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  • Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and Other Sketches, The (story by Twain)

    The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, short story by Mark Twain, first published in a New York periodical, The Saturday Press in 1865. The narrator of the story, who is searching for a Reverend Leonidas Smiley, visits the long-winded Simon Wheeler, a miner, in hopes of learning his

  • Celebration Day (album by Led Zeppelin)

    Led Zeppelin: …Grammy Award in 2014 for Celebration Day (2012), a live album derived from the 2007 reunion show. In 2012 Led Zeppelin was named a Kennedy Center honoree.

  • Celebration of Peace (poem by Hölderlin)

    Friedrich Hölderlin: …period 1802–06, including “Friedensfeier” (“Celebration of Peace”), “Der Einzige” (“The Only One”), and “Patmos,” products of a mind on the verge of madness, are apocalyptic visions of unique grandeur. He also completed verse translations of Sophocles’ Antigone and Oedipus Tyrannus, published in 1804. In this year a devoted friend,…

  • Celebrex (drug)
  • Celebrezze, Anthony J. (American politician)

    Anthony J. Celebrezze, Italian-born American politician who served as mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, from 1953 to 1962, as secretary of health, education, and welfare from 1962 to 1965, and as an appellate judge from 1965 to 1995; in his Cabinet position he helped guide a number of important New

  • Celebrity (film by Allen [1998])

    Woody Allen: The 1990s: Celebrity (1998) followed. Shot in black-and-white by Nykvist—with a cast that included Kenneth Branagh, Leonardo DiCaprio, Winona Ryder, Charlize Theron, and Joe Mantegna—the film looked great but was considered a minor entry in Allen’s oeuvre. In the more-focused Sweet and Lowdown (1999), Sean Penn turned…

  • Celebrity Apprentice, The (American television series)

    Mark Burnett: …catchphrase—and in 2008 Burnett created The Celebrity Apprentice, which featured well-known entertainers and other public figures, such as comedian Joan Rivers and journalist Piers Morgan, as contestants.

  • Celebrity Skin (album by Hole)

    Courtney Love: In 1998 Hole released Celebrity Skin, a commercial and critical success, but the group disbanded in May 2002.

  • celecoxib (drug)
  • celempung (musical instrument)

    Southeast Asian arts: Java: …xylophone (gambang), the zither (celempung) with 26 strings tuned in pairs, an end-blown flute (suling), and a 2-stringed lute (called a rebab by the Javanese), which leads the orchestra. In loud-sounding music, the soft-sounding instruments are not played, and the drum (kendang) leads the orchestra. The third group provides…

  • Celer, Quintus Caecilius Metellus (Roman politician)

    Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer, a leading Roman politician of the late 60s bc who became an opponent of Pompey the Great, the Catilinarian conspiracy (see Catiline), and the formation of the secret political agreement of Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Marcus Crassus. Adopted from one branch of the

  • Celera Genomics (American company)

    Francis Collins: …questioned when a rival operation, Celera Genomics, emerged in 1998 and appeared to be working even faster than the HGP at deciphering the human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence. Headed by American geneticist and businessman J. Craig Venter, a former NIH scientist, Celera had devised its own, quicker method—though some scientists,…

  • celeriac (vegetable)

    Celeriac, Type of celery (Apium graveolens, variety rapaceum) grown for its knobby edible root, which is used as a raw or cooked vegetable. Originally cultivated in the Mediterranean and in northern Europe, it was introduced into Britain in the 18th

  • celery (plant)

    Celery, (Apium graveolens), herbaceous plant of the parsley family (Apiaceae). Celery is usually eaten cooked as a vegetable or as a delicate flavouring in a variety of stocks, casseroles, and soups. In the United States raw celery is served by itself or with spreads or dips as an appetizer and in

  • celery cabbage (plant)

    Napa cabbage, (Brassica rapa, variety pekinensis), form of Chinese cabbage, belonging to the mustard family (Brassicaceae), cultivated for its edible leaves. Napa cabbage is widely grown in eastern Asia and is commonly used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean dish made of spicy fermented

  • celery pine (plant)

    Podocarpaceae: In the genus Phyllocladus, the foliar leaves are replaced by flattened branchlets (phylloclades) resembling leaves. The staminate, or pollen-bearing, cones are borne in a terminal or axillary position on leafy twigs; the ovulate, or seed-bearing, cones at maturity become fleshy and sometimes brightly coloured and surmount the fleshy…

  • celery root (vegetable)

    Celeriac, Type of celery (Apium graveolens, variety rapaceum) grown for its knobby edible root, which is used as a raw or cooked vegetable. Originally cultivated in the Mediterranean and in northern Europe, it was introduced into Britain in the 18th

  • celery seed (spice)
  • celery, wild (plant)

    Smallage, (Apium graveolens), wild celery; strongly scented, erect, biennial herb of the carrot family (Apiaceae, or Umbelliferae) widely distributed in moist places within the temperate zones, and grown for use as a flavouring similar to celery. In traditional medicine, smallage roots are used as

  • celery-top pine (plant)

    Celery-top pine, (Phyllocladus aspleniifolius), slow-growing ornamental and timber conifer (family Podocarpaceae), native to temperate rainforests of Tasmania at elevations from sea level to 750 metres (2,500 feet). The dense golden-brown wood is used in fine furniture. The tree is shrubby at high

  • celesta (musical instrument)

    Celesta, orchestral percussion instrument resembling a small upright piano, patented by a Parisian, Auguste Mustel, in 1886. It consists of a series of small metal bars (and hence is a metallophone) with a keyboard and a simplified piano action in which small felt hammers strike the bars. Each bar

  • celeste (musical instrument)

    Celesta, orchestral percussion instrument resembling a small upright piano, patented by a Parisian, Auguste Mustel, in 1886. It consists of a series of small metal bars (and hence is a metallophone) with a keyboard and a simplified piano action in which small felt hammers strike the bars. Each bar

  • Celeste, Richard (American politician)

    Michael Bennet: Richard Celeste, he went to Yale Law School, where he served as editor of The Yale Law Journal before graduating in 1993. Bennet then worked as a clerk for the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals and later served as counsel (1995–97) to the U.S. deputy…

  • celestial coordinate system (astronomy)

    Celestial coordinates, Set of numbers used to pinpoint the position in the sky (see celestial sphere) of a celestial object. Coordinate systems used include the horizon system (altitude and azimuth), galactic coordinates, the ecliptic system (measured relative to the orbital plane of Earth), and

  • celestial coordinates (astronomy)

    Celestial coordinates, Set of numbers used to pinpoint the position in the sky (see celestial sphere) of a celestial object. Coordinate systems used include the horizon system (altitude and azimuth), galactic coordinates, the ecliptic system (measured relative to the orbital plane of Earth), and

  • Celestial Dragon (Chinese mythology)

    long: …dragons: the Celestial Dragon (Tianlong), who guards the heavenly dwellings of the gods; the Dragon of Hidden Treasure (Fuzanglong); the Earth Dragon (Dilong), who controls the waterways; and the Spiritual Dragon (Shenlong), who controls the rain and winds. In popular belief only the latter two were significant; they were…

  • celestial equator (astronomy)

    Equator: celestial equator is the great circle in which the plane of the terrestrial Equator intersects the celestial sphere; it consequently is equidistant from the celestial poles. When the Sun lies in its plane, day and night are everywhere of equal length, a twice-per-year occurrence known…

  • celestial globe (astronomy)

    Celestial globe, representation of stars and constellations as they are located on the apparent sphere of the sky. Celestial globes are used for some astronomical or astrological calculations or as ornaments. Some globes were made in ancient Greece; Thales of Miletus (fl. 6th century bce) is

  • Celestial Harmonies (work by Esterházy)

    Hungarian literature: Writing after 1945: …internationally for Harmonia Caelestis (2000; Celestial Harmonies), which chronicles some seven centuries of his own distinguished family’s history. Esterházy’s Semmi művészet (2008; Not Art: A Novel) depicts a football- (soccer-) obsessed mother’s relationship with her son.

  • celestial latitude (astronomy)

    astronomical map: The ecliptic system: Celestial longitude and latitude are defined with respect to the ecliptic and ecliptic poles. Celestial longitude is measured eastward from the ascending intersection of the ecliptic with the equator, a position known as the “first point of Aries,” and the place of the Sun at the time of…

  • celestial longitude (astronomy)

    astronomical map: The ecliptic system: Celestial longitude is measured eastward from the ascending intersection of the ecliptic with the equator, a position known as the “first point of Aries,” and the place of the Sun at the time of the vernal equinox about March 21. The first point of Aries…

  • Celestial Masters, Way of the (Daoism)

    Tianshidao, (Chinese: “Way of the Celestial Masters”) great popular Daoist movement that occurred near the end of China’s Han dynasty (206 bce–220 ce) and greatly weakened the government. The Tianshidao movement became a prototype of the religiously inspired popular rebellions that were to erupt

  • Celestial Mechanics (work by Laplace)

    Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace: …Traité de mécanique céleste (Celestial Mechanics), appearing in five volumes between 1798 and 1827, summarized the results obtained by his mathematical development and application of the law of gravitation. He offered a complete mechanical interpretation of the solar system by devising methods for calculating the motions of the planets…

  • celestial mechanics (physics)

    Celestial mechanics, in the broadest sense, the application of classical mechanics to the motion of celestial bodies acted on by any of several types of forces. By far the most important force experienced by these bodies, and much of the time the only important force, is that of their mutual

  • celestial meridian (astronomy)

    telescope: Astronomical transit instruments: The observer’s meridian is a great circle on the celestial sphere that passes through the north and south points of the horizon as well as through the zenith of the observer. Restricting the telescope to motion only in the meridian provides an added degree of stability, but…

  • celestial motion

    Milky Way Galaxy: Stellar motions: …complete knowledge of a star’s motion in space is possible only when both its proper motion and radial velocity can be measured. Proper motion is the motion of a star across an observer’s line of sight and constitutes the rate at which the direction of the star changes in the…

  • Celestial Mountains (mountains, Asia)

    Tien Shan, great mountain system of Central Asia. Its name is Chinese for “Celestial Mountains.” Stretching about 1,500 miles (2,500 km) from west-southwest to east-northeast, it mainly straddles the border between China and Kyrgyzstan and bisects the ancient territory of Turkistan. It is about 300

  • Celestial Navigation (novel by Tyler)

    Anne Tyler: …not until the appearance of Celestial Navigation (1974) and Searching for Caleb (1975) that Tyler came to nationwide attention.

  • celestial navigation

    Celestial navigation, use of the observed positions of celestial bodies to determine a navigator’s position. At any moment some celestial body is at the zenith of any particular location on the Earth’s surface. This location is called the ground position (GP). GP can thus be stated in terms of

  • celestial photography

    Max Wolf: …Heidelberg), German astronomer who applied photography to the search for asteroids and discovered 228 of them.

  • celestial pole (astronomy)

    astronomical map: The celestial sphere: …about a northern or southern celestial pole, the projection into space of Earth’s own poles. Equidistant from the two poles is the celestial equator; this great circle is the projection into space of Earth’s Equator.

  • Celestial Railroad, The (short story by Hawthorne)

    The Celestial Railroad, allegorical short story by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne, published in 1843 and included in his short-story collection Mosses from an Old Manse (1846). Following the path of Christian in John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress, the narrator travels from the City of

  • celestial sphere (astronomy)

    Celestial sphere, the apparent surface of the heavens, on which the stars seem to be fixed. For the purpose of establishing coordinate systems to mark the positions of heavenly bodies, it can be considered a real sphere at an infinite distance from the Earth. The Earth’s axis, extended to infinity,

  • celestial unknown, method of (mathematics)

    East Asian mathematics: The method of the celestial unknown: Li Ye’s book also contains a method, unknown to Qin Jiushao, that seems to have flourished in North China for some decades before Li completed “Sea Mirror of Circle Measurements.” This method explains how to use polynomial arithmetic to find…

  • celestina (musical instrument)

    keyboard instrument: Related stringed keyboard instruments: …1772 a device called a celestina was patented by Adam Walker of London; it employed a continuous horsehair ribbon (kept in motion by a treadle) to rub the strings of a harpsichord. Thomas Jefferson, who ordered a harpsichord equipped with a celestina in 1786, commented that it was suitable for…

  • Celestina, La (novel by Rojas)

    La Celestina, Spanish dialogue novel, generally considered the first masterpiece of Spanish prose and the greatest and most influential work of the early Renaissance in Spain. Originally published in 16 acts as the Comedia de Calisto y Melibea (1499; “Comedy of Calisto and Melibea”) and shortly

  • celestine (mineral)

    Celestine, mineral that is a naturally occurring form of strontium sulfate (SrSO4). It resembles barite, barium sulfate, but is much less common. Barium is interchangeable with strontium in the crystal structure; there is a gradation between celestine and barite. Celestine occurs in sedimentary

  • Celestine I, Saint (pope)

    Saint Celestine I, ; feast day July 27, Irish feast day April 6), pope from 422 to 432. He was a Roman deacon when elected on Sept. 10, 422, to succeed Boniface I. His pontificate is noted for its vigorous attack on Nestorianism, the unorthodox teaching of Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople,

  • Celestine II (papal candidate)

    Celestine (II), pope who was elected in December 1124 but resigned a few days later and is not counted in the official list of popes. After the death of Calixtus II, the rival houses of Frangipani and Pierleoni struggled for the papal throne. The Pierleonis’ candidate, Theobald (who would have been

  • Celestine II (pope)

    Celestine II, pope from 1143 to 1144. A scholar of noble birth, he studied under Peter Abélard, with whom he remained on friendly terms even after Abélard’s condemnation at the Council of Sens (1140). He was made cardinal deacon in 1127 by Pope Honorius II and cardinal priest (c. 1134) by Pope

  • Celestine III (pope)

    Celestine III, pope from 1191 to 1198. He was Peter Abélard’s student and friend, and he carried out many important legations in Germany, Spain, and Portugal; St. Thomas Becket considered him his most reliable friend at the Roman Curia. He had been cardinal deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Italy,

  • Celestine IV (pope)

    Celestine IV, pope from October 25 to Nov. 10, 1241. The nephew of Pope Urban III, Celestine had been made cardinal priest of St. Mark’s in 1227 and cardinal bishop of Sabina in 1239 by his predecessor, Gregory IX, whom he was elected to succeed on Oct. 25, 1241. He was the first pope to be elected

  • Celestine V, Saint (pope)

    Saint Celestine V, ; canonized May 5, 1313; feast day May 19), pope from July 5 to Dec. 13, 1294, the first pontiff to abdicate. He founded the Celestine order. Pietro was a Benedictine in his youth but soon became a hermit and lived in the Abruzzi Mountains, near Sulmona. His rigorous asceticism

  • celestite (mineral)

    Celestine, mineral that is a naturally occurring form of strontium sulfate (SrSO4). It resembles barite, barium sulfate, but is much less common. Barium is interchangeable with strontium in the crystal structure; there is a gradation between celestine and barite. Celestine occurs in sedimentary

  • Celestius (Pelagian theologian)

    Celestius, one of the first and probably the most outstanding of the disciples of the British theologian Pelagius (q.v.). Like Pelagius, Celestius was practicing law in Rome when they met. In reaction to contemporary immorality, they turned from temporal to religious pursuits, and their reforming

  • Celetrum (Greece)

    Kastoría, town and dímos (municipality), West Macedonia (Modern Greek: Dytikí Makedonía) periféreia (region), northern Greece. The town stands on a promontory reaching out from the western shore of Lake Kastorías. The lake is formed in a deep hollow that is surrounded by limestone mountains. The

  • CELF6 (gene)

    autism: Neuropathology: …involving a gene known as CELF6. Loss of function of this gene in mice has been linked to sharp declines in serotonin levels and autism-like behaviours, including deficits in communication and learning.

  • Celi, Adolfo (Italian actor and director)

    Thunderball: …he meets Emilio Largo (Adolfo Celi), a rich aristocrat who is in reality the second in command of SPECTRE. When Bond reveals to Largo’s mistress, Domino (Claudine Auger), that Largo had her brother, a NATO pilot, killed, she agrees to help him locate the bombs. Although Bond does find…

  • celiac artery (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: The aorta and its principal branches: The celiac artery arises from the aorta a short distance below the diaphragm and almost immediately divides into the left gastric artery, serving part of the stomach and esophagus; the hepatic artery, which primarily serves the liver; and the splenic artery, which supplies the stomach, pancreas,…

  • celiac disease (autoimmune digestive disorder)

    Celiac disease, an inherited autoimmune digestive disorder in which affected individuals cannot tolerate gluten, a protein constituent of wheat, barley, malt, and rye flours. General symptoms of the disease include the passage of foul pale-coloured stools (steatorrhea), progressive malnutrition,

  • celiac ganglion (physiology)

    human nervous system: Sympathetic ganglia: Thus, the celiac ganglion innervates the stomach, liver, pancreas, and the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine; the superior mesenteric ganglion innervates the small intestine; and the inferior mesenteric ganglion innervates the descending colon,

  • celiac sprue (autoimmune digestive disorder)

    Celiac disease, an inherited autoimmune digestive disorder in which affected individuals cannot tolerate gluten, a protein constituent of wheat, barley, malt, and rye flours. General symptoms of the disease include the passage of foul pale-coloured stools (steatorrhea), progressive malnutrition,

  • celiac trunk (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: The aorta and its principal branches: The celiac artery arises from the aorta a short distance below the diaphragm and almost immediately divides into the left gastric artery, serving part of the stomach and esophagus; the hepatic artery, which primarily serves the liver; and the splenic artery, which supplies the stomach, pancreas,…

  • celibacy

    Celibacy, the state of being unmarried and, therefore, sexually abstinent, usually in association with the role of a religious official or devotee. In its narrow sense, the term is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow, act of renunciation, or religious

  • Celibidache, Sergiu (German conductor)

    Sergiu Celibidache, Romanian-born German conductor (born June 28, 1912, Roman, Rom.—died Aug. 14, 1996, Paris, France), noted for both his perfectionism, which occasioned numerous rehearsals, and his opposition to recording music; from 1979 he was the director of the Munich

  • Céline (French company)

    Phoebe Philo: …creative director of LVMH’s languishing Céline brand and a board membership, and she accepted, after stipulating that she would lead the Parisian fashion house from her London home and have complete creative control. Her timeless designs for Céline combined luxury with practicality and wearability and translated effortlessly from the runway…

  • Céline, Louis-Ferdinand (French writer)

    Louis-Ferdinand Céline, French writer and physician who, while admired for his talent, is better known for his anti-Semitism and misanthropy. Céline received his medical degree in 1924 and traveled extensively on medical missions for the League of Nations. In 1928 he opened a practice in a suburb

  • Celinograd (national capital, Kazakhstan)

    Nursultan, city, capital of Kazakhstan. Nursultan lies in the north-central part of the country, along the Ishim River, at the junction of the Trans-Kazakhstan and South Siberian railways. It was founded in 1824 as a Russian military outpost and became an administrative centre in 1868. Its

  • celiotomy (surgery)

    Laparotomy, opening of the abdominal (or peritoneal) cavity. After laparotomy became reasonably safe, the whole field of abdominal surgery unfolded. Laparotomy requires (1) a safe cutting into the abdominal cavity through the skin, fat, muscles, muscular aponeuroses, and peritoneum in that order

  • Celje (Slovenia)

    Celje, city, central Slovenia, on the Savinja River about 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Ljubljana, Slovenia’s capital. Founded as Claudia Celeia by the Roman emperor Claudius in the 1st century ce, it was home in the 3rd century to a Christian bishop later canonized as St. Maximilian. It later

  • Cell (novel by King)

    Stephen King: …1995); Dreamcatcher (2001; film 2003); Cell and Lisey’s Story (both 2006); Duma Key (2008); Under the Dome (2009; TV series 2013–15); 11/22/63 (2011; TV miniseries 2016); Joyland (2013); Doctor Sleep (2013; film 2019), a sequel to The Shining;

  • cell (electronics)

    Cell, in electricity, unit structure used to generate an electrical current by some means other than the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field. A solar cell, for example, consists of a semiconductor junction that converts sunlight directly into electricity. A dry cell is a chemical battery in

  • cell (biology)

    Cell, in biology, the basic membrane-bound unit that contains the fundamental molecules of life and of which all living things are composed. A single cell is often a complete organism in itself, such as a bacterium or yeast. Other cells acquire specialized functions as they mature. These cells

  • Cell 2455, Death Row (work by Chessman)

    Caryl Chessman: …appeals and wrote four books—Cell 2455, Death Row (1954; expanded ed. 1960), Trial by Ordeal (1955), The Face of Justice (1957), and The Kid Was a Killer (1960), a novel—that brought his case to widespread public attention. (Cell 2455, Death Row was also filmed.)

  • cell adhesion molecule (biochemistry)

    Gerald Maurice Edelman: …1975 he discovered substances called cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), which “glue” cells together to form tissues. Edelman found that, as the brain develops, CAMs bind neurons together to form the brain’s basic circuitry. His work led to the construction of a general theory of brain development and function called neuronal…

  • cell animation (motion-picture production)

    motion-picture technology: Figural basis of animation: The development of cel (or cell) animation permitted the phased movements of the figures to be traced onto a succession of transparent celluloid sheets and superimposed, in turn, onto a single static drawing representing the background. With this technique the background could be drawn in somewhat greater detail…

  • cell biology (biology)

    Cytology, the study of cells as fundamental units of living things. The earliest phase of cytology began with the English scientist Robert Hooke’s microscopic investigations of cork in 1665. He observed dead cork cells and introduced the term “cell” to describe them. In the 19th century two

  • Cell Broadband Engine (computer chip)

    IBM: …Corporation of Japan, designed the Cell Broadband Engine. Developed over a four-year period beginning in 2001, this advanced computer chip has multiple applications, from supercomputers to Toshiba high-definition televisions to the Sony Playstation 3 electronic game system. IBM also designed the computer chips for the Microsoft Corporation Xbox 360 and…

  • cell colony (biology)
  • cell culture (biology)

    Cell culture, the maintenance and growth of the cells of multicellular organisms outside the body in specially designed containers and under precise conditions of temperature, humidity, nutrition, and freedom from contamination. In a broad sense, cells, tissues, and organs that are isolated and

  • cell cycle (biology)

    Cell cycle, the ordered sequence of events that occur in a cell in preparation for cell division. The cell cycle is a four-stage process in which the cell increases in size (gap 1, or G1, stage), copies its DNA (synthesis, or S, stage), prepares to divide (gap 2, or G2, stage), and divides

  • cell deletion (cytology)

    death: Cell death: …called apoptosis and in invertebrates, cell deletion. Programmed cell death plays an important role in vertebrate ontogeny (embryological development) and teratogenesis (the production of malformations), as well as in the spectacular metamorphoses that affect tadpoles or caterpillars. Such programmed events are essential if the organism as a whole is to…

  • cell determination (biology)

    cell: Intercellular communication: …depends on a process called cell determination, in which initially identical cells become committed to different pathways of development. A fundamental part of cell determination is the ability of cells to detect different chemicals within different regions of the embryo. The chemical signals detected by one cell may be different…

  • cell differentiation (biology)

    cell: Cell differentiation: Adult organisms are composed of a number of distinct cell types. Cells are organized into tissues, each of which typically contains a small number of cell types and is devoted to a specific physiological function. For example, the epithelial tissue lining the small intestine…

  • cell division (biology)

    Cell division, the process by which cells reproduce. See meiosis;

  • Cell Growth and Cell Function (work by Caspersson)

    Torbjörn Oskar Caspersson: In Cell Growth and Cell Function (1950) Caspersson summarized much of his research by theorizing that RNA must be present for protein synthesis to occur. He was the first to perform cytochemical studies on the giant chromosomes found in insect larvae. He also investigated the role…

  • Cell in Development and Inheritance (work by Wilson)

    Edmund Beecher Wilson: …cellular organization; publication of his Cell in Development and Inheritance (1896) deeply influenced the trend of biological thought. The problem of sex determination became his next concern, and his cytological studies, culminating in a series of papers on the relation of chromosomes to the determination of sex, the first published…

  • cell junction (biology)

    cell: Tissue and species recognition: …adhesion is carried out by cell junctions.

  • cell membrane (biology)

    Cell membrane, thin membrane that surrounds every living cell, delimiting the cell from the environment around it. Enclosed by this cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane) are the cell’s constituents, often large, water-soluble, highly charged molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids,

  • cell of Mauthner (anatomy)

    nervous system: Encephalization: …of giant cells called the cells of Mauthner, which exert some control over the local spinal-cord reflexes responsible for the rhythmic swimming undulations and the flip-tail escape response characteristic of these animals.

  • cell phone (communications)

    Cell phone, wireless telephone that permits telecommunication within a defined area that may include hundreds of square miles, using radio waves in the 800–900 megahertz (MHz) band. To implement a cell-phone system, a geographic area is broken into smaller areas, or cells, usually mapped as uniform

  • cell plate (biology)

    cell: Mitosis and cytokinesis: …new cell wall, called the cell plate, between the two daughter cells. The cell plate arises from small Golgi-derived vesicles that coalesce in a plane across the equator of the late telophase spindle to form a disk-shaped structure. In this process, each vesicle contributes its membrane to the forming cell…

  • cell reproduction (biology)

    Cell division, the process by which cells reproduce. See meiosis;

  • cell respiration (biochemistry)

    Cellular respiration, the process by which organisms combine oxygen with foodstuff molecules, diverting the chemical energy in these substances into life-sustaining activities and discarding, as waste products, carbon dioxide and water. Organisms that do not depend on oxygen degrade foodstuffs in a

  • cell surface antigen

    blood group: The importance of antigens and antibodies: antigens on the surfaces of these red cells are often referred to as agglutinogens.

  • cell system (biology)

    Cell, in biology, the basic membrane-bound unit that contains the fundamental molecules of life and of which all living things are composed. A single cell is often a complete organism in itself, such as a bacterium or yeast. Other cells acquire specialized functions as they mature. These cells

  • cell theory (biology)

    zoology: Cellular and molecular biology: The so-called cell theory, which was enunciated about 1838, was never actually a theory. As Edmund Beecher Wilson, the noted American cytologist, stated in his great work, The Cell,

  • cell wall (plant anatomy)

    Cell wall, specialized form of extracellular matrix that surrounds every cell of a plant. The cell wall is responsible for many of the characteristics that distinguish plant cells from animal cells. Although often perceived as an inactive product serving mainly mechanical and structural purposes,

  • cell wall (cellular structure)

    archaea: Characteristics of the archaea: Cell walls: virtually all bacteria contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls; however, archaea and eukaryotes lack peptidoglycan. Various types of cell walls exist in the archaea. Therefore, the absence or presence of peptidoglycan is a distinguishing feature between the archaea and bacteria. 2. Fatty acids:…

  • cell, electrolytic (device)

    Electrolytic cell, any device in which electrical energy is converted to chemical energy, or vice versa. Such a cell typically consists of two metallic or electronic conductors (electrodes) held apart from each other and in contact with an electrolyte (q.v.), usually a dissolved or fused ionic

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