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  • Cause of the Crime, The (work by Frank)

    Leonhard Frank: …also published Die Ursache (1915; The Cause of the Crime), an attack on repressive educational systems, and Der Mensch ist gut (1917; “Man Is Good”), a revolutionary denunciation of war.

  • causerie (literature)

    Causerie, (French: “chat” or “conversation”) in literature, a short informal essay, often on a literary topic. This sense of the word is derived from the title of a series of essays by the French critic Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve entitled Causeries du lundi

  • Causeries du lundi (essays by Sainte-Beuve)

    Causeries du lundi, (French: “Monday Chats”) series of informal essays by Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve. The 640 critical and biographical essays on literary topics and French and other European authors were published weekly in several Paris newspapers, on Mondays, over the course of 20 years from

  • Causes (work by Callimachus)

    Callimachus: …interests, was the Aitia (Causes), probably produced between 270 and 245 bce. This work is a narrative elegy in four books, containing a medley of recondite tales from Greek mythology and history by which the author seeks to explain the legendary origin of obscure customs, festivals, and names. The…

  • Causes (American organization)

    Sean Parker: …and activist Joe Green founded Causes, which developed an application for Facebook users to mobilize groups of people for the purposes of advocacy and to solicit donations for philanthropic purposes. (Causes was also a client of the Founders Fund.) In 2010 the Founders Fund invested in Spotify, a Swedish digital…

  • Causes and Consequences (work by Chapman)

    John Jay Chapman: …these activities came two books—Causes and Consequences (1898) and Practical Agitation (1900). Both stressed his belief that individuals should take a moral stand on issues troubling the nation.

  • Causes of Delinquency (work by Hirschi)

    Travis Hirschi: In Causes of Delinquency (1969)—a groundbreaking work that had a profound influence on criminology during the next three decades—Hirschi argued that delinquency can be explained by the absence of social bonds. According to Hirschi, social attachments (e.g., to parents, teachers, and peers), involvement in conventional activities,…

  • Causes of Evolution, The (work by Haldane)

    inclusive fitness: Haldane in The Causes of Evolution. The theory was later named and developed by British evolutionary biologist William Donald Hamilton, who used inclusive fitness to explain direct (reproductive) and indirect (aided by a relative or a colony member) inheritance of genetic traits associated with altruism. Hamilton presented…

  • Causes of the Indian Revolt, The (work by Ahmad Khan)

    Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: …important was his pamphlet, “The Causes of the Indian Revolt.” During the Indian Mutiny of 1857 he had taken the side of the British, but in this booklet he ably and fearlessly laid bare the weaknesses and errors of the British administration that had led to dissatisfaction and a countrywide…

  • Causeway Coast and Glens (district, Northern Ireland)

    Causeway Coast and Glens, district, northern Northern Ireland. It is bordered to the north by the Atlantic Ocean, to the northeast by the North Channel, to the southeast by the Mid and East Antrim district, to the south by the Mid Ulster district, to the southwest by the Derry City and Strabane

  • Causses (geological formation, France)

    Causses, gorge-gouged limestone plateaus of southwestern France. The name is from cau, local form of chaux, meaning “lime.” At elevations of from 3,000 to 4,000 ft (900 to 1,200 m), the Grands-Causses form part of the Massif Central and occupy parts of Aveyron and Lozère départements. Lower

  • caustic potash (chemical compound)

    potassium: …element (1807) by decomposing molten potassium hydroxide (KOH) with a voltaic battery.

  • caustic soda (chemical compound)

    fat and oil processing: Alkali refining: …solution of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) or soda ash (sodium carbonate). The refining may be done in a tank (in which case it is called batch or tank refining) or in a continuous system. In batch refining, the aqueous emulsion of soaps formed from free fatty acids, along with…

  • Causus (snake)

    adder: Night adders (Causus) are small relatively slender vipers found south of the Sahara and are typically less than 1 metre (3 feet) long. They are active at night and feed nearly exclusively on frogs and toads.

  • Cautela, Joseph (American psychologist)

    aversion therapy: …conditioning, developed by American psychologist Joseph Cautela, images of undesirable behaviour (e.g., smoking) are paired with images of aversive stimuli (e.g., nausea and vomiting) in a systematic sequence designed to reduce the positive cues that had been associated with the behaviour. (See conditioning.)

  • Cauthen, Steve (American jockey)

    Affirmed: Triple Crown: 1978: Affirmed, ridden by jockey Steve Cauthen, took the lead at the second turn of the Churchill Downs track and was never passed. Alydar, meanwhile, appeared to have trouble holding the track and dropped off the pack, falling 17 lengths behind before staging a remarkable finishing drive that left him…

  • Cautionary Tales (work by Belloc)

    Hilaire Belloc: Cautionary Tales, another book of humorous verse for children, which parodied some Victorian pomposities, appeared in 1907. His Danton (1899) and Robespierre (1901) proved his lively historical sense and powerful prose style. Lambkin’s Remains (1900) and Mr. Burden (1904) showed his mastery of satire and…

  • cautiva, La (work by Echeverría)

    Esteban Echeverría: Echeverría’s La cautiva (“The Captive Woman”), a long narrative poem about a white woman abducted by the Indians, is also among the better-known works of 19th-century Latin American literature.

  • Cauto River (river, Cuba)

    Cauto River, river in Granma and Santiago de Cuba provinces, eastern Cuba. The island’s longest river, it flows for 230 mi (370 km) from its source in the Sierra Maestra westward through alluvial swamps into the Golfo (gulf ) de Guacanayabo. Its tributaries include the Salado, Bayamo, and

  • Cauvery River (river, India)

    Kaveri River, sacred river of southern India. It rises on Brahmagiri Hill of the Western Ghats in southwestern Karnataka state, flows in a southeasterly direction for 475 miles (765 km) through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, and descends the Eastern Ghats in a series of great falls. Before

  • Cauvin, Jean (French theologian)

    John Calvin, theologian and ecclesiastical statesman. He was the leading French Protestant reformer and the most important figure in the second generation of the Protestant Reformation. His interpretation of Christianity, advanced above all in his Institutio Christianae religionis (1536 but

  • cava (beverage)

    Kava, nonalcoholic, euphoria-producing beverage made from the root of the pepper plant, principally Piper methysticum, in most of the South Pacific islands. It is yellow-green in colour and somewhat bitter, and the active ingredient is apparently alkaloidal in nature. Consumption of the beverage

  • Cava de’ Tirreni (Italy)

    Cava de’ Tirreni, town and episcopal see, Campania region, southern Italy, in a rich cultivated valley surrounded by hills, just northwest of Salerno city. Cylindrical towers on the hills are used for shooting pigeons, a tradition derived from Lombardy. Just southwest is the village of Corpo di

  • Cavaco Silva, Aníbal (president of Portugal)

    Aníbal Cavaco Silva, Portuguese politician who served as the country’s president (2006–16) and prime minister (1985–95). Cavaco Silva also served as finance minister (1980–81). A member of the centre-right Social Democratic Party, Cavaco Silva rose to power after a 1985 election that featured an

  • Cavafy, Constantine P. (Greek writer)

    Constantine P. Cavafy, Greek poet who developed his own consciously individual style and thus became one of the most important figures not only in Greek poetry but in Western poetry as well. He lived most of his life in Alexandria, Egypt, loved English and French literature, and generally spoke

  • Cavafy, Constantine Petrou (Greek writer)

    Constantine P. Cavafy, Greek poet who developed his own consciously individual style and thus became one of the most important figures not only in Greek poetry but in Western poetry as well. He lived most of his life in Alexandria, Egypt, loved English and French literature, and generally spoke

  • Cavagnari, Sir Louis (British diplomat)

    India: The Second Anglo-Afghan War: …foreign relations, but the resident, Sir Louis Cavagnari, was assassinated on September 3, 1879, just two months after he arrived. British troops trudged back over the passes to Kabul and removed Yaʿqūb from the throne, which remained vacant until July 1880, when ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Khan, nephew of Shīr ʿAlī, became…

  • Cavagnoud, Régine (French skier)

    Régine Cavagnoud, French skier (born June 27, 1970, La Clusaz, France—died Oct. 31, 2001, Vienna, Austria), was one of France’s finest young Alpine skiers and a top prospect for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. Cavagnoud first qualified for the World Cup circuit in December 1994. Despite recurrent i

  • Cavaignac, Louis-Eugène (French general)

    Louis-Eugène Cavaignac, French general and chief executive during the Revolution of 1848, known for his harsh reprisals against rebelling Parisian workers in June of that year. Cavaignac’s father, Jean-Baptiste, was a Jacobin member of the Committee of General Security during the French Revolution

  • Cavaillé-Coll, Aristide (French organ maker)

    Aristide Cavaillé-Coll, distinguished French organ builder and initiator of the orchestral style of French organ building and composing. Descended from a family of organ builders and a talented protégé of his father, Dominique, a well-known builder of Languedoc, he early became a competent and

  • Cavalcade (play by Coward)

    Noël Coward: …patriotic pageant of British history, Cavalcade (1931), traced an English family from the time of the South African (Boer) War through the end of World War I. Other successes included Tonight at Eight-thirty (1936), a group of one-act plays performed by Coward and Gertrude Lawrence, with whom he often played.…

  • Cavalcade (film by Lloyd [1933])

    Frank Lloyd: …earned even more accolades for Cavalcade (1933), an epic drama based on a Noël Coward play that chronicles the effect of world events on two British families. It won an Academy Award for best picture, and Lloyd received the Oscar for best director. His next film was the evocative fantasy…

  • Cavalcade of Stars (American television show)

    DuMont Television Network: …Peabody Award-winning educational program; and Cavalcade of Stars (1949–52), on which comedian Jackie Gleason introduced the sketches that evolved into The Honeymooners series on CBS.

  • Cavalcanti, Alberto (Brazilian director)

    Alberto Cavalcanti, Brazilian-born director-producer, screenwriter, and art director of motion pictures in the mid-20th century who spent much of his career in Europe. Cavalcanti established his reputation as a documentary filmmaker in Britain during the 1930s and went on to produce some notable

  • Cavalcanti, Emiliano Di (Brazilian artist)

    Brazil: Visual arts: …his native land; the painter Emiliano Di Cavalcanti, a contemporary of Portinari, gained equal international renown. In 1922, seeking to break with the conservative past, Di Cavalcanti helped to organize Modern Art Week in São Paulo, which promoted a Modernist spirit in Brazilian art. Later in the 20th century, celebrated…

  • Cavalcanti, Guido (Italian poet)

    Guido Cavalcanti, Italian poet, a major figure among the Florentine poets who wrote in the dolce stil nuovo (“sweet new style”) and who is considered, next to Dante, the most striking poet and personality in 13th-century Italian literature. Born into an influential Florentine family of the Guelf

  • Cavalcaselle, Giovanni Battista (Italian writer)

    Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, writer on art and, with Giovanni Morelli, founder of modern Italian art-historical studies. A student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice, Cavalcaselle from early youth studied the art treasures of Italy. In Germany (1846–47), he met another art enthusiast, the

  • cavalier (English horseman)

    Cavalier, (from Late Latin caballarius, “horseman”), originally a rider or cavalryman; the term had the same derivation as the French chevalier. In English the word knight was at first generally used to imply the qualities of chivalry associated with the chevalier in French and with the kindred

  • Cavalier (English history (17th century))

    cavalier: In the English Civil Wars (1642–51), the name was adopted by Charles I’s supporters, who contemptuously called their opponents Roundheads; at the Restoration, the court party preserved the name Cavalier, which survived until the rise of the term Tory.

  • Cavalier King Charles spaniel (breed of dog)

    English toy spaniel: The Cavalier King Charles spaniel is a different breed, recognized in Britain and the United States. It appears in the same coat colours as the English toy spaniels, but it is larger (13 to 18 pounds [6 to 8 kg]) and has a longer muzzle. By…

  • Cavalier Parliament (English history)

    Cavalier Parliament, (May 8, 1661—Jan. 24, 1679), the first English Parliament after the Restoration of Charles II to the throne. It was originally enthusiastically royalist in tone, but over the years its membership changed and it became increasingly critical of many of Charles’s policies. The

  • Cavalier poets (English poetry group)

    Cavalier poet, any of a group of English gentlemen poets, called Cavaliers because of their loyalty to Charles I (1625–49) during the English Civil Wars, as opposed to Roundheads, who supported Parliament. They were also cavaliers in their style of life and counted the writing of polished and

  • Cavalier, Jean (French religious leader)

    Jean Cavalier, leader of the French Huguenot insurgents known as the Camisards from 1702 to 1704. The son of a Huguenot shepherd from the Languedoc region of southern France, Cavalier sought refuge in Geneva in 1701 to escape a wave of severe persecution of Protestants by the government of King

  • Cavalier-Smith, Tom (biologist)

    protist: Paraphyletic nature:

  • Cavaliere D’Arpino (Italian artist)

    Cavaliere D’Arpino, Italian painter of the post-Renaissance school known as Mannerism who helped to spread that school abroad. The painter began his career as a workshop assistant for the decoration of the Vatican Loggia, directed by Niccolo Circignani. The artists he encountered during this

  • Cavaliere Giovanni Lanfranchi, Il (Italian painter)

    Giovanni Lanfranco, Italian painter, an important follower of the Bolognese school. He was a pupil of Agostino Carracci in Parma (1600–02) and later studied with Annibale Carracci in Rome. A decisive influence on his work, however, was not just the Baroque classicism of the Carracci brothers but

  • cavaliere inesistente, Il (work by Calvino)

    Italo Calvino: … (1952; “The Cloven Viscount,” in The Nonexistent Knight & the Cloven Viscount), is an allegorical story of a man split in two—a good half and an evil half—by a cannon shot; he becomes whole through his love for a peasant girl. The second and most highly praised fantasy, Il barone…

  • Cavaliere, Emilio del (Italian composer)

    Emilio de’ Cavalieri, Italian composer and one of the earliest to compose dramatic music. A nobleman, he became supervisor of fine arts and entertainments at the court of the grand duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany. He was a member of the Camerata in Florence, a group whose theories gave rise to the

  • Cavalieri di Malta, Piazza de (plaza, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The Aventine: …gem is the Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta (“Knights of Malta Square”), designed in the late 1700s by Giambattista Piranesi, an engraver with the heart of a poet and the eye of an engineer. To the right of this obelisked and trophied square, set about with cypresses, is the residence…

  • Cavalieri’s principle (mathematics)

    Archimedes' Lost Method: …a method later known as Cavalieri’s principle, which involves slicing solids (whose volumes are to be compared) with a family of parallel planes. In particular, if each plane in the family cuts two solids into cross sections of equal area, then the two solids must have equal volume (see figure).…

  • Cavalieri, Bonaventura (Italian mathematician)

    Bonaventura Cavalieri, Italian mathematician who made developments in geometry that were precursors to integral calculus. As a boy Cavalieri joined the Jesuati, a religious order (sometimes called “Apostolic Clerics of St. Jerome”) that followed the rule of St. Augustine and was suppressed in 1668

  • Cavalieri, Emilio de’ (Italian composer)

    Emilio de’ Cavalieri, Italian composer and one of the earliest to compose dramatic music. A nobleman, he became supervisor of fine arts and entertainments at the court of the grand duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany. He was a member of the Camerata in Florence, a group whose theories gave rise to the

  • Cavalieri, Emilio dei (Italian composer)

    Emilio de’ Cavalieri, Italian composer and one of the earliest to compose dramatic music. A nobleman, he became supervisor of fine arts and entertainments at the court of the grand duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany. He was a member of the Camerata in Florence, a group whose theories gave rise to the

  • Cavalieri, Emilio del (Italian composer)

    Emilio de’ Cavalieri, Italian composer and one of the earliest to compose dramatic music. A nobleman, he became supervisor of fine arts and entertainments at the court of the grand duke Ferdinand I of Tuscany. He was a member of the Camerata in Florence, a group whose theories gave rise to the

  • Cavalieri, Francesco Bonaventura (Italian mathematician)

    Bonaventura Cavalieri, Italian mathematician who made developments in geometry that were precursors to integral calculus. As a boy Cavalieri joined the Jesuati, a religious order (sometimes called “Apostolic Clerics of St. Jerome”) that followed the rule of St. Augustine and was suppressed in 1668

  • Cavalieri, Tommaso (Italian poet)

    Michelangelo: Other projects and writing: …chiefly to the talented aristocrat Tommaso Cavalieri, later active in Roman civic affairs. These have naturally been interpreted as indications that Michelangelo was homosexual, but this interpretation seems implausible when one considers that no similar indications had emerged when the artist was younger. The correlation of these letters with other…

  • cavalla (fish)

    perciform: jacks, cavallas, and scads. The freshwater food and sport fishes of the perciform order include the sunfishes (Centrarchidae) and the perches and walleyes (Percidae). Many perciforms are popular aquarium fishes.

  • Cavalla River (river, Africa)

    Cavalla River, river in western Africa, rising north of the Nimba Range in Guinea and flowing south to form more than half of the Liberia–Côte d’Ivoire border. It enters the Gulf of Guinea 13 miles (21 km) east of Harper, Liberia, after a course of 320 miles (515 km). With its major tributaries

  • Cavalleria rusticana (opera by Mascagni)

    Cavalleria rusticana, (Italian: “Rustic Chivalry”) opera in one act by the Italian composer Pietro Mascagni (Italian libretto by Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci) that premiered in Rome on May 17, 1890. A short and intense work, it sets to music the Italian writer Giovanni Verga’s short

  • Cavalleria rusticana (work by Verga)

    Cavalleria rusticana, (Italian: “Rustic Chivalry”) short story by Giovanni Verga, written in verismo style and published in 1880. The author’s adaptation of the story into a one-act tragedy (produced in 1884) was his greatest success as a playwright. On his return to his village from army service,

  • Cavalli, Francesco (Italian composer)

    Francesco Cavalli, the most important Italian composer of opera in the mid-17th century. The son of Gian Battista Caletti-Bruni, he assumed the name of his Venetian patron Federico Cavalli. In December 1616 he became a singer in the choir of St. Mark’s, Venice, under Claudio Monteverdi, whose opera

  • Cavalli, Patrizia (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Poetry after World War II: Patrizia Cavalli’s work suggests the self-deprecating irony of Crepuscolarismo. Maurizio Cucchi was another Milanese poet and critic assimilable to the linea lombarda; when faced with the collapse of the greater constructs, he found solace in little things. Other poets of the era include the “neo-Orphic”…

  • Cavallini, Pietro (Italian artist)

    Pietro Cavallini, Roman fresco painter and mosaicist whose work represents the earliest significant attempt in Italian art to break with Byzantine stylizations and move toward a plastic, illusionistic depiction of figures and space. He was an important influence on the innovatory Florentine painter

  • Cavallino, Bernardo (Italian painter)

    Western painting: Early and High Baroque in Italy: …the period, Massimo Stanzione and Bernardo Cavallino, both died in the disastrous plague of 1654.

  • Cavallo, Domingo (Argentine economist and politician)

    Domingo Cavallo, Argentine economist and politician who served as economy minister of Argentina (1991–96, 2001). Cavallo was trained as a certified public accountant (1966) and earned master’s (1968) and doctoral (1969) degrees in economics from the National University of Córdoba. In 1977 he earned

  • Cavallo, Domingo Felipe (Argentine economist and politician)

    Domingo Cavallo, Argentine economist and politician who served as economy minister of Argentina (1991–96, 2001). Cavallo was trained as a certified public accountant (1966) and earned master’s (1968) and doctoral (1969) degrees in economics from the National University of Córdoba. In 1977 he earned

  • Cavallón, Juan de (Spanish military officer)

    Central America: Further conquest of the Indians: …Costa Rica until 1561, when Juan de Cavallón led a successful colonization expedition there. Although none of his settlements in the Nicoya Bay region survived, he and his men began the permanent Spanish occupation of Costa Rica. A year later Juan Vásquez de Coronado took over as governor of Nicaragua…

  • Cavallotti, Felice Carlo Emmanuele (Italian journalist and politician)

    Felice Cavallotti, left-wing, antimonarchist journalist and political leader, sometimes called Italy’s “Poet of the Democracy.” In 1860 he joined the Expedition of the Thousand volunteers who fought with the patriot general Giuseppe Garibaldi in Sicily, and he volunteered again in 1866. More

  • Cavally River (river, Africa)

    Cavalla River, river in western Africa, rising north of the Nimba Range in Guinea and flowing south to form more than half of the Liberia–Côte d’Ivoire border. It enters the Gulf of Guinea 13 miles (21 km) east of Harper, Liberia, after a course of 320 miles (515 km). With its major tributaries

  • cavalry (military unit)

    Cavalry, military force mounted on horseback, formerly an important element in the armies of all major powers. When employed as part of a combined military formation, its main duties included observing and reporting information about the enemy, screening movements of its own force, pursuing and

  • Cavalry Officer (work by Xenophon)

    Xenophon: Other writings: …horse ownership and riding, and Cavalry Commander is a somewhat unsystematic (but serious) discussion of how to improve the Athenian cavalry corps. Also Athenocentric is Ways and Means, a plan to alleviate the city’s financial problems (and remove excuses for aggressive imperialism) by paying citizens a dole from taxes on…

  • Cavan (racehorse)

    Tim Tam: Tim Tam moved behind Cavan in the homestretch and prepared to start his drive. The crowd erupted with an encouraging roar. Tim Tam’s jockey whipped the horse on the right flank, and the colt swerved out, finishing the race in second place, five and a half lengths behind the…

  • Cavan (county, Ireland)

    Cavan, county in the province of Ulster, northeastern Ireland. The town of Cavan, in the west-central part of the county, is the county seat. Cavan is bounded by Counties Monaghan (northeast), Meath, Westmeath, and Longford (south), and Leitrim (northwest). Northern Ireland lies to the north.

  • cavatina (music)

    Cavatina, musical form appearing in operas and occasionally in cantatas and instrumental music. In early 18th-century cantatas, notably those of J.S. Bach, the cavatina was a short, epigrammatic piece sometimes sung between the speech-like recitative and the more lyric arioso. In opera the cavatina

  • cave (geology)

    Cave, natural opening in the earth large enough for human exploration. Such a cavity is formed in many types of rock and by many processes. The largest and most common caves are those formed by chemical reaction between circulating groundwater and bedrock composed of limestone or dolomite. These

  • CAVE (computer science)

    virtual reality: Living in virtual worlds: …at Chicago presented the first Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). CAVE was a VR theatre, a cube with 10-foot-square walls onto which images were projected so that users were surrounded by sights and sounds. One or more people wearing lightweight stereoscopic glasses walked freely in the room, their head and…

  • Cave and Shadows (novel by Joaquin)

    Nick Joaquin: The action of the novel Cave and Shadows (1983) occurs in the period of martial law under Ferdinand Marcos. Joaquin’s other works include the short-story collections Tropical Gothic (1972) and Stories for Groovy Kids (1979), the play Tropical Baroque (1979), and the collections of poetry The Ballad of the Five…

  • cave art

    Cave art, generally, the numerous paintings and engravings found in European caves and shelters dating back to the Ice Age (Upper Paleolithic), roughly between 40,000 and 14,000 years ago. See also rock art. The first painted cave acknowledged as being Paleolithic, meaning from the Stone Age, was

  • Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (computer science)

    virtual reality: Living in virtual worlds: …at Chicago presented the first Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). CAVE was a VR theatre, a cube with 10-foot-square walls onto which images were projected so that users were surrounded by sights and sounds. One or more people wearing lightweight stereoscopic glasses walked freely in the room, their head and…

  • cave bear (extinct mammal)

    Cave bear, either of two extinct bear species, Ursus spelaeus and U. deningeri, notable for its habit of inhabiting caves, where its remains are frequently preserved. It is best known from late Pleistocene cave deposits (the Pleistocene Epoch lasted from 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago), although

  • cave cricket (insect)

    orthopteran: Ensifera (katydids, crickets, and camel crickets) and Caelifera (pygmy sand crickets, grasshoppers, and locusts) are considered to comprise the order Orthoptera. For completeness of discussion, all of these groups, handled here as four separate orders, are included in this article.

  • cave deposit (speleology)

    Cave deposit, any of the crystalline deposits that form in a solution cave after the creation of the cave itself. These deposits are generally composed of calcium carbonate dissolved from the surrounding limestone by groundwater. Carbon dioxide carried in the water is released as the water

  • cave fish (fish)

    Cave fish, any of the pale, blind, cave-dwelling fishes of the genera Amblyopsis and Typhlichthys, family Amblyopsidae. Cave fishes are small, growing to about 10 cm (4 inches) long, and are found in fresh water in dark limestone caves of the United States. There are three species: Typhlichthys

  • cave goby (fish)

    cave fish: The gobies in the genus Typhleotris inhabit karst caves in Madagascar. Others include Caecobarbus geertsi, an African member of the minnow family (Cyprinidae), and certain catfish belonging to several families and found in the United States, Mexico, South America, and Africa.

  • cave lion (mammal)

    lion: Distribution: …leo) of North Africa, the cave lion (P. leo spelaea) of Europe, the American lion (P. leo atrox) of North and Central America, and the Asiatic lion (P. leo persica) of the Middle East and India—starting about 124,000 years ago.

  • Cave of the Heart (ballet by Graham)

    Martha Graham: Maturity: Cave of the Heart (1946), based on the figure of Medea, with music by Samuel Barber, was not a dance version of the legend but rather an exposure of the Medea latent in every woman who, out of consuming jealousy, not only destroys those she…

  • cave painting

    Cave art, generally, the numerous paintings and engravings found in European caves and shelters dating back to the Ice Age (Upper Paleolithic), roughly between 40,000 and 14,000 years ago. See also rock art. The first painted cave acknowledged as being Paleolithic, meaning from the Stone Age, was

  • cave pearl (geological feature)

    Cave pearl, small, almost spherical concretion of calcite that is formed in a pool of water in a cave and is not attached to the surface on which it forms. Occasionally saturated water drips into small pools with such vigour that a stalagmite cannot form. A bit of foreign matter may become coated

  • cave system (geology)

    cave: Stagnation and decay phases: Larger cave systems often have complex patterns of superimposed passages that represent a long history of cave development. The oldest passages, usually but not necessarily those at the highest elevations, may have formed before the glaciations of the Quaternary. The youngest passages may be part of…

  • cave temple

    Chinese architecture: The Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) dynasties: Tang cave temples at Dunhuang were increasingly Sinicized, abandoning the Indianesque central pillar, the circumambulated focus of worship which in Six Dynasties caves was sculpted and painted on all four sides with Buddhist paradises. In the Tang, major Buddhist icons and paradise murals were moved to…

  • Cave, Edward (English printer)

    history of publishing: Great Britain: …convincingly by the English printer Edward Cave, who began to publish The Gentleman’s Magazine in 1731. It was originally a monthly collection of essays and articles culled from elsewhere, hence the term magazine—the first use of the word in this context. Cave was joined in 1738 by Dr. Johnson, who…

  • Cave, Hugh Barnett (American author)

    Hugh Barnett Cave, American pulp-fiction author (born July 11, 1910, Chester, Eng.—died June 27, 2004, Vero Beach, Fla.), entertained and astonished readers with engaging stories covering a wide range of genres, including science fiction, westerns, romances, detective yarns, adventures, s

  • cave, myth of the (Platonic philosophy)

    Western philosophy: Philosophy: In the famous myth of the cave in the seventh book of the Republic, Plato likened the ordinary person to a man sitting in a cave looking at a wall on which he sees nothing but the shadows of real things behind his back, and he likened the…

  • Cave, Nicholas Edward (Australian musician and author)

    Nick Cave, Australian singer-songwriter, actor, novelist, and screenwriter who played a prominent role in the postpunk movement as front man for the bands the Birthday Party and the Bad Seeds. He is best known for his haunting ballads about life, love, betrayal, and death. Cave and school friend

  • Cave, Nick (American artist)

    Nick Cave, American artist best known for his wearable mixed-media constructions known as Soundsuits, which act simultaneously as fashion, sculpture, and noisemaking performance art. Cave began exploring fibre arts and fashion while attending the Kansas City (Missouri) Art Institute (B.F.A.; 1982).

  • Cave, Nick (Australian musician and author)

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    Edith Cavell, English nurse who became a popular heroine of World War I and was executed for assisting Allied soldiers in escaping from German-occupied Belgium. Cavell entered the nursing profession in 1895 and in 1907 was appointed the first matron of the Berkendael Institute, Brussels, where she

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