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  • Case Western Reserve University (university, Cleveland, Ohio, United States)

    Case Western Reserve University, independent, coeducational research university in Cleveland, Ohio, U.S. The university operates professional schools of law, medicine, and dentistry, as well as Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case School of Engineering, Mandel School of Applied Social

  • Case, Karl (American economist)

    Karl Case, (Karl Edwin Case), American economist (born Nov. 5, 1946, New York, N.Y.—died July 15, 2016, Wellesley, Mass.), developed (1987), with Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert J. Shiller, the Case-Shiller Index (now the S&P/Case-Shiller Home Price Indices), a method for tracking changes in

  • Case, Karl Edwin (American economist)

    Karl Case, (Karl Edwin Case), American economist (born Nov. 5, 1946, New York, N.Y.—died July 15, 2016, Wellesley, Mass.), developed (1987), with Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert J. Shiller, the Case-Shiller Index (now the S&P/Case-Shiller Home Price Indices), a method for tracking changes in

  • Case, Stephen McConnell (American businessman)

    Steve Case, American entrepreneur who cofounded America Online, Inc. (AOL), the world’s foremost Internet service provider (ISP), and negotiated the merger in 2001 of AOL and Time Warner Inc. to create a global media and entertainment conglomerate. From a young age, Case and his brother Dan—later a

  • Case, Steve (American businessman)

    Steve Case, American entrepreneur who cofounded America Online, Inc. (AOL), the world’s foremost Internet service provider (ISP), and negotiated the merger in 2001 of AOL and Time Warner Inc. to create a global media and entertainment conglomerate. From a young age, Case and his brother Dan—later a

  • case-control study (epidemiology)

    Case-control study, in epidemiology, observational (nonexperimental) study design used to ascertain information on differences in suspected exposures and outcomes between individuals with a disease of interest (cases) and comparable individuals who do not have the disease (controls). Analysis

  • Case-Sponable (film technology)

    history of the motion picture: Introduction of sound: …acquired the rights to the Case-Sponable sound-on-film system (whose similarity to De Forest’s Phonofilm was the subject of subsequent patent litigation) and formed the Fox-Case Corporation to make shorts under the trade name Fox Movietone. Six months later he secretly bought the American rights to the German Tri-Ergon process, whose…

  • Casearia praecox (lumber)

    boxwood: …density and grain, such as West Indian boxwood, a North American lumber trade name for wood from two tropical American trees, Casearia praecox of the family Salicaceae and Phyllostylon brasiliensis of the family Ulmaceae, and a number of woods from Australian trees in the genera Eucalyptus and Tristania (family Myrtaceae),…

  • casebearer (larva)

    Casebearer, (family Coleophoridae), any larva of a group of moths (order Lepidoptera) that are characteristically light brown with dark heads and feed on apple, birch, cherry, and willow trees. After hatching from the egg, larvae first feed as leaf miners. As they grow they change lifestyles and

  • casebearer moth (insect)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Coleophoridae (casebearer moths) Approximately 1,400 species, mainly Holarctic in distribution; small, very narrow-winged moths; larvae mostly mine leaves or feed on seeds; many larvae construct portable cases with distinctive shapes; some are pests of fruit trees. Family Oecophoridae (oecophorid moths) More than 3,100 small

  • casebearing leaf beetle (insect)

    Casebearing leaf beetle, (subfamily Cryptocephalinae and Lamprosomatinae), any member of two groups within the leaf beetle family, Chrysomelidae (insect order Coleoptera). As she lays her eggs, the female covers each one with a layer of excrement. After the larvae hatch, they retain this covering

  • Casebook on Tort, A (work by Weir)

    tort: Protection of honour, reputation, and privacy: …English legal scholar Tony Weir’s A Casebook on Tort (1974), it may well be that its defects arise

  • casein (protein)

    Casein, the chief protein in milk and the essential ingredient of cheese. In pure form, it is an amorphous white solid, tasteless and odourless, while its commercial type is yellowish with a pleasing odour. Cow’s milk contains about 3 percent casein. Pure casein is an amorphous white solid without

  • casein glue (natural adhesive)

    adhesive: Casein glue: This product is made by dissolving casein, a protein obtained from milk, in an aqueous alkaline solvent. The degree and type of alkali influences product behaviour. In wood bonding, casein glues generally are superior to true animal glues in moisture resistance and aging…

  • casein painting (art)

    Casein painting, painting executed with colours ground in a solution of casein, a phosphoprotein of milk precipitated by heating with an acid or by lactic acid in souring. In the form of homemade curd made from soured skim milk, it has been a traditional adhesive and binder for more than eight

  • Casella, Alfredo (Italian composer)

    Alfredo Casella, composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher whose cosmopolitan outlook permeated 20th-century Italian music. Casella studied in Paris, where he remained until 1914. After touring as a pianist he returned to Italy in 1915. In 1917 he founded the National Society of Music, soon renamed

  • Caselli, Giovanni (Italian inventor)

    fax: Early telegraph facsimile: …Paris, France, in 1863 by Giovanni Caselli, an Italian inventor. The first successful use of optical scanning and transmission of photographs was demonstrated by Arthur Korn of Germany in 1902. Korn’s transmitter employed a selenium photocell to sense an image wrapped on a transparent glass cylinder; at the receiver the…

  • casemaking clothes moth (insect)

    tineid moth: …clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), the casemaking clothes moth (Tinea pellionella), and the carpet, tapestry, or white-tip clothes moth (Trichophaga tapetzella). The larvae of the casemaking clothes moth use silk and fragments of food to construct a small, flat, oval case in which the larvae live and pupate. Clothes-moth larvae also…

  • casemate wall (fortification)

    Syro-Palestinian art and architecture: Walls are of the casemate type (parallel walls with a space between) with internal chambers, and gateways are elaborate, with flanking towers and an approach through several transverse chambers. In the 9th century bce the invention of a more effective battering ram necessitated replacement of casemate walls by more…

  • casement door

    casement window: The French casement commonly has two meeting leaves that open inward, requiring careful craftsmanship to prevent weather from penetrating them. These French casements were adapted in the United States chiefly as ways to give access onto balconies and porches, and in this doorlike form they are…

  • casement sash (architecture)

    casement window: …a window is called a casement sash.

  • casement window (architecture)

    Casement window, earliest form of movable window, wood or metal framed, with hinges or pivots at the upright side of the vertically hung sash, so that it opens outward or inward along its entire length in the manner of a door. One frame, separately movable, of such a window is called a casement

  • Casement, Sir Roger (British politician)

    Sir Roger Casement, distinguished British public servant who was executed for treason and became one of the principal Irish martyrs in the revolt against British rule in Ireland. Casement was a British consul in Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique; 1895–98), Angola (1898–1900), Congo Free State

  • Casement, Sir Roger David (British politician)

    Sir Roger Casement, distinguished British public servant who was executed for treason and became one of the principal Irish martyrs in the revolt against British rule in Ireland. Casement was a British consul in Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique; 1895–98), Angola (1898–1900), Congo Free State

  • Casements, the (cultural centre, Ormond Beach, Florida, United States)
  • caseous lymphadenitis (disease)

    pseudotuberculosis: In veterinary medicine, “pseudotuberculosis” denotes caseous lymphadenitis, a disease of sheep and goats caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection, occurring in many mammals and birds.

  • Caseros (Argentina)

    Caseros, cabecera (county seat) of Tres de Febrero partido (county), in Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, eastern Argentina, lying immediately west of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). The present-day city is the site of the Battle of Caseros (February 3, 1852), in which

  • Caseros, Battle of (Argentina [1852])

    Juan Manuel de Rosas: …Urquiza, overthrew Rosas at the Battle of Caseros (Feb. 3, 1852). Rosas was forced to flee to England, where he spent the last years of his life as a farmer. First buried in Southampton, his body was repatriated in 1989 and now rests in Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires.

  • Caserta (Italy)

    Caserta, city, Campania regione, southern Italy, north of Naples. The old town (Caserta Vecchia), founded by the Lombards in the 8th century, lies on hills 3 miles (5 km) north-northeast of the modern city, which was a village known as Torre belonging to the Caetani family of Sermoneta until the

  • Cases, Emmanuel-Augustin-Dieu-donné-Joseph, Count de Las (French historian)

    Emmanuel, count de las Cases, French historian best known as the recorder of Napoleon’s last conversations on St. Helena, the publication of which contributed greatly to the Napoleonic legend in Europe. An officer of the royal navy, Las Cases in 1790 emigrated from France to England, where he wrote

  • casework (method)

    social service: Modern evolution: The origins of modern social casework can be traced to the appointment of the first medical almoners in Britain in the 1880s, a practice quickly adopted in North American and most western European countries. The almoners originally performed three main functions: ascertaining the financial eligibility and resources of patients faced…

  • Casey at the Bat (poem by Thayer)

    baseball: A national pastime: “Casey at the Bat” and “Take Me Out to the Ballgame” remain among the best-known poems and songs, respectively, among Americans. Novelists and filmmakers frequently have turned to baseball motifs. After the mid-20th century, at the very time baseball at the grassroots level had begun…

  • Casey Jones (ballad)

    ballad: Disaster: …fixed, but “The Titanic,” “Casey Jones,” “The Wreck on the C & O,” and “The Johnstown Flood” are all circumstantially based on actual events.

  • Casey, Albert Vincent (American businessman)

    Albert Vincent Casey, American businessman (born Feb. 28, 1920, Boston, Mass.—died July 10, 2004, Dallas, Texas), led American Airlines through the first years of deregulation and later oversaw the dismantling of failed savings and loan institutions. After eight years as president of the Times M

  • Casey, Bob, Jr. (United States senator)

    Bob Casey, Jr., American politician who was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate in 2006 and began representing Pennsylvania in that body the following year. Casey was the eldest son of Bob Casey, Sr., a conservative Democrat who served as governor of Pennsylvania (1987–95). After graduating

  • Casey, John (Irish dramatist)

    Sean O’Casey, Irish playwright renowned for realistic dramas of the Dublin slums in war and revolution, in which tragedy and comedy are juxtaposed in a way new to the theatre of his time. O’Casey was born into a lower middle-class Irish Protestant family. His father died when John was six, and

  • Casey, Peter (Irish entrepreneur and politician)

    Michael D. Higgins: …in the 2011 presidential contest), Peter Casey, and Gavin Duffy—all of whom had been panelists on the reality television show Dragons’ Den, on which aspiring enterprisers pitched their business plans to a group of capitalist moguls.

  • Casey, Richard Gardiner (Australian politician)

    Australia: International affairs: …between 1951 and 1960 was Richard Gardiner Casey. He was unique among Australians in his experience of traditional diplomacy, yet he was ready and able to come to terms with the new Asia. As Indonesia became an ever more populous, and sometimes assertive, nation, there was wariness in Australia, but…

  • Casey, Robert P. (American politician)

    James Carville: …achieving his first success with Robert P. Casey’s victory in the 1986 Pennsylvania gubernatorial race. Subsequent successes followed in the 1987 reelection bid of New Jersey Sen. Frank Lautenberg, the 1990 Georgia gubernatorial campaign of Zell Miller, and the 1991 landslide victory of Harris Wofford (who overcame a 40-point deficit…

  • Casey, Robert Patrick, Jr. (United States senator)

    Bob Casey, Jr., American politician who was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate in 2006 and began representing Pennsylvania in that body the following year. Casey was the eldest son of Bob Casey, Sr., a conservative Democrat who served as governor of Pennsylvania (1987–95). After graduating

  • Casey, William J. (United States government official)

    William J. Casey, powerful and controversial director of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1981 to 1987 during the Ronald Reagan administration. Casey graduated from Fordham University (B.S., 1934), studied at the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., and took a law degree

  • Casey, William Joseph (United States government official)

    William J. Casey, powerful and controversial director of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1981 to 1987 during the Ronald Reagan administration. Casey graduated from Fordham University (B.S., 1934), studied at the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., and took a law degree

  • Casgrain, Abbé Henri-Raymond (French-Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: The literary movement of 1860: Their spokesman, Henri-Raymond Casgrain, promoted a messianic view of the spiritual mission of French Canadians in North America, now that postrevolutionary France had fallen into what he perceived to be godlessness and materialism. Only a few French Romantic writers were admired and imitated. Philippe Aubert de Gaspé’s…

  • cash (money)

    Cash, in commercial use, coins and bank notes, as distinguished from promissory notes, drafts, and other forms of obligations payable. Cash is legal tender and is by law acceptable in payment of all debts. Individuals and commercial establishments usually distinguish between cash on hand, meaning

  • cash budget (economics)

    business finance: The cash budget: One of the principal methods of forecasting the financial needs of a business is the cash budget, which predicts the combined effects of planned operations on the firm’s cash flow. A positive net cash flow means that the firm will have surplus funds…

  • cash crop (agriculture)

    Asia: Cash crops: Asia is noted for several plantation cash crops, of which the most important are tea, rubber, palm oil, coconuts, and sugarcane. Jute, a commercial fibre, though it has decreased in significance, remains a major export crop of Bangladesh. Cotton is important to the…

  • cash flow (accounting)

    Cash flow, Financial and accounting concept. Cash flow results from three major groups of activities: operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. A cash-flow statement differs from an income statement in reflecting actual cash on hand rather than money owed (accounts

  • cash flow, statement of (accounting)

    accounting: The statement of cash flows: Companies also prepare a third financial statement, the statement of cash flows. Cash flows result from three major aspects of the business: (1) operating activities, (2) investing activities, and (3) financing activities. These three categories are illustrated in Table 3.

  • cash forecast (economics)

    business finance: The cash budget: One of the principal methods of forecasting the financial needs of a business is the cash budget, which predicts the combined effects of planned operations on the firm’s cash flow. A positive net cash flow means that the firm will have surplus funds…

  • cash limited program (finance)

    government budget: Cash and unified budgets: …is now performed on a cash basis, and many programs are “cash limited,” whatever the level of inflation. This procedure, to which the United Kingdom moved in 1976, is justified on the grounds that such treatment helps to control inflationary pressures and exerts stricter control than, for example, planning in…

  • cash market (economics)

    commodity trade: Primary commodity markets: …technically as trade in “actuals”), or it may be conducted by means of futures contracts. A futures contract is an agreement to deliver or receive a certain quantity of a commodity at an agreed price at some stated time in the future. Trade in actuals has declined considerably and…

  • Cash Money Records (American record label)

    Lil Wayne: …disagreements between Lil Wayne and Cash Money Records. The dispute was exacerbated by the appearance in 2015 of the mixtape Sorry 4 the Wait 2. Lil Wayne then joined the music-streaming service TIDAL, through which he released the mixtape Free Weezy Album. It was not until 2018, after the artist…

  • cash on delivery (business)

    Cash on delivery (C.O.D.), a common business term indicating that goods must be paid for at the time of delivery. The payment is usually due in cash but may be made by check if acceptable to the seller. The transfer agent very often used is the postal service, but it is common for consumer and

  • cash register

    Cash register, business machine that usually has a money drawer and is designed to record sales transactions. The typical cash register of the mid-20th century, through a system of keys, levers, and gears often electrically driven, indicated the amount of a transaction at the top of the register

  • cash reserve (finance)

    government economic policy: Monetary policy: …monetary policy, that of the cash reserve requirements (and, in some countries, certain types of government securities) for commercial banks, provides that banks must maintain money balances (in the form of deposits in the central bank) at a certain proportion of their liabilities. This means that the banks cannot expand…

  • Cash, John R. (American musician)

    Johnny Cash, American singer and songwriter whose work broadened the scope of country and western music. Cash was exposed from childhood to the music of the rural South—hymns, folk ballads, and songs of work and lament—but he learned to play guitar and began writing songs during military service in

  • Cash, Johnny (American musician)

    Johnny Cash, American singer and songwriter whose work broadened the scope of country and western music. Cash was exposed from childhood to the music of the rural South—hymns, folk ballads, and songs of work and lament—but he learned to play guitar and began writing songs during military service in

  • Cash, June Carter (American singer and actress)

    June Carter Cash, American singer, songwriter, and actress, who was a leading figure in country music, especially noted for her work with the Carter Family and Johnny Cash. Carter was introduced to country music, specifically Appalachian folk songs, at a very young age. Her mother, Maybelle Carter,

  • Cash, Rosalind (American actress)

    Rosalind Cash, U.S. stage and screen actress who performed with the Negro Ensemble Company and was especially noted for her portrayal of the daughter in Ceremonies in Dark Old Men, 1969, a role she reprised for television in 1975 (b. Dec. 31, 1938--d. Oct. 31,

  • Cash, Rosanne (American singer-songwriter)

    Rosanne Cash, American singer-songwriter who was noted for her clear ringing voice and for often deeply personal songs that blended country music with other genres, notably pop and rock. Cash, the oldest daughter of Johnny Cash and his first wife, Vivian Liberto Cash, grew up in California. Her

  • Cash, Valerie June Carter (American singer and actress)

    June Carter Cash, American singer, songwriter, and actress, who was a leading figure in country music, especially noted for her work with the Carter Family and Johnny Cash. Carter was introduced to country music, specifically Appalachian folk songs, at a very young age. Her mother, Maybelle Carter,

  • Cash, W. J. (American author, editor, and journalist)

    W.J. Cash, American author, editor, and journalist, best known for his single book, The Mind of the South (1941), a classic analysis of white Southern temperament and culture. The son of Carolina Piedmont Baptists, Cash graduated in 1922 from Wake Forest College (North Carolina), attended a year of

  • Cash, Wilbur Joseph (American author, editor, and journalist)

    W.J. Cash, American author, editor, and journalist, best known for his single book, The Mind of the South (1941), a classic analysis of white Southern temperament and culture. The son of Carolina Piedmont Baptists, Cash graduated in 1922 from Wake Forest College (North Carolina), attended a year of

  • cash-and-carry wholesaler (business)

    marketing: Limited-service wholesalers: Cash-and-carry wholesalers usually handle a limited line of fast-moving merchandise, selling to smaller retailers on a cash-only basis and not delivering goods. Truck wholesalers or jobbers sell and deliver directly from their vehicles, often for cash. They carry a limited line of semiperishables such as…

  • Cash-For-Clunkers (United States program)

    Ford Motor Company: Ford in the 21st century: …to the federal government’s “cash-for-clunkers” plan, which gave consumers up to $4,500 toward trade-ins of older cars for new fuel-efficient models. In addition, Ford adopted various cost-cutting measures and focused on stronger brands. In 2010 the automaker sold Volvo to the Chinese company Zhejiang Geely Holding. Several months later…

  • cash-for-questions scandal (British history)

    Mohamed al-Fayed: …by his involvement in the “cash-for-questions” scandal that arose in 1994 after Fayed named ministers who had accepted money from him in return for tabling parliamentary questions on his behalf. After the disclosures were made, two junior ministers resigned and a new committee was established to monitor standards at Westminster.…

  • cash-gate (government scandal, Malawi)

    Joyce Banda: …scandal, which was dubbed “cash-gate” and allegedly involved senior-level government officials. Some members of Banda’s cabinet were allegedly involved, and on October 10 Banda dissolved her entire cabinet to ensure that the officials under suspicion did not interfere with the investigation. A preliminary report on the scandal indicated that…

  • Cashel (Ireland)

    Cashel, town and urban district, County Tipperary, southern Ireland, about 30 miles (50 km) east-southeast of Limerick. The town’s landscape is dominated by the 358-foot (109-metre) Rock of Cashel, a limestone outcrop on the summit of which is a group of ruins that includes remains of the town’s

  • cashew (plant)

    Cashew, (Anacardium occidentale), evergreen shrub or tree of the sumac family (Anacardiaceae), cultivated for its characteristically curved edible seeds, which are commonly called cashew “nuts” though they are not true nuts. The domesticated cashew tree is native to the New World but commercially

  • cashew apple (plant)

    cashew: …swollen stem (hypocarp), called the cashew apple. The cashew apple, which is an accessory fruit (e.g., not a true fruit), is about three times as large as the true fruit and is reddish or yellow. The true fruit has two walls, or shells. The outer shell is smooth, thin, and…

  • cashew family (plant family)

    Anacardiaceae, the sumac family of flowering plants (order Sapindales), with about 80 genera and about 870 species of evergreen or deciduous trees, shrubs, and woody vines. Most members of Anacardiaceae are native to tropical and subtropical areas of the world. A few species occur in temperate

  • cashier’s check (banking)

    check: A cashier’s check is issued by a bank against itself and is signed by the cashier or some other bank officer. It has unquestioned acceptability as exchange. A certified check is a depositor’s check that has been guaranteed by the bank upon which it is drawn…

  • Cashin, Bonnie (American designer)

    Bonnie Cashin, American fashion designer (born Sept. 28, 1915, Oakland, Calif.—died Feb. 3, 2000, New York, N.Y.), was a highly influential innovator who created loose-fitting sportswear and light, layered clothes. She first designed sportswear for the fashion house Adler & Adler from 1937 to 1

  • cashmere (animal fibre)

    Cashmere, animal-hair fibre forming the downy undercoat of the Kashmir goat and belonging to the group of textile fibres called specialty hair fibres. Although the word cashmere is sometimes incorrectly applied to extremely soft wools, only the product of the Kashmir goat is true cashmere. The

  • cashmere goat (breed of goat)

    Cashmere goat, a breed of domestic goat valued for its soft wool, used for the manufacture of cashmere shawls. It varies in build and colour but the most highly esteemed has large ears, slender limbs, curved spreading horns not spirally twisted, and a long, straight, silky white coat. Beneath the

  • cashmere shawl (garment)

    Kashmir shawl, type of woolen shawl woven in Kashmir. According to tradition, the founder of the industry was Zayn-ul-ʿĀbidīn, a 15th-century ruler of Kashmir who introduced weavers from Turkistan. Although woolen shawls were mentioned in writings of the 3rd century bc and the 11th century ad, it i

  • cashmere wool (animal fibre)

    Cashmere, animal-hair fibre forming the downy undercoat of the Kashmir goat and belonging to the group of textile fibres called specialty hair fibres. Although the word cashmere is sometimes incorrectly applied to extremely soft wools, only the product of the Kashmir goat is true cashmere. The

  • cashoo (plant extract)

    Sir Humphry Davy: Early life: …study of tanning: he found catechu, the extract of a tropical plant, as effective as and cheaper than the usual oak extracts, and his published account was long used as a tanner’s guide. In 1803 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society and an honorary member of the…

  • Cashtana (Shaka ruler)

    India: Central Asian rulers: …during the reigns of Nahapana, Cashtana, and Rudradaman—in the first two centuries ce. Rudradaman’s fame is recorded in a lengthy Sanskrit inscription at Junagadh, dating to 150 ce.

  • Casilinum (Italy)

    Capua, town and episcopal see, Campania region, southern Italy, on the Volturno River and the ancient Appian Way, north of Naples. Casilinum was a strategic road junction and was contended for by the Carthaginian general Hannibal and the Romans from 216 to 211 bc, during the Second Punic War; it

  • Casimir effect (physics)

    Casimir effect, effect arising from the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation in which the energy present in empty space might produce a tiny force between two objects. The effect was first postulated in 1948 by Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir. In acoustics the vibration of a violin string

  • Casimir I (duke of Poland)

    Casimir I, duke of Poland who reannexed the formerly Polish provinces of Silesia, Mazovia, and Pomerania (all now in Poland), which had been lost during his father’s reign, and restored the Polish central government. Only surviving son of Duke Mieszko II and Richeza (Ryksa) of Palatine Lorraine,

  • Casimir II (duke of Poland)

    Casimir II, duke of Kraków and of Sandomierz from 1177 to 1194. A member of the Piast dynasty, he drove his brother Mieszko III from the throne and spent much of his reign fighting him. Mieszko actually regained power briefly in 1190–91, retaking Kraków. Casimir became Poland’s most powerful ruler

  • Casimir III (king of Poland)

    Casimir III, king of Poland from 1333 to 1370, called “the Great” because he was deemed a peaceful ruler, a “peasant king,” and a skillful diplomat. Through astute diplomacy he annexed lands from western Russia and eastern Germany. Within his realm he unified the government, codified its unwritten

  • Casimir IV (king of Poland)

    Casimir IV, grand duke of Lithuania (1440–92) and king of Poland (1447–92), who, by patient but tenacious policy, sought to preserve the political union between Poland and Lithuania and to recover the lost lands of old Poland. The great triumph of his reign was the final subjugation of the Teutonic

  • Casimir Jagiellonian (king of Poland)

    Casimir IV, grand duke of Lithuania (1440–92) and king of Poland (1447–92), who, by patient but tenacious policy, sought to preserve the political union between Poland and Lithuania and to recover the lost lands of old Poland. The great triumph of his reign was the final subjugation of the Teutonic

  • Casimir the Great (king of Poland)

    Casimir III, king of Poland from 1333 to 1370, called “the Great” because he was deemed a peaceful ruler, a “peasant king,” and a skillful diplomat. Through astute diplomacy he annexed lands from western Russia and eastern Germany. Within his realm he unified the government, codified its unwritten

  • Casimir the Just (duke of Poland)

    Casimir II, duke of Kraków and of Sandomierz from 1177 to 1194. A member of the Piast dynasty, he drove his brother Mieszko III from the throne and spent much of his reign fighting him. Mieszko actually regained power briefly in 1190–91, retaking Kraków. Casimir became Poland’s most powerful ruler

  • Casimir the Monk (duke of Poland)

    Casimir I, duke of Poland who reannexed the formerly Polish provinces of Silesia, Mazovia, and Pomerania (all now in Poland), which had been lost during his father’s reign, and restored the Polish central government. Only surviving son of Duke Mieszko II and Richeza (Ryksa) of Palatine Lorraine,

  • Casimir the Restorer (duke of Poland)

    Casimir I, duke of Poland who reannexed the formerly Polish provinces of Silesia, Mazovia, and Pomerania (all now in Poland), which had been lost during his father’s reign, and restored the Polish central government. Only surviving son of Duke Mieszko II and Richeza (Ryksa) of Palatine Lorraine,

  • Casimir, Hendrik (Dutch physicist)

    Casimir effect: …in 1948 by Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir.

  • Casimir-Lifshitz effect (physics)

    Casimir effect, effect arising from the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation in which the energy present in empty space might produce a tiny force between two objects. The effect was first postulated in 1948 by Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir. In acoustics the vibration of a violin string

  • Casimir-Périer, Jean (president of France)

    Jean Casimir-Périer, French politician and wealthy businessman who served brief and undistinguished terms as a premier and as the fifth president of the Third Republic. The son of a former minister of the interior, he served as a captain during the Franco-German War (1870–71). In 1876 he was

  • Casimir-Périer, Jean-Paul-Pierre (president of France)

    Jean Casimir-Périer, French politician and wealthy businessman who served brief and undistinguished terms as a premier and as the fifth president of the Third Republic. The son of a former minister of the interior, he served as a captain during the Franco-German War (1870–71). In 1876 he was

  • casimiroa (plant)

    sapote: White sapote, or casimiroa (Casimiroa edulis), ranges from Mexico to Costa Rica and is in the Rutaceae family.

  • Casimiroa edulis (plant)

    sapote: White sapote, or casimiroa (Casimiroa edulis), ranges from Mexico to Costa Rica and is in the Rutaceae family.

  • Casina (play by Plautus)

    comedy: Old and New Comedy in ancient Greece: …him by his wife (Plautus’s Casina); and on an overstern father whose son turns out worse than the product of an indulgent parent (in the Adelphi of Terence). But the satiric quality of these plays is bland by comparison with the trenchant ridicule of Old Comedy. The emphasis in New…

  • casing (excavation)

    petroleum production: Casing: Modern wells are not drilled to their total depth in a continuous process. Drilling may be stopped for logging and testing (see below Formation evaluation), and it may also be stopped to run (insert) casing and cement it to the outer circumference of the…

  • casing (sausage)

    sausage: Casings may be the internal organs of meat animals, paraffin-treated fabric bags, or modern synthetic casings of plastic or reconstituted collagen (insoluble animal protein). Skinless sausages are produced by stuffing the ingredients into cellulose casing, then immersing the sausage in hot followed by cold water,…

  • casing nail

    nail: A casing nail is similar to a finishing nail but has a slightly thicker shaft and a cone-shaped head. Nails smaller than one inch long are called wire nails if they have a head and brads if they have a very small head or none at…

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