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  • Castra Bonnensia (fortress, Bonn, Germany)

    Bonn: …its name was continued in Castra Bonnensia, a fortress built by the Romans in the 1st century ad. Castra Bonnensia survived the breakup of the Roman Empire as a civilian settlement, and in the 9th century it became the Frankish town of Bonnburg.

  • Castra Devana (England, United Kingdom)

    Chester, urban area (from 2011 built-up area) and former city (district), Cheshire West and Chester unitary authority, northwestern England. It is situated on a small sandstone ridge at the head of the estuary of the River Dee. The town’s location was chosen by the Romans as headquarters of Legion

  • Castra Regina (stronghold, Germany)

    Regensburg: …Roman stronghold and legionary camp, Castra Regina (founded ad 179). The Roman north gate (Porta Praetoria) and parts of the walls survive. The capital of the dukes of Bavaria from 530, Regensburg was made a bishopric in 739 and shortly afterward became a capital of the Carolingians. From about 1000…

  • Castracani, Castruccio (Italian condottiere)

    Castruccio Castracani, condottiere, or captain of mercenaries, who ruled Lucca from 1316 to 1328. When the Guelfs gained power in Lucca in 1300, Castruccio’s family, the wealthy Antelminelli, were exiled from Lucca. Castruccio served successively as condottiere for the French, the English, and the

  • castration

    Castration, Removal of the testes. The procedure stops most production of the hormone testosterone. If done before puberty, it prevents the development of functioning adult sex organs. Castration after sexual maturity makes the sex organs shrink and stop functioning, ending sperm formation and

  • castration anxiety (psychology)

    Sigmund Freud: Sexuality and development: …claimed its major concern is castration anxiety.

  • castration complex (psychology)

    Sigmund Freud: Sexuality and development: …claimed its major concern is castration anxiety.

  • castrato (music)

    Castrato, male soprano or contralto voice of great range, flexibility, and power, produced as a result of castration before puberty. The castrato voice was introduced in the 16th century, when women were banned from church choirs and the stage. It reached its greatest prominence in 17th- and 1

  • Castrén, Matthias Alexander (Finnish nationalist and linguist)

    Matthias Alexander Castrén, Finnish nationalist and pioneer in the study of remote Arctic and Siberian Uralic and Altaic languages. He also championed the ideology of Pan-Turanianism—the belief in the racial unity and future greatness of the Ural-Altaic peoples. After many years of field research

  • Castres (France)

    Castres, town, Tarn département, Occitanie région, southern France, on the Agout River, east of Toulouse. The site of a Gallo-Roman camp, the town developed around a Benedictine monastery that was founded about 647. Guy de Montfort, brother of Simon de Montfort, handed down the seigneury in the

  • Castres, Jacques d’Armagnac, duc de Nemours, comte de (French duke)

    Jacques d’Armagnac, duc de Nemours, peer of France who engaged in conspiracies against Louis XI. He was the first of the great dukes of Nemours. In 1404 the duchy of Nemours had been granted to Charles III of Navarre; but, upon his death in 1425, the succession was intermittently contested between

  • Castries (national capital, Saint Lucia)

    Castries, capital and chief city of Saint Lucia island state, in the eastern Caribbean Sea 40 miles (65 km) south of Fort-de-France, Martinique. Its fine landlocked deepwater harbour on the northwestern coast is Saint Lucia’s chief port, shipping mainly bananas but also exporting sugarcane, rum,

  • Castries, Christian de (French military officer)

    Christian de Castries, French army officer who commanded during World War II and later in the Indochina War. Castries was born into a distinguished military family and enlisted in the army at the age of 19. He was sent to the Saumur Cavalry School and in 1926 was commissioned an officer, but he

  • Castriota, George (Albanian hero)

    Skanderbeg, national hero of the Albanians. A son of John (Gjon) Kastrioti, prince of Emathia, George was early given as hostage to the Turkish sultan. Converted to Islām and educated at Edirne, Turkey, he was given the name Iskander—after Alexander the Great—and the rank of bey (hence Skanderbeg)

  • castro (ancient culture)

    Portugal: Ethnic groups and languages: …permanent settlements were the northern castros, hill villages first built by Neolithic farmers who began clearing the forests. Incoming peoples—Phoenicians, Greeks, and Celts—intermingled with the settled inhabitants, and Celticized natives occupied the fortified castros. For two centuries these were centres of resistance to the Roman legions. Subsequently the Romans, Suebi,…

  • Castro (Chile)

    Castro, town, southern Chile. It lies 45 miles (72 km) south of the town of Ancud, on the east coast of Chiloé Island. Castro was founded in 1567 and regrew after being destroyed by an earthquake in 1837. Apart from being a port and agricultural centre (potatoes, wheat, livestock), it also has a

  • Castro (district, San Francisco, California, United States)

    San Francisco: People: The affluent Castro district (technically Eureka Valley near Twin Peaks) has attracted gays and lesbians from throughout the country, becoming perhaps the most famous gay neighbourhood in the world. Its streets are adorned with elegantly restored Victorian homes and landmarks highlighting significant dates in the struggle for…

  • Castro Alves, Antônio de (Brazilian poet)

    Antônio de Castro Alves, Romantic poet whose sympathy for the Brazilian abolitionist cause won him the name “poet of the slaves.” While still a student Castro Alves produced a play that brought him to the attention of José de Alencar and Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, Brazilian literary leaders.

  • Castro Ruz, Fidel Alejandro (political leader of Cuba)

    Fidel Castro, political leader of Cuba (1959–2008) who transformed his country into the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere. Castro became a symbol of communist revolution in Latin America. He held the title of premier until 1976 and then began a long tenure as president of the Council

  • Castro Ruz, Raúl Modesto (Cuban head of state)

    Raúl Castro, head of state of Cuba (acting president 2006–08; president 2008–18), defense minister (1959–2006), and revolutionary who played a pivotal role in the 26th of July Movement, which brought his brother Fidel Castro to power in 1959. The youngest of three brothers, Raúl Castro was born to

  • Castro y Bellvís, Guillén de (Spanish dramatist)

    Guillén de Castro y Bellvís, the most important and representative of a group of Spanish dramatists that flourished in Valencia. He is remembered chiefly for his work Las mocedades del Cid (1599?), upon which the French playwright Pierre Corneille based his famous drama Le Cid (1637). Castro’s play

  • Castro y Quesada, Américo (Spanish linguist)

    Américo Castro, Spanish philologist and cultural historian who explored the distinctive cultural roots of Spain and Spanish America. Castro was born in Brazil of Spanish parents, who returned with him to Spain in 1890. He graduated from the University of Granada in 1904 and studied at the Sorbonne

  • Castro y Velasco, Antonio Aciselo Palomino de (Spanish painter)

    Palomino De Castro Y Velasco, Spanish painter, scholar, and author, the last court painter to King Charles II of Spain. After study at the University of Córdoba, Palomino was a student of the painter Valdes Leal and later Alfaro. In 1688 Palomino was appointed court painter and continued to c

  • Castro, A (work by Ferreira)

    António Ferreira: His tragedy Castro (written c. 1558) was one of the first in modern European literature. It takes as its subject the death of the Portuguese national heroine Inês de Castro, who was murdered by Afonso IV—the father of Dom Pedro, her lover—for reasons of state, a theme…

  • Castro, Américo (Spanish linguist)

    Américo Castro, Spanish philologist and cultural historian who explored the distinctive cultural roots of Spain and Spanish America. Castro was born in Brazil of Spanish parents, who returned with him to Spain in 1890. He graduated from the University of Granada in 1904 and studied at the Sorbonne

  • Castro, Bartolomé de (Spanish provincial governor)

    Catamarca: …valley) by the provincial governor, Bartolomé de Castro.

  • Castro, Carlos Moreira de (Brazilian songwriter)

    Carlos Cachaça, (Carlos Moreira de Castro), Brazilian songwriter who helped make samba Brazil’s most popular form of music, earning the title “King of Samba” for his numerous songs about life in the Brazilian favelas, or shantytowns; in 1928 he helped found the influential Mangueira Samba School

  • Castro, Cipriano (Venezuelan soldier and dictator)

    Cipriano Castro, Venezuelan soldier and dictator, called the Lion of the Andes, who was the first man from the mountains to rule a nation that until the 20th century had been dominated by plainsmen and city dwellers from Caracas. He ruled for nine remarkably corrupt years (1899–1908), embezzling

  • Castro, Eugénio de (Portuguese poet)

    Eugénio de Castro, leading Portuguese Symbolist and Decadent poet. Castro’s best-known collection of poetry, Oaristos (1890; “Intimate Chats”), launched Symbolism in Portugal. His Symbolism maintains the essential doctrines of the French theorists of the movement, in contrast with the nostalgic

  • Castro, Fidel (political leader of Cuba)

    Fidel Castro, political leader of Cuba (1959–2008) who transformed his country into the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere. Castro became a symbol of communist revolution in Latin America. He held the title of premier until 1976 and then began a long tenure as president of the Council

  • Castro, Inês de (mistress of Peter I of Portugal)

    Inês de Castro, mistress, before his accession, of Peter (Pedro) I of Portugal. She was famous because of her tragic death, which was related by such writers and poets as Luís de Camões, Luís Vélez de Guevara, and Henri de Montherlant. The illegitimate daughter of Pedro Fernández de Castro, a

  • Castro, João de (Portuguese naval officer)

    João de Castro, naval officer who helped preserve the Portuguese commercial settlement in India and contributed to the science of navigation with three roteiros (pilot books). He was also the first to note the deviation of the ship’s compass needle created by the magnetic effect of iron objects.

  • Castro, José Gil de (artist)

    Latin American art: Neoclassicism: In the 1820s José Gil de Castro, known as “the Mulatto,” rendered the heroes of Peruvian independence in a precise but boldly flattened and brightly coloured documentary style with little emotional expression. These works often reflect the colonial portrait formula of including a shield with documentary information in…

  • Castro, Luis (Colombian baseball player)

    Latin Americans in Major League Baseball Through the First Years of the 21st Century: Early history: Colombian player Luis Castro became the second Latin American in the majors when he spent the 1902 season with the Philadelphia Athletics as a utility infielder. The meaningful entry of Latin players into the major leagues was yet to come, but the way was paved by the…

  • Castro, Pedro Fernández de (Castilian military leader)

    Battle of Alarcos: …the cavalry of the Castilian Pedro Fernández de Castro, a personal enemy of Alfonso. The defeat occurred in a battle fought near the fortress of Alarcos (Al-Arak in Arabic). Alfonso and his army fled to Toledo and Alarcos, while Yaʿqūb returned triumphantly to Sevilla. There he assumed the title Al-Manṣūr…

  • Castro, Pimenta de (Portuguese general)

    Portugal: The First Republic, 1910–26: General Pimenta de Castro formed a military government and permitted the monarchists to reorganize, but a Democratic coup in May led to his arrest and consignment to the Azores, along with Machado Santos. Dominated by Costa’s oratory, partisan press, and political machine, the Democrats’ regime was…

  • Castro, Plan (Spanish history)

    Madrid: Development under the Bourbon kings: Somewhat earlier, in 1860, the Plan Castro—also referred to as the Ensanche (“Widening”)—had further expanded and modernized the city, adding convenience and meeting the economic and commercial needs of the time. It was the first comprehensive, forward-looking modern plan for Madrid. However, it was to be frustrated by population growth,…

  • Castro, Raúl (Cuban head of state)

    Raúl Castro, head of state of Cuba (acting president 2006–08; president 2008–18), defense minister (1959–2006), and revolutionary who played a pivotal role in the 26th of July Movement, which brought his brother Fidel Castro to power in 1959. The youngest of three brothers, Raúl Castro was born to

  • Castro, Román Baldorioty de (Puerto Rican leader)

    Puerto Rico: Movements toward self-government: During the 1880s Román Baldorioty de Castro led a movement for political autonomy under Spanish rule, which gained momentum at the expense of calls for directly integrating Puerto Rico into the Spanish government. In 1887 the liberal movement was denounced as disloyal and was violently suppressed; however, such…

  • Castro, Rosalía de (Spanish writer)

    Rosalía de Castro, the most outstanding modern writer in the Galician language, whose work is of both regional and universal significance. In 1858 Castro married the historian Manuel Murguía (1833–1923), a champion of the Galician Renaissance. Although she was the author of a number of novels, she

  • Castro, War of (European history)

    Raimondo Montecuccoli: …his native Modena in the War of Castro (1642–44), between the papacy and its opponents, and against the Hungarian rebel György Rákóczy I in 1645. Back in Germany, his skillful retreat in Bavaria in the face of a combined French–Swedish onslaught led to his promotion to general.

  • Castro, Xiomara (Honduran politician)

    Honduras: The 21st century: …was for the second-place finisher, Xiomara Castro, the candidate of the Freedom and Refoundation (Libertad y Refundación; Libre) Party, which had been founded by Zelaya, her husband. The remaining votes were divided between six other candidates. Claiming that the election results were “a fraud of incalculable proportions,” Castro demanded a…

  • Castro-Dakwan (Spain)

    Coín, city, Málaga provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain. It is situated near the beach resort region of Costa del Sol. The site was first settled by the Turdetanos, an Iberian tribe, and was later occupied by the Romans, who established

  • Castrogiovanni (Italy)

    Enna, city, capital of Enna provincia (province), central Sicily, Italy, on a plateau dominating the valley of the Dittaino, northeast of Caltanissetta. A city of the Siculi, an ancient Sicilian tribe, and a centre of the pre-Hellenic cult of Demeter and Kore (Persephone), it originated as Henna

  • Castroneves, Hélio (Brazilian race-car driver)

    Hélio Castroneves, Brazilian race-car driver who won the Indianapolis 500 three times (2001, 2002, and 2009). Castroneves was involved in motor sports from a young age with the support of his father, an auto dealer in São Paulo who owned a stock-car racing team. As a teenager, Castroneves won a

  • Castrop-Rauxel (Germany)

    Castrop-Rauxel, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), northwestern Germany. It lies near the Rhine-Herne Canal, in the eastern part of the Ruhr industrial district. First mentioned in 834, Castrop was chartered in 1484. It belonged to the duchy of Cleves- (Kleve-) Mark until 1609, when it came

  • castrum (Roman town)

    military engineering: Classical and medieval eras.: The Romans’ castra, or military garrison towns, were protected by ramparts and ditches and interconnected by straight military roads along which their legions could speedily march. Like the Chinese, the Romans also built walls to protect their empire, the most famous of these being Hadrian’s Wall in…

  • Castrum Deutonis (Germany)

    Duisburg, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It lies at the junction of the Rhine and Ruhr rivers and is connected with the North Sea German ports by the Rhine-Herne Canal, which links it to Dortmund and thus with the Dortmund-Ems Canal. Known to the Romans as Castrum

  • Castrum Divionense (France)

    Dijon, city, capital of Côte d’Or département and of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, east-central France. The city is 203 miles (326 km) southeast of Paris by road and lies at the confluence of the Ouche and Suzon rivers. Situated at the foot of the Côte d’Or hills to its west and near a plain of

  • Castrum Divisarum (England, United Kingdom)

    Devizes, town (parish), administrative and historical county of Wiltshire, southwestern England. It lies along the disused Kennet and Avon Canal, at the edge of Roundway Down. It was the site of a Roman fortification, Castrum Divisarum; and Roger, bishop of Salisbury, built a castle there about

  • casual (literature)

    Casual, an essay written in a familiar, often humorous style. The word is usually associated with the style of essay that was cultivated at The New Yorker

  • casual labour (economics)

    Casual labour, irregular employment or part-time labour, including the labour of workers whose normal employment consists of a series of short-term jobs. Casual labour is usually hired by the hour or day or for the performance of specific tasks, while part-time labour is typically scheduled for a

  • Casual Vacancy, The (novel by Rowling)

    J.K. Rowling: …foray into adult fiction with The Casual Vacancy (2012; TV miniseries 2015), a contemporary social satire set in a small English town. In 2013 it was revealed that the author had penned the crime novel The Cuckoo’s Calling, using the pseudonym Robert Galbraith. The Silkworm—the second book in the series,…

  • Casualties of War (film by De Palma [1989])

    David Rabe: …1979 (she died in 2010); Casualties of War (1989), a Vietnam War drama; and The Firm (1993), a legal thriller based on the John Grisham novel. His other works included the novels Recital of the Dog (1993), a work of black humour; Dinosaurs on the Roof (2008); and Girl by…

  • casualty department

    Emergency medicine, medical specialty emphasizing the immediacy of treatment of acutely ill or injured individuals. Among the factors that influenced the growth of emergency medicine was the increasing specialization in other areas of medicine. With the shift away from general practice—especially

  • casualty insurance

    Casualty insurance, provision against loss to persons and property, covering legal hazards as well as those of accident and sickness. Major classes of casualty insurance include liability, theft, aviation, workers’ compensation, credit, and title. Liability insurance contracts may cover liability

  • casualty ward

    Emergency medicine, medical specialty emphasizing the immediacy of treatment of acutely ill or injured individuals. Among the factors that influenced the growth of emergency medicine was the increasing specialization in other areas of medicine. With the shift away from general practice—especially

  • casuariiform (order of birds)

    Casuariiform, (order Casuariiformes), any member of a group of large, flightless birds that includes two families native to Australasia. The family Dromaiidae, made up of the single living species of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), is found only in Australia, whereas the family Casuariidae, made up

  • Casuariiformes (order of birds)

    Casuariiform, (order Casuariiformes), any member of a group of large, flightless birds that includes two families native to Australasia. The family Dromaiidae, made up of the single living species of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), is found only in Australia, whereas the family Casuariidae, made up

  • Casuarina (plant genus)

    Casuarinaceae: …plants, with two genera (Casuarina, 30 species; Gymnostoma, 20 species) of trees and shrubs, many of which have a distinctly pinelike aspect when seen from afar. They are naturally distributed in tropical eastern Africa, the Mascarene Islands, Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Australia, and Polynesia. Some, especially the beefwood (C. equisetifolia,…

  • Casuarina equisetifolia (plant)

    Casuarinaceae: Some, especially the beefwood (C. equisetifolia, also called she-oak, ironwood, Australian pine, whistling pine, or swamp oak), also are used ornamentally in warm-climate countries, where they have often escaped cultivation and become established in the wild.

  • Casuarinaceae (plant family)

    Casuarinaceae, the beefwood family of dicotyledonous flowering plants, with two genera (Casuarina, 30 species; Gymnostoma, 20 species) of trees and shrubs, many of which have a distinctly pinelike aspect when seen from afar. They are naturally distributed in tropical eastern Africa, the Mascarene

  • Casuarius (bird)

    Cassowary, (genus Casuarius), any of several species of large flightless birds of the Australo-Papuan region. Cassowaries are the only members of the family Casuariidae and belong to the order Casuariiformes, which also includes the emu. There are three species (counted by some experts as six),

  • Casuarius bennetti (bird)

    cassowary: The dwarf cassowary (C. bennetti) is native to higher elevations of New Guinea and can also be found on the island of New Britain, and the northern cassowary (C. unappendiculatus) inhabits New Guinea’s northern lowlands.

  • Casuarius casuarius (bird)

    cassowary: The common, or southern, cassowary, Casuarius casuarius, which inhabits New Guinea, nearby islands, and Australia, is the largest—almost 1.5 metres (5 feet) tall—and has two long red wattles on the throat. The dwarf cassowary (C. bennetti) is native to higher elevations of New Guinea and can…

  • Casuarius unappendiculatus (bird)

    cassowary: …of New Britain, and the northern cassowary (C. unappendiculatus) inhabits New Guinea’s northern lowlands.

  • casuistry (ethics)

    Casuistry, in ethics, a case-based method of reasoning. It is particularly employed in field-specific branches of professional ethics such as business ethics and bioethics. Casuistry typically uses general principles in reasoning analogically from clear-cut cases, called paradigms, to vexing cases.

  • Čašule, Kole (Macedonian author)

    Macedonian literature: …by new dramatists, such as Kole Čašule, Tome Arsovski, and Goran Stefanovski. Čašule also wrote several novels. A main theme of his work is the defeat of idealists and idealism. His play Crnila (1960; “Black Things”) deals with the early 20th-century murder of a Macedonian national leader by other Macedonians…

  • casus belli (international relations)

    Casus belli, a Latin term describing a situation said to justify a state in initiating war. The United Nations charter provides that warlike measures are permissible only if authorized by the Security Council or the general assembly or if necessary for "individual or collective self-defense"

  • Casus Sancti Galli (work by Ekkehard IV)

    Ekkehard IV: …of the principal authors of Casus Sancti Galli (“The Events of Sankt Gallen [St. Gall]”)—an important history of the monastery.

  • CAT

    Computed tomography (CT), diagnostic imaging method using a low-dose beam of X-rays that crosses the body in a single plane at many different angles. CT was conceived by William Oldendorf and developed independently by Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield and Allan MacLeod Cormack, who shared a 1979 Nobel

  • cat (mammal family)

    Feline, (family Felidae), any of 37 cat species that among others include the cheetah, puma, jaguar, leopard, lion, lynx, tiger, and domestic cat. Cats are native to almost every region on Earth, with the exception of Australia and Antarctica. They are carnivorous mammals that live in a wide

  • CAT (atmospheric science)

    Clear-air turbulence (CAT), erratic air currents that occur in cloudless air between altitudes of 6,000 and 15,000 metres (20,000 and 49,000 feet) and constitute a hazard to aircraft. This turbulence can be caused by small-scale (i.e., hundreds of metres and less) wind velocity gradients around the

  • CAT (American airline)

    Claire L. Chennault: Two years later Civil Air Transport (CAT) was founded and soon became active in the country’s civil war, transporting munitions and troops for the Nationalist government. It also did work for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and was eventually bought by the organization after the communists took…

  • cat (domesticated mammal)

    Cat, (Felis catus), domesticated member of the family Felidae, order Carnivora, and the smallest member of that family. Like all felids, domestic cats are characterized by supple low-slung bodies, finely molded heads, long tails that aid in balance, and specialized teeth and claws that adapt them

  • Cat and Mouse (novel by Grass)

    German literature: The late 1950s and the ’60s: …Drum), Katz und Maus (1961; Cat and Mouse), and Hundejahre (1963; Dog Years). The trilogy presents a grotesquely imaginative retrospective on the Nazi period. The narrator of Die Blechtrommel is the dwarf Oskar Matzerath, who claims that he deliberately stopped growing on his third birthday out of protest against the…

  • Cat and the Canary, The (film by Nugent [1939])

    Elliott Nugent: …this he did impressively with The Cat and the Canary, a comedy-mystery that paired Hope with Paulette Goddard, and Never Say Die (both 1939), in which Hope was teamed with Martha Raye to good effect. Nugent then returned to Broadway and scored his biggest stage success with The Male Animal,…

  • Cat Ballou (film by Silverstein [1965])

    Lee Marvin: …nasty gun-slinging twin brother in Cat Ballou (1965), a western comedy. His performance in this film won him an Oscar, and he was soon in demand as a leading man.

  • cat bear (mammal)

    Binturong, (Arctictis binturong), catlike carnivore of the civet family (Viverridae), found in dense forests of southern Asia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It has long, shaggy hair, tufted ears, and a long, bushy, prehensile tail. The colour generally is black with a sprinkling of whitish hairs. The

  • cat cry syndrome (pathology)

    Cri-du-chat syndrome, congenital disorder caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. It is named for its characteristic symptom, a high-pitched wailing cry likened to that of a cat (the name is French for “cat cry”), which occurs in most affected infants. It has an incidence of

  • cat flea (insect)

    flea: Importance: …people and livestock include the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), the so-called human flea (Pulex irritans), the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis), the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea), and the jigger, or chigoe, flea (Tunga penetrans). Poultry may be parasitized by the European chicken

  • Cat in the Hat, The (book by Dr. Seuss)

    Dr. Seuss: The Cat in the Hat, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, and other classics: …of his most popular works: The Cat in the Hat and How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. The former features a mischievous talking cat who entertains two bored children on a rainy day, while the latter introduces the Scrooge-like Grinch, who wants to ruin Christmas in Whoville but ultimately discovers that…

  • cat liver fluke (flatworm)

    fluke: The cat liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus, which may also infest man as the final host, also requires a freshwater snail (Bithynia leachii) and a carp as its secondary intermediate hosts.

  • Cat Nation (people)

    Erie, Iroquoian-speaking North American Indians who inhabited most of what is now northern Ohio, parts of northwestern Pennsylvania, and western New York; they were often referred to as the Cat Nation. Little is known of their social or political organization, but early Jesuit accounts record that

  • Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (film by Brooks [1958])

    Big Daddy: …Burl Ives in the 1958 film adaptation of the play.

  • Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (play by Williams)

    Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, play by Tennessee Williams, published and produced in 1955. It won a Pulitzer Prize. The play exposes the emotional lies governing relationships in the family of a wealthy Southern planter of humble origins. The patriarch, Big Daddy, is about to celebrate his 65th birthday.

  • Cat People (film by Tourneur [1942])

    Cat People, American low-budget horror film, released in 1942, that was noted for its masterful use of shadows and low lighting to create suspense. The movie was a major box-office hit and later garnered a cult following. Cat People opens with Serbian-born fashion designer Irena Dubrovna (played by

  • CAT scan

    Computed tomography (CT), diagnostic imaging method using a low-dose beam of X-rays that crosses the body in a single plane at many different angles. CT was conceived by William Oldendorf and developed independently by Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield and Allan MacLeod Cormack, who shared a 1979 Nobel

  • CAT scanning

    Computed tomography (CT), diagnostic imaging method using a low-dose beam of X-rays that crosses the body in a single plane at many different angles. CT was conceived by William Oldendorf and developed independently by Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield and Allan MacLeod Cormack, who shared a 1979 Nobel

  • cat scratch disease

    Cat scratch disease, bacterial infection in human beings caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by a cat bite or scratch. Transmission of the bacterium from cat to cat is thought to be by the cat flea. The clinical syndrome in the infected person is usually a self-limiting enlargement

  • cat shark (fish)

    Cat shark, (family Scyliorhinidae), any of more than 80 species of small, mottled sharks (order Lamniformes). Although many bottom-dwelling species are rare and poorly known ecologically, representatives have been found in all major marine environments of the tropical and temperate regions. Most

  • cat snake (reptile)

    Mangrove snake, (genus Boiga), any of about 30 species (family Colubridae) of weakly venomous, rear-fanged snakes, ranging from South Asia to Australia. They are at home on the ground and in trees; many catch birds at night. Because they have elliptical pupils and may be green-eyed, they are

  • cat snake (reptile)

    Cat snake, any of several groups of arboreal or semiarboreal rear-fanged snakes in the family Colubridae with eyes having vertically elliptical pupils similar to those found in felines. Cat snakes are nocturnal hunters that become active at twilight. By day their pupils are contracted to narrow

  • cat valium (drug)

    Ketamine, general anesthetic agent related structurally to the hallucinogen phencyclidine (PCP). Ketamine was first synthesized in 1962 at Parke Davis Laboratories by American scientist Calvin Stevens, who was searching for a new anesthetic to replace PCP, which was not suitable for use in humans

  • cat whisker (electronics)

    electronics: The vacuum tube era: …devices such as the “cat whisker” detector, which was composed of a fine wire (the whisker) in delicate contact with the surface of a natural crystal of lead sulfide (galena) or some other semiconductor material. These devices were undependable, lacked sufficient sensitivity, and required constant adjustment of the whisker-to-crystal…

  • Cat’s Cradle (novel by Vonnegut)

    Cat’s Cradle, science-fiction novel by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., published in 1963. Notable for its black humour, it is considered one of the author’s major early works. The novel features two notable inventions: Bokononism, a religion of lies “that make you brave and kind and healthy and happy,” and

  • cat’s face (plant)

    donkey orchid: Other well-known species are cat’s face (D. filifolia) and nanny-goat orchid (D. laevis).

  • Cat’s Meow, The (film by Bogdanovich [2001])

    Peter Bogdanovich: The 1980s and beyond: However, in 2001 he made The Cat’s Meow, an adaptation of Steven Peros’s play about the mysterious death of filmmaker Thomas H. Ince during his birthday celebration aboard William Randolph Hearst’s yacht in 1924. The drama imagines a romance between Charlie Chaplin (Eddie Izzard) and Marion Davies (Kirsten Dunst). In…

  • Cat’s Table, The (work by Ondaatje)

    Michael Ondaatje: The Cat’s Table (2011)—its title referencing the table farthest from the captain’s table on a cruise ship—chronicles a voyage from Sri Lanka to England in the 1950s from the perspective of an 11-year-old boy and his two comrades. In Warlight (2018) a teenage boy and…

  • cat’s whisker (electronics)

    electronics: The vacuum tube era: …devices such as the “cat whisker” detector, which was composed of a fine wire (the whisker) in delicate contact with the surface of a natural crystal of lead sulfide (galena) or some other semiconductor material. These devices were undependable, lacked sufficient sensitivity, and required constant adjustment of the whisker-to-crystal…

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