza (president of Nicaragua)

    Anastasio Somoza, soldier-politician who was dictator of Nicaragua for 20 years. Preferring the use of patronage and bribery to violence, he established a family dynasty in which he was succeeded by his son Luis Somoza Debayle as president (1956–63) and by another son, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, as

  • Garcia, Carlos P. (president of Philippines)

    Carlos P. Garcia, fourth president of the Republic of the Philippines. After graduating from law school in 1923, he became, successively, a schoolteacher, representative in the Philippine Congress, governor of his province (Bohol), and then (1941–53) senator. During the Japanese occupation of the

  • Garcia, Carlos Polestico (president of Philippines)

    Carlos P. Garcia, fourth president of the Republic of the Philippines. After graduating from law school in 1923, he became, successively, a schoolteacher, representative in the Philippine Congress, governor of his province (Bohol), and then (1941–53) senator. During the Japanese occupation of the

  • García, Chuy (American politician)

    Chicago: Renewal: …and faced his nearest challenger, Jesús (“Chuy”) García, a longtime public servant, in the city’s first-ever mayoral runoff election. Emanuel was victorious, however, in the April contest.

  • Garcia, Cristina (American author)

    American literature: Multicultural writing: …Songs of Love [1989]) and Cristina Garcia (Dreaming in Cuban [1992] and The Agüero Sisters [1997]); the Antigua-born Jamaica Kincaid, author of Annie John (1984), Lucy (1990), the AIDS memoir My Brother (1997), and See Now Then (2013); the Dominican-born Junot Díaz, who won acclaim for Drown (1996), a collection…

  • García, Diego (Spanish navigator)

    Argentina: Discovery and settlement: …another expedition from Spain under Diego García, commander of a ship from the Solís expedition. Both Cabot and García had planned to sail for the Moluccas but altered their courses, influenced by excited tales about an “enchanted City of the Caesars” (a variant of the Eldorado legend), which later incited…

  • Garcia, Jerome John (American musician)

    Jerome John Garcia, ("JERRY"), U.S. musician (born Aug. 1, 1942, San Francisco, Calif.—died Aug. 9, 1995, Forest Knolls, Calif.), personified the hippie counterculture for three decades as the mellow leader of the rock band the Grateful Dead. Garcia was the singer, songwriter, and lead guitarist o

  • Garcia, Jerry (American musician)

    Jerome John Garcia, ("JERRY"), U.S. musician (born Aug. 1, 1942, San Francisco, Calif.—died Aug. 9, 1995, Forest Knolls, Calif.), personified the hippie counterculture for three decades as the mellow leader of the rock band the Grateful Dead. Garcia was the singer, songwriter, and lead guitarist o

  • García, Jesús (American politician)

    Chicago: Renewal: …and faced his nearest challenger, Jesús (“Chuy”) García, a longtime public servant, in the city’s first-ever mayoral runoff election. Emanuel was victorious, however, in the April contest.

  • García, Manuel del Popolo (Spanish singer and composer)

    Manuel del Popolo García, Spanish tenor and composer, one of the finest singers of his time. At age 17 García made his stage debut at Cádiz, Spain, in an operetta that included songs he had composed. In 1800 the first of his more than 90 operas, El preso, was produced in Madrid. García was active

  • García, Manuel del Popolo Vicente (Spanish singer and composer)

    Manuel del Popolo García, Spanish tenor and composer, one of the finest singers of his time. At age 17 García made his stage debut at Cádiz, Spain, in an operetta that included songs he had composed. In 1800 the first of his more than 90 operas, El preso, was produced in Madrid. García was active

  • García, Manuel Patricio Rodríguez (Spanish vocal teacher)

    Manuel García, the most renowned European teacher of singing in the 19th century. The son of the celebrated tenor Manuel del Popolo Vicente García, he began a singing career in 1825 in New York City as Figaro in his father’s company’s production of Rossini’s The Barber of Seville. In 1825 in Paris

  • García, María Cristina Estella Marcella Jurado (Mexican actress)

    Katy Jurado, (María Cristina Estella Marcella Jurado García), Mexican actress (born Jan. 16, 1924, Guadalajara, Mex.—died July 5, 2002, Cuernavaca, Mex.), projected a smoldering sensuality and vitality that captured audiences’ attention first in Mexico and later in the U.S.—where she was one of t

  • García, María de la Felicidad (Spanish opera singer)

    Maria Malibran, Spanish mezzo-soprano of exceptional vocal range, power, and agility. María and her mezzo-soprano sister Pauline Viardot were first instructed by their father, the tenor Manuel García, and at five years of age María sang a child’s part in Ferdinando Paer’s Agnese in Naples. She made

  • García, Michelle Ferdinande Pauline (French singer)

    Pauline Viardot, French mezzo-soprano, best known for highly dramatic operatic roles. As a child Viardot studied piano with Franz Liszt, composition with Anton Reicha, and voice with her mother. She was the sister of Maria Malibran, the celebrated soprano, and of the great voice teacher Manuel

  • García, Pilar Lorenza (Spanish opera singer)

    Pilar Lorengar, (PILAR LORENZA GARCÍA), Spanish opera singer who was an internationally acclaimed soprano best known for her interpretations of Mozart heroines (b. Jan. 16, 1928--d. June 2,

  • Garciaparra, Nomar (American baseball player)

    Mia Hamm: …her husband, former baseball player Nomar Garciaparra, and numerous others—of the Los Angeles Football Club of Major League Soccer; the team began play in 2018.

  • Garcilaso de la Vega (Spanish chronicler)

    Garcilaso de la Vega, one of the great Spanish chroniclers of the 16th century, noted as the author of distinguished works on the history of the Indians in South America and the expeditions of the Spanish conquistadors. Garcilaso was the illegitimate son of a Spanish conquistador, Sebastian G

  • Garcilaso de la Vega (Spanish poet)

    Garcilaso de la Vega, the first major poet in the Golden Age of Spanish literature (c. 1500–1650). Garcilaso was born into an aristocratic family that had been prominent in Spanish letters and politics for several centuries. Entering court life at an early age, he distinguished himself as a

  • Garcinia (tree genus)

    Garcinia, genus in the family Clusiaceae with about 250 species of trees and shrubs found throughout the tropics but especially in the Paleotropics. Given the extreme diversity of floral structure across the genus, its taxonomy is contentious. A number of species are important in local medicine,

  • Garcinia cowa (tree)

    Garcinia: xanthochymus and G. cowa. A number of species are listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and at least two, G. cadelliana and G. tanzaniensis, are critically endangered.

  • garcinia family (plant family)

    Clusiaceae, the garcinia family (order Malpighiales), comprising about 14 genera and some 800 species of tropical trees and shrubs. Several are important for their fruits, resins, or timbers, and a number of species are cultivated as ornamentals. Members of the Clusiaceae family usually have

  • Garcinia gardneriana (tree)

    Garcinia: Bacupari (G. gardneriana) is native to South America and produces an edible aril. Garlic fruit, or bitter garcinia (G. spicata), is planted as an ornamental in tropical salt-spray oceanfront areas. Orange dyes (gamboge) are extracted from the bark of G. xanthochymus and G. cowa. A…

  • Garcinia intermedia (plant)

    Clusiaceae: Waika plum, or lemon drop mangosteen (G. intermedia), native to Central America, has a small, oval, yellow fruit. There are about 250 species in the tropics, especially common in Indo-Malesia.

  • Garcinia livingstonei (tree and fruit)

    Garcinia: Imbe, or African mangosteen (G. livingstonei), has stiff leaves and small, thick-skinned, orange fruits with a juicy, acid, fragrant pulp. Rata, or yellow mangosteen (G. tinctorea), produces a peach-sized yellow fruit with a pointed end and acid-flavoured buttery yellow flesh. Bacupari (G. gardneriana) is native…

  • Garcinia mangostana (tree and fruit)

    Mangosteen, (Garcinia mangostana), handsome tropical tree (family Clusiaceae) native to Southeast Asia and cultivated for its tart-sweet fruit. The mangosteen fruit is highly valued for its juicy, delicate texture and slightly astringent flavour and is commonly eaten fresh, canned, or dried. The

  • Garcinia spicata (tree)

    Garcinia: Garlic fruit, or bitter garcinia (G. spicata), is planted as an ornamental in tropical salt-spray oceanfront areas. Orange dyes (gamboge) are extracted from the bark of G. xanthochymus and G. cowa. A number of species are listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List of

  • Garcinia tinctorea (tree and fruit)

    Garcinia: Rata, or yellow mangosteen (G. tinctorea), produces a peach-sized yellow fruit with a pointed end and acid-flavoured buttery yellow flesh. Bacupari (G. gardneriana) is native to South America and produces an edible aril. Garlic fruit, or bitter garcinia (G. spicata), is planted as an ornamental…

  • Garcinia xanthochymus (tree)

    Garcinia: …extracted from the bark of G. xanthochymus and G. cowa. A number of species are listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and at least two, G. cadelliana and G. tanzaniensis, are critically endangered.

  • Garçon et l’aveugle, Le (French literature)

    French literature: Secular drama: Le Garçon et l’aveugle (“The Boy and the Blind Man”), a simple tale of trickster tricked, could have been played by a jongleur and his boy and ranks for some scholars as the first farce. At the end of the century, the Arras poet Adam…

  • Gard (department, France)

    Languedoc-Roussillon: …the southern départements of Lozère, Gard, Hérault, Aude, and Pyrénées-Orientales and was roughly coextensive with the former province of Languedoc. In 2016 the Languedoc-Roussillon région was joined with the région of Midi-Pyrénées to form the new administrative entity of Occitanie.

  • Gard, Pont du (Roman bridge-aqueduct, Nîmes, France)

    Pont du Gard, (French: “Bridge of the Gard”), giant bridge-aqueduct, a notable ancient Roman engineering work constructed about 19 bc to carry water to the city of Nîmes over the Gard River in southern France. Augustus’ son-in-law and aide, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, is credited with its conception.

  • Garda de Fier (Romanian organization)

    Iron Guard, Romanian fascist organization that constituted a major social and political force between 1930 and 1941. In 1927 Corneliu Zelea Codreanu founded the Legion of the Archangel Michael, which later became known as the Legion or Legionary Movement; it was committed to the “Christian and

  • Garda Síochána (civic guard, Ireland)

    Ireland: Security: The Guardians of the Peace (An Garda Síochána), established in 1922, is a nationwide force headed by a commissioner who is responsible to the minister for justice. A few hundred members of the force are assigned to detective duties; they are usually plainclothes officers and, when…

  • Garda, Lago di (lake, Italy)

    Lake Garda, the largest (area 143 square miles [370 square km]) of the Italian lakes, bordering Lombardy (southwest and west), Veneto (east and southeast), and Trentino-Alto Adige (north). It is surpassed in area in the Alpine region only by Lakes Geneva and Constance. Lying at an elevation of 213

  • Garda, Lake (lake, Italy)

    Lake Garda, the largest (area 143 square miles [370 square km]) of the Italian lakes, bordering Lombardy (southwest and west), Veneto (east and southeast), and Trentino-Alto Adige (north). It is surpassed in area in the Alpine region only by Lakes Geneva and Constance. Lying at an elevation of 213

  • Gardar (Swedish sailor)

    Húsavík: …named because a Swedish seafarer, Gardar, blown off course, built a house and wintered there in 864. In the 1880s one of Iceland’s first cooperatives was organized there. Húsavík is a fishing port and serves as a market centre for a dairy-farming and sheep-raising area. Pop. (2006 est.) 2,296.

  • Gardasil (vaccine)

    Gardasil, trade name of human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine, recombinant, the first HPV vaccine used primarily to prevent cervical cancer in women. Developed by Scottish-born Australian immunologist Ian Frazer, the vaccine works against four types of HPV—6, 11,

  • Gardel, Carlos (Argentine actor and singer)

    Carlos Gardel, Argentine singer and actor, celebrated throughout Latin America for his espousal of tango music. Some uncertainty exists concerning Gardel’s early life. While most sources indicate that he was born in France, Gardel occasionally cited Tacuarembó, Uruguay, as his birthplace. However,

  • Gardel, Pierre (French ballet master)

    ballet: The age of Gardel: Until the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, the Paris Opéra remained closely linked to the court. The revolution put an end to such support. The turn of the 19th century was a time of confusion for the arts, during which ballet gained…

  • garden

    Garden, Plot of ground where herbs, fruits, flowers, vegetables, or trees are cultivated. The earliest surviving detailed garden plan is Egyptian and dates from about 1400 bc; it shows tree-lined avenues and rectangular ponds. Mesopotamian gardens were places where shade and cool water could be

  • garden and landscape design

    Garden and landscape design, the development and decorative planting of gardens, yards, grounds, parks, and other types of areas. Garden and landscape design is used to enhance the settings for buildings and public areas and in recreational areas and parks. It is one of the decorative arts and is

  • garden arabis (plant)

    rock cress: Wall rock cress, or garden arabis (Arabis caucasica), is a perennial from southeastern Europe. It reaches 30 cm (1 foot) in height and bears fragrant white flowers in early spring; it has double, pink, dwarf, and variegated varieties. Alpine rock cress (A. alpina) also produces…

  • garden asparagus (plant)

    asparagus: Garden asparagus: Garden asparagus, the most economically important species of the genus, is cultivated in most temperate and subtropical parts of the world. As a vegetable, it has been prized by epicures since Roman times. It is most commonly served cooked, either hot or in…

  • Garden at Sainte-Adresse, The (painting by Monet)

    Western painting: Impressionism: …from 1866 onward, notably the Terrace (1866), in which he chose a subject that allowed use of a full palette of primary colour. The decisive development took place in 1869, when Monet and Renoir painted together at the resort of La Grenouillère on the Seine River. The resulting pictures suggest…

  • garden balsam (plant)

    Impatiens: The garden balsam (Impatiens balsamina) is native to the tropics of Asia but has long been cultivated in temperate regions of the world. The plant is an annual that grows about 75 cm (30 inches) in height and has many horticultural forms with flowers of almost…

  • garden beet (plant)

    beet: …used differently: (1) the common garden beet (also called beetroot or table beet) is cultivated as a garden vegetable; (2) Swiss chard (also called leaf beet or silver beet) is grown for its nutrient-rich leaves; (3) the sugar beet is commercially important as a major source of sugar; and (4)…

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