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  • Centennial State (state, United States)

    Colorado, constituent state of the United States of America. It is classified as one of the Mountain states, although only about half of its area lies in the Rocky Mountains. It borders Wyoming and Nebraska to the north, Nebraska and Kansas to the east, Oklahoma and New Mexico to the south, and

  • Centennial Summer (film by Preminger [1946])

    Otto Preminger: Laura and costume dramas: Centennial Summer (1946) was a bland if colourful musical set at the 1876 exposition in Philadelphia, with Crain, Darnell, and Cornel Wilde. In Forever Amber (1947) Darnell portrayed an ambitious 17th-century woman who overcomes her humble beginnings through a series of affairs. Because of the…

  • centennial-scale climate variation (climatology)

    climate change: Centennial-scale variation: Historical records as well as proxy records (particularly tree rings, corals, and ice cores) indicate that climate has changed during the past 1,000 years at centennial timescales; that is, no two centuries have been exactly alike. During the past 150 years, the Earth…

  • centennial-scale variation (climatology)

    climate change: Centennial-scale variation: Historical records as well as proxy records (particularly tree rings, corals, and ice cores) indicate that climate has changed during the past 1,000 years at centennial timescales; that is, no two centuries have been exactly alike. During the past 150 years, the Earth…

  • Centéotl (Aztec god)

    Chicomecóatl: …consort of the corn god, Centéotl. Chicomecóatl is depicted in Aztec documents with her body and face painted red, wearing a distinctive rectangular headdress or pleated fan of red paper. She is similarly represented in sculpture, often holding a double ear of corn in each hand.

  • Center for Health and Wellbeing (American organization)

    Christina H. Paxson: In 2000 she founded Princeton’s Center for Health and Wellbeing, which established multidisciplinary graduate and undergraduate certificate programs in health and health policy. In 2012 she joined Brown University as professor of economics and public policy and university president.

  • Center for Science in the Public Interest (American nonprofit organization)

    Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), U.S. nonprofit organization, founded in 1971, that aims to study, advocate for, and influence legislation on environmental, health, and other science- and technology-related issues to protect consumers. The Center for Science in the Public Interest

  • Center Won’t Hold, The (album by Sleater-Kinney)

    Sleater-Kinney: …direction with their next album, The Center Won’t Hold (2019), which was produced by Annie Clark (byname St. Vincent). Just before its release, Weiss announced that she was leaving the band.

  • centering (construction)

    Falsework, temporary construction to support arches and similar structures while the mortar or concrete is setting or the steel is being joined. As soon as the work is set, the centring is carefully removed; this process is called striking the centring. The same method is used in building brick s

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States agency)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, headquartered in Atlanta, whose mission is centred on preventing and controlling disease and promoting environmental health and health education in the United States. Part of the Public

  • Centerville (Washington, United States)

    Centralia, city, Lewis county, southwest Washington, U.S., near the confluence of the Chehalis and Skookumchuck rivers. It lies midway between Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington. The town site, then in Oregon Territory, was founded in 1852 by J.G. Cochran and George Washington; Washington,

  • centesima rerum venalium (Roman tax)

    taxation: Administration of taxation: …sales tax was introduced (centesima rerum venalium). The provinces relied for their revenues on head taxes and land taxes; the latter consisted initially of fixed liabilities regardless of the return from the land, as in Persia and Egypt, but later the land tax was modified to achieve a certain…

  • centesimarerum venalium (Roman tax)

    taxation: Administration of taxation: …sales tax was introduced (centesima rerum venalium). The provinces relied for their revenues on head taxes and land taxes; the latter consisted initially of fixed liabilities regardless of the return from the land, as in Persia and Egypt, but later the land tax was modified to achieve a certain…

  • Centeter cinerea (insect)

    tachinid fly: …Malayan tachinid Ptychomyia remota; and Centeter cinerea was transplanted to the United States to check the destructive Japanese beetle. The caterpillars of the armyworm may be up to 90 percent infested by larvae of the red-tailed tachinids (Winthemia).

  • Centetes ecaudatus (mammal)

    insectivore: Natural history: …moonrat (Echinosorex gymnura) and the tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus), attain the size of a small rabbit. Most insectivores are either ground dwellers or burrowers, but several are amphibious, and a few have adapted to life in the trees or forest understory. They prey almost entirely on invertebrates and small vertebrates.…

  • centifolia rose (plant)

    attar of roses: …from the flower petals of centifolia roses, Rosa centifolia, by means of a suitable solvent. One ounce of richly perfumed attar may be produced from about 250 pounds (113 kg) of roses. Rose water is a by-product of distillation.

  • Centifolium Lutheranum (work by Fabricius)

    Johann Albert Fabricius: …classical, and Christian antiquities; the Centifolium Lutheranum (1728–30), an account of 200 writers on the Reformation; and finally the Bibliotheca Latina mediae et infimae aetatis (1734–36; supplementary volume by C. Schottgen, 1746, ed. by J.D. Mansi, 1754), which provided a foundation for the new study of medieval Latin.

  • centigrade temperature scale (temperature scale)

    Celsius, scale based on 0° for the freezing point of water and 100° for the boiling point of water. Invented in 1742 by the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, it is sometimes called the centigrade scale because of the 100-degree interval between the defined points. The following formula can be used

  • centimeter (unit of measurement)

    Centimetre (cm), unit of length equal to 0.01 metre in the metric system and the equivalent of 0.3937

  • centimetre (unit of measurement)

    Centimetre (cm), unit of length equal to 0.01 metre in the metric system and the equivalent of 0.3937

  • centimetre-gram-second system (physics)

    viscosity: …of kinematic viscosity in the centimetre-gram-second (CGS) system, called the stokes in Britain and the stoke in the U.S., is named for the British physicist Sir George Gabriel Stokes. The stoke is defined as one centimetre squared per second.

  • centipede (arthropod)

    Centipede, (class Chilopoda), any of various long, flattened, many-segmented predaceous arthropods. Each segment except the hindmost bears one pair of legs. Centipedes generally remain under stones, bark, and ground litter by day. At night they hunt for and capture other small invertebrates. They

  • Cento (Italy)

    Cento, town, Emilia-Romagna regione, north-central Italy, on the Reno River, 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Bologna. A chapel was built in the church of Santa Maria del Rosario for the 17th-century Baroque painter Guercino (G.F. Barbieri), who is represented in the local art gallery and was born in

  • CENTO

    Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), mutual security organization dating from 1955 to 1979 and composed of Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. Until March 1959 the organization was known as the Middle East Treaty Organization, included Iraq, and had its headquarters in Baghdad. Formed

  • cento anni, I (work by Rovani)

    Italian literature: The veristi and other narrative writers: …life, I cento anni (The Hundred Years), was issued in installments (1856–58 and 1864–65); Emilio Praga, a poet tormented by contradictions; and Arrigo Boito, poet, musician, and librettist for Giuseppe Verdi’s Falstaff and Otello.

  • Cento concerti ecclesiastici (work by Viadana)

    concerto: The Baroque vocal-instrumental concerto (c. 1585–1650): …da Viadana’s popular and influential Cento concerti ecclesiastici a 1, a 2, a 3, e a 4 voci, con il basso continuo per sonar nell’organo (100 Ecclesiastical Concertos [i.e., motets] for One, Two, Three, and Four Voices, with the Basso Continuo to be Played on the Organ; Venice, 1602) exploits…

  • centone (music)

    opera: Early opera in Germany and Austria: These had pasticcio (“assembled” from preexisting works) scores capitalizing, not very successfully, on the great popularity of The Beggar’s Opera (1728), the score of which was similarly assembled by John Christopher Pepusch. In German translation, the Coffey texts attracted the attention of German composers, most notably Johann…

  • Centorbi (Italy)

    Centuripe, town, east-central Sicily, Italy. The town lies at an elevation of 2,402 feet (732 m) on a ridge between the Simeto and Dittaino rivers, northwest of Catania. The ancient Centuripae, which the Greek historian Thucydides called a city of the Siculi (an ancient Sicilian tribe), allied

  • centra (anatomy)

    snake: Vertebrae: …bodies of the bones (centra), which is a ball-and-socket joint; then at two projections (prezygapophyses and postzygapophyses) from the centra, with articulating surfaces that lie above and below; and finally the zygosphenes and zygantra, found almost exclusively in snakes, the zygosphene being a projecting shelf on the upper part…

  • Central Adriatic language (language)

    South Picene language, an ancient Italic language (formerly referred to as Old Sabellic [Old Sabellian], or Central Adriatic) known from some two dozen short inscriptions (5th and 6th centuries bc) found in east-central Italy, primarily in the region of present-day Teramo (the southern part of

  • Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (Soviet aircraft institution)

    Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev: In 1918 they organized the Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute, of which Tupolev became assistant director in 1918. He became head of the institute’s design bureau in 1922 and supervised the work of various designers—including Pavel O. Sukhoy (see Sukhoy design bureau), Vladimir M. Myasischev, and Vladimir M. Petlyakov—who later became notable…

  • central Africa

    Central Africa, region of Africa that straddles the Equator and is drained largely by the Congo River system. It comprises, according to common definitions, the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa); Gabon is usually

  • Central African chimpanzee (primate)

    chimpanzee: Taxonomy: troglodytes are recognized: the tschego, or Central African chimpanzee (P. troglodytes troglodytes), also known as the common chimpanzee in continental Europe; the West African, or masked, chimpanzee (P. troglodytes verus), known as the common chimpanzee in Great Britain; the East African, or long-haired, chimpanzee (P. troglodytes schweinfurthii); and the…

  • Central African Empire

    Central African Republic, landlocked country located in the centre of Africa. The area that is now the Central African Republic has been settled for at least 8,000 years. The earliest inhabitants were the probable ancestors of today’s Aka (Pygmy) peoples, who live in the western and southern

  • Central African Federation (political unit)

    Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, political unit created in 1953 and ended on Dec. 31, 1963, that embraced the British settler-dominated colony of Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and the territories of Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malaŵi), which were under the control of the British

  • Central African People’s Liberation Movement (political party, Central African Republic)

    Central African Republic: Authoritarian rule under Kolingba: …as the leader of the Central African People’s Liberation Movement (Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain; MLPC).

  • Central African Plateau (plateau, Africa)

    Zambezi River: …from its source on the Central African Plateau to empty into the Indian Ocean. With its tributaries, it drains an area of more than 500,000 square miles (1,300,000 square kilometres). The Zambezi (meaning “Great River” in the language of the Tonga people) includes along its course the Victoria Falls, one…

  • Central African Republic

    Central African Republic, landlocked country located in the centre of Africa. The area that is now the Central African Republic has been settled for at least 8,000 years. The earliest inhabitants were the probable ancestors of today’s Aka (Pygmy) peoples, who live in the western and southern

  • Central African Republic, flag of the

    national flag with horizontal stripes of blue, white, green, and yellow, all overlapped by a central red vertical stripe; a yellow star is in the upper hoist corner. Its width-to-length ratio is approximately 3 to 5.Under the leadership of its dynamic first prime minister, Barthélemy Boganda, an

  • Central African Republic, history of

    Central African Republic: History: This discussion focuses on the Central African Republic since the 15th century. For a treatment of the country in its regional context, see Central Africa.

  • Central African Workshop (art organization, Zimbabwe)

    Central African Workshop, art workshop established in the late 1950s by Frank McEwen, the director of the Rhodesian Art Gallery in Salisbury, Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe), in order to encourage local African artists. McEwen first opened a studio for five painters, then a larger studio for many

  • Central Alaskan Yupik language

    Eskimo-Aleut languages: Yupik: …“real person,” includes five languages: Central Alaskan Yupik, spoken southward from Norton Sound; Pacific Yupik, commonly called Alutiiq, spoken from the Alaska Peninsula eastward to Prince William Sound; Naukanski Siberian Yupik, whose speakers were resettled southward from Cape Dezhnyov, the easternmost point of the Eurasian landmass; Central Siberian Yupik (mainly…

  • Central Alps (mountains, Europe)

    Alps: Physiography: The Central Alps occupy an area from the Great St. Bernard Pass east of Mont Blanc on the Swiss-Italian border to the region of the Splügen Pass north of Lake Como. Within this territory are such distinctive peaks as the Dufourspitze, Weisshorn, Matterhorn, and Finsteraarhorn, all…

  • Central America

    Central America, southernmost region of North America, lying between Mexico and South America and comprising Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Belize. (Geologists and physical geographers sometimes extend the northern boundary to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in

  • Central America Free Trade Agreement

    Central America–Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), trade agreement signed in 2004 to gradually eliminate most tariffs, customs duties, and other trade barriers on products and services passing between the countries of Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala,

  • Central America, United Provinces of (historical federation, Central America)

    United Provinces of Central America, (1823–40), union of what are now the states of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Since the 1520s these regions, along with the Mexican state of Chiapas, had composed the captaincy general of Guatemala, part of the viceroyalty of New S

  • Central America–Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement

    Central America–Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), trade agreement signed in 2004 to gradually eliminate most tariffs, customs duties, and other trade barriers on products and services passing between the countries of Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala,

  • Central American Common Market

    Central American Common Market (CACM), association of five Central American nations that was formed to facilitate regional economic development through free trade and economic integration. Established by the General Treaty on Central American Economic Integration signed by Guatemala, Honduras, El

  • Central American Court of Justice

    Costa Rica: Costa Rica in the 20th century: …Central American republics established the Central American Court of Justice, the first international court with wide juridical powers. The headquarters were established in Cartago, but, when the building was destroyed in the 1910 earthquake, the headquarters were moved to San José. One of the court’s landmark cases involved the Bryan-Chamorro…

  • Central American Federation (historical federation, Central America)

    United Provinces of Central America, (1823–40), union of what are now the states of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Since the 1520s these regions, along with the Mexican state of Chiapas, had composed the captaincy general of Guatemala, part of the viceroyalty of New S

  • Central American Free Trade Zone

    Central American Common Market: …Nicaragua had ratified a new Central American Free Trade Zone (Costa Rica signed the agreement later), which committed them to reducing intraregional trade tariffs gradually over a period of several years, though implementation was subsequently delayed. In 1996 CACM adopted the System of Electric Interconnection to link regional power supplies.…

  • Central American Indian (people)

    Central American and northern Andean Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting Central America (south from Guatemala) and the northern coast of South America, including the northern drainage of the Orinoco River; the West Indies are also customarily included. Although the area has

  • Central American Sea (sea, Atlantic Ocean)

    Caribbean Sea: …Gulf of Mexico, forms the Central American Sea. The Caribbean’s greatest known depth is Cayman Trench (Bartlett Deep) between Cuba and Jamaica, approximately 25,216 feet (7,686 metres) below sea level.

  • Central American seaway (ancient seaway)

    Tertiary Period: Paleogeography: …were also linked by the Central American seaway in the area of present-day Costa Rica and Panama. This seaway, extant since the first half of the Cretaceous Period, prevented the interchange of terrestrial fauna between North and South America; however, for a brief interlude during the Paleocene, a land connection…

  • Central American squirrel monkey (primate)

    squirrel monkey: …South America, whereas the endangered Central American squirrel monkeys (S. oerstedii) have black crowns and reddish backs. The common and Central American species both have hair on the ears, unlike the bare-eared squirrel monkey (S. ustus) of central Brazil.

  • Central American States, Organization of

    Organization of Central American States, international organization formed in 1951 to reestablish regional unity in Central America. Member states are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The organization includes executive, legislative, and economic councils and the Central

  • Central American tapir (mammal)

    perissodactyl: Tapirs: The Central American, or Baird’s, tapir (T. bairdii) is the largest of the American species. It is essentially Middle American, with a range extending from Mexico into coastal Ecuador, and it occupies undisturbed climax rainforest. It is shy and adjusts poorly to the disturbance caused by…

  • Central American Unaccompanied Migrant Children and the U.S. Crisis of Policy in 2014

    Though unaccompanied minors had been migrating from Central America to the United States in large numbers for decades, in recent years—particularly in spring-summer 2014—the substantial uptick in the number of those children signified a worrying trend that caught the attention of politicians,

  • Central Andes (mountains, South America)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Central Andes: The Central Andes begin at latitude 35° S, at a point where the cordillera undergoes a sharp change of character. Its width increases to about 50 miles, and it becomes arid and higher; the passes, too, are higher and more difficult to cross.…

  • Central Arbitration Committee (British law)

    industrial court: …court has been called the Central Arbitration Committee. The minister of labour can refer a dispute to ad hoc arbitrators or to the industrial court for an award if the parties consent. If the parties do not consent, the labour minister can refer the matter to a court of inquiry…

  • Central Arctic (region, Nunavut, Canada)

    Kitikmeot, westernmost of the three regions of Nunavut territory, Canada. It was designated the Central Arctic region of the Northwest Territories in 1981, being formed from the northern part of Fort Smith region. In 1982 it received its present name, which is the traditional Inuit word for the

  • Central Arizona Project (waterway, Arizona, United States)

    Colorado River: Economic development: …way for funding of the Central Arizona Project (completed in the 1980s), which transferred water to the cities of Phoenix and Tucson. The project consists of a mountain tunnel through which water from the southern end of Lake Havasu is pumped up and into an aqueduct that flows southward to…

  • Central Artery/Tunnel Project (tunnel, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Boston: Transportation: …and a major construction project—the Central Artery/Tunnel Project, commonly called the Big Dig—was begun in 1991. The task involved replacing the elevated highway through the city with an 8-to-10-lane underground expressway, rebuilding bridges, and boring a new tunnel under the harbour; the need to do so without crippling the city’s…

  • Central Asia

    Central Asia, central region of Asia, extending from the Caspian Sea in the west to the border of western China in the east. It is bounded on the north by Russia and on the south by Iran, Afghanistan, and China. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan,

  • Central Asia, history of

    History of Central Asia, history of the area from prehistoric and ancient times to the present. In its historical application the term Central Asia designates an area that is considerably larger than the heartland of the Asian continent. Were it not for the awkwardness of the term, it would be

  • Central Asian arts

    Central Asian arts, the literary, performing, and visual arts of a large portion of Asia embracing the Turkic republics (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan), Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and parts of Russia and China. As used here, the

  • Central Asian literatures

    Central Asian literatures, the poetry and prose writings produced in a variety of languages in Central Asia, roughly defined as the region bounded to the east by the Tarim Basin in China, to the west by the Caspian Sea, and to the south by the Amu Darya (Oxus River). This region includes

  • Central Asian oil conflicts

    At the end of the 19th century, the Caspian Sea region in Asia was one of the biggest suppliers of oil to the world. Seven decades of Soviet rule in this century, however, effectively cut off the region--and its energy resources--from international markets. The big question in the late 1990s was

  • Central Asian region (biogeography)

    biogeographic region: Western and Central Asian region: Centred on the desert steppes of Central Asia and Mongolia, this floristic zone consists of 200 or more endemic genera and extends from the Caucasus to the Plateau of Tibet, with arid zone plants of the family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot) and…

  • central atom (molecule)

    chemical bonding: Hypervalence: …more atoms attached to a central atom than can be accommodated by an octet of electrons. An example is sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, for which writing a Lewis structure with six S―F bonds requires that at least 12 electrons be present around the sulfur atom:

  • central bank

    Central bank, institution, such as the Bank of England, the U.S. Federal Reserve System, or the Bank of Japan, that is charged with regulating the size of a nation’s money supply, the availability and cost of credit, and the foreign-exchange value of its currency. Regulation of the availability and

  • Central Bank of Brazil (Brazilian government)

    Brazil: Finance: It oversees the Central Bank of Brazil, which issues currency (the real) and controls the money supply, credit, foreign capital, and other top-level financial matters. The federal government also uses other public financial institutions to implement its policies, the most important of which is the Bank of Brazil.…

  • Central Bank of Chile (Chilean government)

    Chile: Trade and finance: The Central Bank of Chile, established in 1925, is the official bank of the country; it implements the internal banking policies of the government and also conducts foreign trade. In 1989 the bank became an autonomous institution entirely responsible for the country’s financial and exchange-rate policies.…

  • Central Bank of Iraq (Iraqi government)

    Iraq: Finance: The Central Bank of Iraq (founded in 1947 and one of the first central banks in the Arab world) has the sole right to issue the dinar, the national currency. The Rafidain Bank (1941) is the oldest commercial bank, but in 1988 the state founded a…

  • Central Bank of Ireland (Irish government)

    Ireland: Finance: The Central Bank of Ireland, established in 1942, is the national monetary authority. Its responsibilities include licensing and overseeing the country’s financial institutions and supervising the Irish Stock Exchange. The bank does not transact business with the public, but it exerts a considerable influence on the…

  • Central Bank of Kenya (Kenyan government)

    Kenya: Finance and trade: The state-run Central Bank of Kenya, established by legislation in 1966, regulates the money supply (the monetary unit is the Kenyan shilling), assists in the development of the monetary, credit, and banking system, acts as banker and financial adviser to the government, and grants short-term or seasonal…

  • Central Bank of Libya (bank, Libya)

    Libya: Competing governments in Tripoli and Tobruk: …internal tensions loomed at the Central Bank of Libya, which collected and administered the country’s oil revenue. The governor of the Central Bank reversed attempts by his deputy in September 2014 to transfer funds to the House of Representatives. Later that year the House of Representatives placed the deputy governor…

  • Central Bank of Mauritania (bank, Mauritania)

    Mauritania: Finance: The Central Bank of Mauritania was established in 1973 and issues the national currency, the ouguiya. In addition to the central bank, there are a number of commercial banks of varying size. Mauritania’s banking sector is centred at Nouakchott. Insurance companies in Mauritania were state-owned prior…

  • Central Bank of Namibia (Namibian government)

    Namibia: Finance and trade: The Central Bank of Namibia launched an independent currency, the Namibian dollar, to replace the South African rand in the mid-1990s.

  • Central Bank of Nicaragua (Nicaraguan government)

    Nicaragua: Finance: The Central Bank of Nicaragua, established in 1961, has the sole right of issue of the national currency, the córdoba. The financial system had been dominated by the government-owned Finance Corporation of Nicaragua, an amalgamation of the country’s banks established in 1980, but by the early…

  • Central Bank of South Sudan (South Sudan government)

    South Sudan: Finance and trade: …South Sudan declared independence, the Central Bank of South Sudan became the national bank and a new currency, the South Sudan pound, was introduced. In addition to the central bank, there are also commercial and foreign banks in the country.

  • Central Bank of Sri Lanka (Sri Lankan government)

    Sri Lanka: Finance: …currency are controlled by the Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Until the late 1970s, commercial banking was the near-exclusive monopoly of two state-run banks, the Bank of Ceylon and the People’s Bank. The postliberalization period allowed the establishment of several private commercial banks and an overall expansion in banking, particularly…

  • Central Bank of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (bank, North Korea)

    North Korea: Finance and other services: …the official currency, and the Central Bank of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is the sole bank of issue. It receives all national revenues and precious metals and provides government agencies with working capital. There are several other state banks, all supervised by the Central Bank. Among these is…

  • Central Bank of The Gambia (bank, The Gambia)

    The Gambia: Finance and trade: The Central Bank of The Gambia issues the national currency, the dalasi. There are several private banks in the country as well.

  • Central Bank of Uruguay (Uruguayan government)

    Uruguay: Finance: The Central Bank of Uruguay (1967) issues currency (the Uruguayan peso), regulates foreign exchange, and oversees the country’s private banks. Other state banks include the Bank of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, which is the country’s largest commercial bank, and the Mortgage Bank of Uruguay.

  • Central Bank of West African States (West African government)

    Mali: Finance and trade: …share a common bank, the Central Bank of West African States (Banque Centrale des États de l’Afrique de l’Ouest), which is headquartered in Dakar, Seneg. The bank issues the currency used by the member countries, the CFA (Communauté Financière Africaine) franc, officially pegged to the euro since 2002. Mali has…

  • Central Bank of Yemen (bank, Yemen)

    Yemen: Finance: The Central Bank of Yemen was formed in 1990 from the merger of the central banks of the two Yemens. It is responsible for issuing the rial, the national currency, and for managing the government’s foreign exchange and other financial operations. The Yemen Bank for Reconstruction…

  • Central Bedfordshire (unitary authority, England, United Kingdom)

    Central Bedfordshire, unitary authority in the southeastern Midlands of England. It is bounded to the north by the unitary authority of Bedford, to the northeast by Cambridgeshire, to the southeast by Hertfordshire and the unitary authority of Luton, to the southwest by Buckinghamshire, and to the

  • Central Board of Film Certification (Indian organization)

    Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC), governmental regulating body for the Indian filmmaking industry. Popularly known as the Censor Board, the CBFC was set up under the Cinematograph Act of 1952. Its purpose is to certify, by means of screening and rating, the suitability of feature films,

  • central Bornean orangutan (primate)

    orangutan: Classification: pygmaeus pygmaeus, and P. pygmaeus wurmbii. During the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago), the orangutan range was much more extensive, and orangutan remains have been found as far north as southern China.

  • Central Brāhui Range (mountains, Pakistan)

    Central Brāhui Range, southern offshoot of the Himalayas, lying in the centre of the Balochistān plateau, Pakistan. It extends southward for about 225 miles (360 km) from the Pishīn Lora and Zhob rivers to the Mūla River. The range is a series of parallel limestone ridges covered with juniper

  • central bulge (astronomy)

    Milky Way Galaxy: The central bulge: Surrounding the nucleus is an extended bulge of stars that is nearly spherical in shape and that consists primarily of Population II stars, though they are comparatively rich in heavy elements. (For an explanation of Population II stars, see Stars and stellar populations.)…

  • Central Cattle Pattern (settlement pattern)

    Southern Africa: The spread of Bantu languages: …characteristic settlement pattern—known as the Central Cattle Pattern—that embodied both the new centrality of cattle and the different nature of hierarchy in these communities.

  • Central Caucasian languages

    Nakh languages, languages spoken in the Caucasus in southwestern Russia and in the Akhmeta district of Georgia. The Nakh language group includes Chechen, Ingush, and Bats (Tsova-Tushian). Because Bats has no written form, its speakers use Georgian as their literary language. The Nakh group,

  • Central Chamber (Japanese government)

    Dajōkan: …the various ministries; and a Central Chamber (Sei-in), which subsumed the powers of the other two chambers.

  • Central City (Colorado, United States)

    Central City, city, seat (1861) of Gilpin county, north-central Colorado, U.S. It lies along North Fork of Clear Creek in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, 26 miles (42 km) west of Denver. A historic mining town on a rocky hillside along Gregory Gulch (elevation 8,560 feet [2,609 metres]), it

  • Central Committee (Chinese political body)

    China: Role of the CCP: …once in five years, the Central Committee is empowered to act when the Congress is not in session. Further, the Political Bureau can act in the name of the Central Committee when the latter is not in session, and the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau guides the work of…

  • Central Committee (Soviet political body)

    Central Committee, in the history of the Soviet Union, the highest organ of the Communist Party between party congresses, though in practice this status was held by the Politburo from the 1920s on. The Communist parties of other countries were also governed by central committees. The first Central

  • Central Committee for the Inner Mission (German organization)

    city mission: As a result, the Central Committee for the Inner Mission was formed in 1849, and Inner Mission societies were formed in Germany’s large cities and in the territorial churches.

  • Central Conference of American Rabbis (American organization)

    Reform Judaism: …the late 20th century the Central Conference of American Rabbis continued to debate how best to continue the spirit of the Reform movement. It issued several new prayer books for the modern age and considered such issues as inclusion of single parents in the congregation, the position of women in…

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