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  • Carter Seminary (school, Oklahoma, United States)

    Ardmore: Ardmore is the site of Carter Seminary (formerly Bloomfield Academy, founded 1848), a boarding school for Indian children now operated by the Chickasaw Nation, and of the Greater Southwest Historical Museum. Lake Murray State Park, the Chickasaw National Recreation Area (embracing Arbuckle Mountains), and the Gene Autry Oklahoma Museum are…

  • Carter Sisters and Mother Maybelle (American singing group)

    June Carter Cash: …mother and sisters as the Carter Sisters and Mother Maybelle. The act was featured on several radio and television programs, eventually becoming a regular at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, Tennessee. Noted for her comedic skills and her talents with various musical instruments, especially the autoharp, June began a…

  • Carter, Alvin Pleasant (American singer)

    Carter Family: The group consisted of Alvin Pleasant Carter, known as A.P. Carter (b. April 15, 1891, Maces Spring, Virginia, U.S.—d. November 7, 1960, Kingsport, Tennessee), his wife, Sara, née Sara Dougherty (b. July 21, 1898, Flatwoods, Virginia—d. January 8, 1979, Lodi, California), and his sister-in-law Maybelle Carter, née Maybelle Addington…

  • Carter, Angela (British author)

    Angela Carter, British author who reshaped motifs from mythology, legends, and fairy tales in her books, lending them a ghastly humour and eroticism. Carter rejected an Oxford education to work as a journalist with the Croydon Advertiser, but she later studied medieval literature at the University

  • Carter, Ashton (American physicist and government official)
  • Carter, Ashton Baldwin (American physicist and government official)
  • Carter, Barry Eugene (American singer)

    Barry White, (Barry Eugene Carter), American rhythm-and-blues singer (born Sept. 12, 1944, Galveston, Texas—died July 4, 2003, Los Angeles, Calif.), possessed one of the most recognizable bass-baritone voices in the musical world. Especially popular during the disco-era 1970s—an era he helped set i

  • Carter, Bennett Lester (American musician)

    Benny Carter, American jazz musician, an original and influential alto saxophonist, who was also a masterly composer and arranger and an important bandleader, trumpeter, and clarinetist. Carter grew up in New York City and attended Wilberforce College briefly before joining, as alto saxophonist and

  • Carter, Benny (American musician)

    Benny Carter, American jazz musician, an original and influential alto saxophonist, who was also a masterly composer and arranger and an important bandleader, trumpeter, and clarinetist. Carter grew up in New York City and attended Wilberforce College briefly before joining, as alto saxophonist and

  • Carter, Betty (American singer)

    Betty Carter, American jazz singer who is best remembered for the scat and other complex musical interpretations that showcased her remarkable vocal flexibility and musical imagination. Carter studied piano at the Detroit Conservatory of Music in her native Michigan. At age 16 she began singing in

  • Carter, Billy (American farmer and businessman)

    Billy Carter, farmer and businessman who rose to national prominence when his older brother, Jimmy, was elected president of the United States in 1976. A peanut farmer and proprietor of “Billy Carter’s filling station” in Plains, Georgia, Carter delighted in embellishing his image as a

  • Carter, Brandon (Australian-born English physicist)

    anthropic principle: Forms of the anthropic principle: In 1973 Australian-born English physicist Brandon Carter proposed that the WAP be distinguished from a strong anthropic principle (SAP), which posits that life must exist in the universe. This has been cast as a teleological statement: the universe has been fine-tuned in order to ensure that life arises. Analysis of…

  • Carter, Chris (American writer and producer)

    Chris Carter, American writer and producer who was best known for the television series The X-Files (1993–2002, 2016, and 2018) and its related films. Carter graduated from California State University at Long Beach in 1979 with a degree in journalism and took a job as associate editor for Surfing

  • Carter, Dixie Virginia (American actress)

    Dixie Virginia Carter , American actress (born May 25, 1939, McLemoresville, Tenn.—died April 10, 2010, Houston, Texas), often portrayed independent, successful Southern women and was best known for her role as Julia Sugarbaker on the television situation comedy Designing Women (1986–93). She later

  • Carter, Don (American bowler)

    Don Carter, American professional tenpin bowler who perfected an inimitable unorthodox right-handed backswing (he bent his elbow) that helped him dominate the game from 1951 through 1964. Carter was a charter member and first president of the Professional Bowlers Association (PBA; founded in 1958).

  • Carter, Dwayne Michael, Jr. (American rapper)

    Lil Wayne, American rapper who became one of the top-selling artists in hip-hop in the early 21st century. Lil Wayne grew up in New Orleans’s impoverished 17th Ward. There he came to the attention of Cash Money Records head Bryan Williams, and he soon became a member—with Juvenile, B.G., and

  • Carter, Elizabeth (British author)

    Elizabeth Carter, English poet, translator, and member of a famous group of literary “bluestockings” who gathered around Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu. Carter was the daughter of a learned cleric who taught her Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. She was not a precocious child, but she persevered with an industry

  • Carter, Elliott (American composer)

    Elliott Carter, American composer, a musical innovator whose erudite style and novel principles of polyrhythm, called metric modulation, won worldwide attention. He was twice awarded the Pulitzer Prize for music, in 1960 and 1973. Carter, who was born of a wealthy family, was educated at Harvard

  • Carter, Elliott Cook, Jr. (American composer)

    Elliott Carter, American composer, a musical innovator whose erudite style and novel principles of polyrhythm, called metric modulation, won worldwide attention. He was twice awarded the Pulitzer Prize for music, in 1960 and 1973. Carter, who was born of a wealthy family, was educated at Harvard

  • Carter, Gary (American baseball player)

    Gary Edmund Carter, (“The Kid”), American baseball player (born April 8, 1954, Culver City, Calif.—died Feb. 16, 2012, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla.), represented a dual threat at home plate while playing (1974–92) major league baseball (MLB), notably for the Montreal Expos (1974–84, 1992) and the New

  • Carter, Gary Edmund (American baseball player)

    Gary Edmund Carter, (“The Kid”), American baseball player (born April 8, 1954, Culver City, Calif.—died Feb. 16, 2012, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla.), represented a dual threat at home plate while playing (1974–92) major league baseball (MLB), notably for the Montreal Expos (1974–84, 1992) and the New

  • Carter, Graydon (Canadian journalist and editor)

    Vanity Fair: …returns under a new editor, Graydon Carter. Carter introduced articles on national and world affairs and created special issues (including the Hollywood Issue) and the International Best-Dressed List. Carter retired in 2017 and was succeeded by Radhika Jones.

  • Carter, Helen (American musician)

    Helen Carter, American singer and musician who was a member of the Carter Family band--considered the "first family" of country music--and, after it disbanded, of Mother Maybelle and the Carter Sisters, who toured, recorded, performed on radio and television, and were members of the Grand Ole Opry

  • Carter, Henry (British-American illustrator and journalist)

    Frank Leslie, British-U.S. illustrator and journalist. The Illustrated London News published his early sketches. He moved to the U.S. in 1848. There he founded numerous newspapers and journals, including the New York Journal (1854), Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper (1855)—having changed his

  • Carter, Howard (British archaeologist)

    Howard Carter, British archaeologist, who made one of the richest and most-celebrated contributions to Egyptology: the discovery (1922) of the largely intact tomb of King Tutankhamen. At age 17 Carter joined the British-sponsored archaeological survey of Egypt. He made drawings (1893–99) of the

  • Carter, Hurricane (American boxer)

    Rubin Carter, (“Hurricane”), American boxer (born May 6, 1937, Clifton, N.J.—died April 20, 2014, Toronto, Ont.), showed promise as a professional middleweight pugilist (1961–66)—winning 27 bouts (20 by knockout), losing 12, and recording one draw—prior to becoming a symbol of racial injustice

  • Carter, James Earl, Jr. (president of United States)

    Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States (1977–81), who served as the country’s chief executive during a time of serious problems at home and abroad. His perceived inability to deal successfully with those problems led to an overwhelming defeat in his bid for reelection. However, for his

  • Carter, Janette (American musician)

    Janette Carter, American musician (born July 2, 1923, Maces Spring, Va.—died Jan. 22, 2006, Kingsport, Tenn.), the last second-generation member of the Carter Family—known as the “first family” of country music—was instrumental in preserving Appalachian musical traditions. Carter’s first public a

  • Carter, Jimmy (president of United States)

    Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States (1977–81), who served as the country’s chief executive during a time of serious problems at home and abroad. His perceived inability to deal successfully with those problems led to an overwhelming defeat in his bid for reelection. However, for his

  • Carter, Joe (American baseball player)

    Toronto Blue Jays: …first baseman John Olerud, outfielder Joe Carter, and second baseman Roberto Alomar, and Toronto defeated its former manager Cox’s Atlanta Braves in six games. Toronto returned to the World Series the next year and beat the Philadelphia Phillies on Carter’s series-winning home run in the ninth inning of game six,…

  • Carter, John Charles (American actor)

    Charlton Heston, American actor who was known for his chiseled features and compelling speaking voice and for his numerous roles as historical figures and famous literary characters. Heston decided to become an actor after impulsively auditioning for a high-school play. His stage experience in high

  • Carter, John E. (American singer)

    John E. Carter, (Johnny Carter), American singer (born June 2, 1934, Chicago, Ill.—died Aug. 21, 2009, Harvey, Ill.), captivated audiences with his clear falsetto and high tenor voice as a member of the influential African American vocal groups the Flamingos and the Dells. Carter and other choir

  • Carter, John W. (British author)

    forgery: Instances of literary forgery: …the greater in 1934 when John W. Carter and Henry Graham Pollard published An Enquiry into the Nature of Certain Nineteenth Century Pamphlets, proving that about 40 or 50 of these, commanding high prices, were forgeries, and that all could be traced to Wise. Subsequent research confirmed the finding of…

  • Carter, Johnny (American singer)

    John E. Carter, (Johnny Carter), American singer (born June 2, 1934, Chicago, Ill.—died Aug. 21, 2009, Harvey, Ill.), captivated audiences with his clear falsetto and high tenor voice as a member of the influential African American vocal groups the Flamingos and the Dells. Carter and other choir

  • Carter, June (American singer and actress)

    June Carter Cash, American singer, songwriter, and actress, who was a leading figure in country music, especially noted for her work with the Carter Family and Johnny Cash. Carter was introduced to country music, specifically Appalachian folk songs, at a very young age. Her mother, Maybelle Carter,

  • Carter, Kevin (South African photojournalist)

    Kevin Carter, South African photojournalist (born Sept. 13, 1960, Johannesburg, South Africa—died July 27, 1994, Johannesburg), recorded on film the racial strife and political chaos of his native South Africa, but he captured international attention and the 1994 Pulitzer Prize for a haunting p

  • Carter, Lorene (American singer)

    Betty Carter, American jazz singer who is best remembered for the scat and other complex musical interpretations that showcased her remarkable vocal flexibility and musical imagination. Carter studied piano at the Detroit Conservatory of Music in her native Michigan. At age 16 she began singing in

  • Carter, Lorraine (American singer)

    Betty Carter, American jazz singer who is best remembered for the scat and other complex musical interpretations that showcased her remarkable vocal flexibility and musical imagination. Carter studied piano at the Detroit Conservatory of Music in her native Michigan. At age 16 she began singing in

  • Carter, Maybelle (American musician)

    Maybelle Carter, American guitarist whose distinctive playing style and long influential career mark her as a classic figure in country music. By the time she was 12 years old, Maybelle Addington was well versed in the traditional hill-country songs of the region and had become a skilled and

  • Carter, Montana Slim (Canadian singer)

    Wilfred Arthur Charles Carter, ("WIF"; "MONTANA SLIM"), Canadian country music singer whose down-home, simple songs about fur trappers, cowboy life, and other homegrown subjects made him one of the country’s most popular attractions during a more than 60-year career (b. Dec. 18, 1904--d. Dec. 5,

  • Carter, Mrs. Leslie (American actress)

    Mrs. Leslie Carter, American actress with a sweeping, highly dramatic style, often called “the American Sarah Bernhardt.” Carter grew up in Dayton, Ohio (from 1870, after her father’s death), and was educated at Cooper Seminary. In 1880, at age 17, she married Leslie Carter, a Chicago socialite.

  • Carter, Nell (American singer and actress)

    Nell Carter, (Nell Hardy), American singer and actress (born Sept. 13, 1948, Birmingham, Ala.—died Jan. 23, 2003, Beverly Hills, Calif.), won a Tony Award in 1978 for her exuberant performance in the Broadway musical revue Ain’t Misbehavin’ and in 1982 won an Emmy Award for a TV presentation of t

  • Carter, Nick (fictional character)

    Nick Carter, fictional character, a detective who was created by John Russell Coryell in the story “The Old Detective’s Pupil,” published in 1886 in the New York Weekly. The character was further developed by Frederic Van Rensselaer Dey, who from 1892 (The Piano Box Mystery) to 1913 (The Spider’s

  • Carter, Robert Lee (American civil-rights lawyer and judge)

    Robert Lee Carter, American civil rights lawyer and judge (born March 11, 1917, Caryville, Fla.—died Jan. 3, 2012, New York, N.Y.), worked from 1944 as a member of the NAACP’s Legal Defense and Educational Fund, fighting racial discrimination in education and housing—in particular, doing work to

  • Carter, Ron (American musician)

    Miles Davis: Free jazz and fusion: …in late 1962 with bassist Ron Carter, pianist Herbie Hancock, and teenage drummer Tony Williams; tenor saxophonist Wayne Shorter joined the lineup in 1964. Davis’s new quintet was characterized by a light, free sound and a repertoire that extended from the blues to avant-garde and free jazz.

  • Carter, Rosalynn (American first lady)

    Rosalynn Carter, American first lady (1977–81)—the wife of Jimmy Carter, 39th president of the United States—and mental health advocate. She was one of the most politically astute and active of all American first ladies. Rosalynn was the eldest of four children (two girls and two boys) born to

  • Carter, Rubin (American boxer)

    Rubin Carter, (“Hurricane”), American boxer (born May 6, 1937, Clifton, N.J.—died April 20, 2014, Toronto, Ont.), showed promise as a professional middleweight pugilist (1961–66)—winning 27 bouts (20 by knockout), losing 12, and recording one draw—prior to becoming a symbol of racial injustice

  • Carter, Sara (American singer)

    Carter Family: …1960, Kingsport, Tennessee), his wife, Sara, née Sara Dougherty (b. July 21, 1898, Flatwoods, Virginia—d. January 8, 1979, Lodi, California), and his sister-in-law Maybelle Carter, née Maybelle Addington (b. May 10, 1909, Nickelsville, Virginia—d. October 23, 1978, Nashville, Tennessee).

  • Carter, Shawn Corey (American rapper and entrepreneur)

    JAY-Z, American rapper and entrepreneur, one of the most influential figures in hip-hop in the 1990s and early 21st century. Shawn Carter grew up in Brooklyn’s often dangerous Marcy Projects, where he was raised mainly by his mother. His firsthand experience with illicit drug dealing would inform

  • Carter, Vince (American basketball player)

    Toronto Raptors: …acquired its first superstar, guard-forward Vince Carter, in a 1998 draft-day trade. A five-time All-Star for Toronto, Carter helped the franchise reach its first playoff berth, during the 1999–2000 season. In 2000–01 the Raptors again qualified for the postseason and advanced to the conference semifinals, a dramatic seven-game loss to…

  • Carter, W. Horace (American journalist)

    W(alter) Horace Carter, American journalist (born Jan. 20, 1921, Albemarle, N.C.—died Sept. 16, 2009, Wilmington, N.C.), helped to curb the presence of the white supremacist Ku Klux Klan in the Carolinas through a series of truculent articles and editorials in the newspaper he published, the Tabor

  • Carter, Walter Horace (American journalist)

    W(alter) Horace Carter, American journalist (born Jan. 20, 1921, Albemarle, N.C.—died Sept. 16, 2009, Wilmington, N.C.), helped to curb the presence of the white supremacist Ku Klux Klan in the Carolinas through a series of truculent articles and editorials in the newspaper he published, the Tabor

  • Carter, Wif (Canadian singer)

    Wilfred Arthur Charles Carter, ("WIF"; "MONTANA SLIM"), Canadian country music singer whose down-home, simple songs about fur trappers, cowboy life, and other homegrown subjects made him one of the country’s most popular attractions during a more than 60-year career (b. Dec. 18, 1904--d. Dec. 5,

  • Carter, Wilfred Arthur Charles (Canadian singer)

    Wilfred Arthur Charles Carter, ("WIF"; "MONTANA SLIM"), Canadian country music singer whose down-home, simple songs about fur trappers, cowboy life, and other homegrown subjects made him one of the country’s most popular attractions during a more than 60-year career (b. Dec. 18, 1904--d. Dec. 5,

  • Carter, William Alton, III (American farmer and businessman)

    Billy Carter, farmer and businessman who rose to national prominence when his older brother, Jimmy, was elected president of the United States in 1976. A peanut farmer and proprietor of “Billy Carter’s filling station” in Plains, Georgia, Carter delighted in embellishing his image as a

  • Carter, William Morris (British colonial administrator)

    Uganda: Growth of a peasant economy: …particular by the chief justice, William Morris Carter. Carter was chairman of a land commission whose activities continued until after World War I. Again and again the commission urged that provision be made for European planters, but their efforts were unsuccessful. Bell himself had laid the foundations for a peasant…

  • Carteret, Philip (British navigator)

    New Britain: …who named the island, and Philip Carteret, who found St. George’s Channel (east) in 1767. As Neu-Pommern (New Pomerania), the island became part of a German protectorate in 1884. It was mandated to Australia following World War I, taken by the Japanese in 1942, and reoccupied in 1945. It subsequently…

  • Carteret, Sir George, Baronet (British politician)

    Sir George Carteret, Baronet, British Royalist politician and colonial proprietor of New Jersey. A British naval officer and lieutenant governor of Jersey, Carteret made the island a Royalist stronghold during the English Civil Wars and privateered in the Stuart cause, thereby winning a knighthood

  • Cartes de la France à l’heure de la mondialisation, Les (work by Vedrine)

    cultural globalization: Challenges to national sovereignty and identity: In Les cartes de la France à l’heure de la mondialisation (2000; “France’s Assets in the Era of Globalization”), French Foreign Minister Hubert Vedrine denounced the United States as a “hyperpower” that promotes “uniformity” and “unilateralism.” Speaking for the French intelligentsia, he argued that France should…

  • Cartes Jara, Horacio Manuel (president of Paraguay)

    Horacio Cartes, Paraguayan businessman and politician who was elected president of Paraguay in 2013, restoring executive power to the centre-right Colorado Party, which had lost the presidency in 2008 after ruling the country since 1947. Cartes’s father, a pilot who obtained the Paraguayan

  • Cartes, Horacio (president of Paraguay)

    Horacio Cartes, Paraguayan businessman and politician who was elected president of Paraguay in 2013, restoring executive power to the centre-right Colorado Party, which had lost the presidency in 2008 after ruling the country since 1947. Cartes’s father, a pilot who obtained the Paraguayan

  • Cartesian circle (philosophy)

    Cartesian circle, Allegedly circular reasoning used by René Descartes to show that whatever he perceives “clearly and distinctly” is true. Descartes argues that clear and distinct perception is a guarantor of truth because God, who is not a deceiver, would not allow Descartes to be mistaken about

  • Cartesian coordinates (geometry)

    geomagnetic field: Representation of the field: …different coordinate systems, such as Cartesian, polar, and spherical. In a Cartesian system the vector is decomposed into three components corresponding to the projections of the vector on three mutually orthogonal axes that are usually labeled x, y, z. In polar coordinates the vector is typically described by the length…

  • Cartesian product (mathematics)

    set theory: Operations on sets: The Cartesian product of two sets A and B, denoted by A × B, is defined as the set consisting of all ordered pairs (a, b) for which a ∊ A and b ∊ B. For example, if A = {x, y} and B = {3,…

  • Cartesianism (philosophy)

    Cartesianism, the philosophical and scientific traditions derived from the writings of the French philosopher René Descartes (1596–1650). Metaphysically and epistemologically, Cartesianism is a species of rationalism, because Cartesians hold that knowledge—indeed, certain knowledge—can be derived

  • Carthage (Illinois, United States)

    Carthage, city, seat (1833) of Hancock county, western Illinois, U.S. It lies near the Mississippi River, about 85 miles (135 km) southwest of Davenport, Iowa. Laid out in 1833 and named for the ancient North African city (see Carthage), the community was hostile to the Mormons who settled at

  • Carthage (Missouri, United States)

    Carthage, city, seat of Jasper county, southwestern Missouri, U.S. It lies along Spring River, just east of Joplin. Established in 1842, it was named for ancient Carthage. During the American Civil War, it was a centre of border warfare and was destroyed by Confederate guerrillas in 1861; it was

  • Carthage (ancient city, Tunisia)

    Carthage, great city of antiquity on the north coast of Africa, now a residential suburb of the city of Tunis, Tunisia. According to tradition, Carthage was founded by the Phoenicians of Tyre in 814 bce; its Phoenician name means “new town.” The archaeological site of Carthage was added to UNESCO’s

  • Carthage, Battle of (Punic Wars)

    Battle of Carthage, (146 bce). The destruction of Carthage was an act of Roman aggression prompted as much by motives of revenge for earlier wars as by greed for the rich farming lands around the city. The Carthaginian defeat was total and absolute, instilling fear and horror into Rome’s enemies

  • Carthage, councils of (religious history)

    canon law: Development of canon law in the West: …were read out at the councils of Carthage and, if confirmed, included in the Acts, which contained the newly enacted canons. Thus, at the third Council of Carthage (397), the Compendium of the Council of Hippo (393) was included. The collection of the 17th Council of Carthage (419) was soon…

  • Carthage, Exarchate of (historical province, Africa)

    Exarchate of Carthage, semiautonomous African province of the Byzantine Empire, centred in the city of Carthage, in North Africa. It was established in the late 6th century by the Byzantine emperor Maurice (reigned 582–602) as a military enclave in Byzantine territory occupied largely by African

  • Carthaginian (people)

    Leptis Magna: …it was later settled by Carthaginians, probably at the end of the 6th century bce. Its natural harbour at the mouth of the Wadi Labdah facilitated the city’s growth as a major Mediterranean and trans-Saharan trade centre, and it also became a market for agricultural production in the fertile coastland…

  • Carthaginian War, First (Carthage and Rome [264 bce–241 bce])

    First Punic War, (264–241 bce) first of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in the destruction of Carthage. The First Punic War was fought to establish control over the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. In 264 the Carthaginians intervened

  • Carthaginian War, Second (Carthage and Rome [218 bce–201 bce])

    Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians

  • Carthaginian War, Third (Carthage and Rome [149 bce– 146 bce])

    Third Punic War, (149–146 bce), third of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) Empire that resulted in the final destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce

  • Carthaginian Wars (Carthage and Rome [264 bce–146 bce])

    Punic Wars, (264–146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. The origin of these conflicts is to be found in the

  • Carthago (ancient city, Tunisia)

    Carthage, great city of antiquity on the north coast of Africa, now a residential suburb of the city of Tunis, Tunisia. According to tradition, Carthage was founded by the Phoenicians of Tyre in 814 bce; its Phoenician name means “new town.” The archaeological site of Carthage was added to UNESCO’s

  • Carthago Nova (Spain)

    Cartagena, port city, in the provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Murcia, southeastern Spain. It is the site of Spain’s chief Mediterranean naval base. Its harbour, the finest on the east coast, is a deep spacious bay dominated to seaward by four hills crowned with

  • carthamin (dye)

    safflower: …may be used to obtain carthamin, a red textile dye that was commercially important at one time but has since been replaced by synthetic aniline dyes, except in local areas of southwestern Asia. Safflower has been used as an adulterant of the condiment saffron.

  • Carthamus tinctoris (plant)

    Safflower, flowering annual plant, Carthamus tinctoris, of the Asteraceae family; native to parts of Asia and Africa, from central India through the Middle East to the upper reaches of the Nile River and into Ethiopia. The safflower plant grows from 0.3 to 1.2 metres (1 to 4 feet) high and has

  • Carthamus tinctorius (plant)

    Safflower, flowering annual plant, Carthamus tinctoris, of the Asteraceae family; native to parts of Asia and Africa, from central India through the Middle East to the upper reaches of the Nile River and into Ethiopia. The safflower plant grows from 0.3 to 1.2 metres (1 to 4 feet) high and has

  • Carthusians (religious order)

    Carthusian, an order of monks founded by St. Bruno of Cologne in 1084 in the valley of Chartreuse, north of Grenoble, Fr. The Carthusians, who played an important role in the monastic-reform movement of the 11th and 12th centuries, combine the solitary life of hermits with a common life within the

  • Carthusians, Order of (religious order)

    Carthusian, an order of monks founded by St. Bruno of Cologne in 1084 in the valley of Chartreuse, north of Grenoble, Fr. The Carthusians, who played an important role in the monastic-reform movement of the 11th and 12th centuries, combine the solitary life of hermits with a common life within the

  • Cartier Foundation (museum, Paris, France)

    Cartier Foundation, contemporary art museum in Paris, France, designed by French architect Jean Nouvel and completed in 1994. In addition to housing a permanent collection, the museum exhibits the work of a variety of international contemporary artists. It has featured painting, drawing, video,

  • Cartier Foundation for Contemporary Art (museum, Paris, France)

    Cartier Foundation, contemporary art museum in Paris, France, designed by French architect Jean Nouvel and completed in 1994. In addition to housing a permanent collection, the museum exhibits the work of a variety of international contemporary artists. It has featured painting, drawing, video,

  • Cartier, Alfred (French jeweler)

    jewelry: 19th century: In Paris in 1898 Alfred Cartier and his son Louis founded a jewelry firm of great refinement. The firm was distinguished for a production characterized by very fine settings, largely of platinum, which were designed so that only the precious stones, always selected from the very purest, were visible.…

  • Cartier, Jacques (French explorer)

    Jacques Cartier, French mariner, whose explorations of the Canadian coast and the St. Lawrence River (1534, 1535, 1541–42) laid the basis for later French claims to North America (see New France). Cartier also is credited with naming Canada, though he used the name—derived from the Huron-Iroquois

  • Cartier, Sir George-Étienne, Baronet (prime minister of Canada)

    Sir George-Étienne Cartier, Baronet, statesman, Canadian prime minister jointly with John A. Macdonald (1857–58; 1858–62), and promoter of confederation and the improvement of Anglo-French relations in Canada. Cartier practiced as a lawyer until 1837, when he took part in the rebellion that sent

  • Cartier-Bresson, Henri (French photographer)

    Henri Cartier-Bresson, French photographer whose humane, spontaneous photographs helped establish photojournalism as an art form. His theory that photography can capture the meaning beneath outward appearance in instants of extraordinary clarity is perhaps best expressed in his book Images à la

  • cartilage (anatomy)

    Cartilage, connective tissue forming the skeleton of mammalian embryos before bone formation begins and persisting in parts of the human skeleton into adulthood. Cartilage is the only component of the skeletons of certain primitive vertebrates, including lampreys and sharks. It is composed of a

  • cartilaginous bone

    human skeleton: Development of cranial bones: …different types of developmental origin—the cartilaginous, or substitution, bones, which replace cartilages preformed in the general shape of the bone; and membrane bones, which are laid down within layers of connective tissue. For the most part, the substitution bones form the floor of the cranium, while membrane bones form the…

  • cartilaginous fish (fish class)

    Chondrichthyan, (class Chondrichthyes), any member of the diverse group of cartilaginous fishes that includes the sharks, skates, rays, and chimaeras. The class is one of the two great groups of living fishes, the other being the osteichthians, or bony fishes. The name Selachii is also sometimes

  • cartilaginous joint (anatomy)

    joint: Cartilaginous joints: These joints, also called synchondroses, are the unossified masses between bones or parts of bones that pass through a cartilaginous stage before ossification. Examples are the synchondroses between the occipital and sphenoid bones and between the sphenoid and ethmoid bones of the floor…

  • Cartimandua (queen of Brigantes)

    Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes, a large tribe in northern Britain, whose rule depended upon support from the invading Roman armies. After concluding a treaty with the emperor Claudius early in his conquest of Britain, which began in ad 43, Cartimandua was faced with a series of revolts by

  • Cartland, Dame Barbara (British author)

    Dame Barbara Cartland, English author of more than 700 books, mostly formulaic novels of romantic love set in the 19th century. Following the death of her father in World War I, Cartland moved with her family to London. There she began contributing to the Daily Express newspaper, receiving

  • Cartland, Mary Barbara Hamilton (British author)

    Dame Barbara Cartland, English author of more than 700 books, mostly formulaic novels of romantic love set in the 19th century. Following the death of her father in World War I, Cartland moved with her family to London. There she began contributing to the Daily Express newspaper, receiving

  • cartographic intelligence

    intelligence: Cartographic: Derived from maps and charts, cartographic intelligence is crucial for all military operations. During the Falkland Islands War, for example, British forces depended heavily on cartography. They also interviewed schoolteachers and scientists who had recently left the islands so that they had the most accurate information possible on road conditions,…

  • cartographic projection (cartography)

    Projection, in cartography, systematic representation on a flat surface of features of a curved surface, as that of the Earth. Such a representation presents an obvious problem but one that did not disturb ancient or medieval cartographers. Only when the voyages of exploration stimulated p

  • Cartographic Services (American company)

    MapQuest, American Web-based, wireless mapping service owned by AOL (formerly known as America Online). MapQuest is headquartered in Lancaster, Pa., and Denver, Colo. In 1967 R.R. Donnelley and Sons created a new division, Cartographic Services, to produce printed road maps and distribute them for

  • cartography (geography)

    Cartography, the art and science of graphically representing a geographical area, usually on a flat surface such as a map or chart. It may involve the superimposition of political, cultural, or other nongeographical divisions onto the representation of a geographical area. A brief treatment of

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