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  • carrion flower (plant, genus Stapelia)

    Carrion flower, (genus Stapelia), genus of about 44 species of succulent plants of the milkweed family (Apocynaceae), native to tropical areas of southern Africa. They are named for the unpleasant carrion odour of their large flowers, which attracts flies to pollinate the plants and lay their eggs

  • carrion flower (plant, Smilax species)

    carrion flower: Smilax herbacea, a native American woodland vine, has malodorous flowers and is also called carrion flower. It is of the family Smilacaceae.

  • carrion hawk (bird)

    Caracara, any of about 10 species of birds of prey of the New World subfamily Polyborinae (or Daptriinae) of the family Falconidae. Caracaras feed largely on carrion, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They are gregarious and aggressive. In spite of their smaller size, they dominate vultures when

  • carrion-feeder (zoology)

    Scavenger, animal that feeds partly or wholly on the bodies of dead animals. Many invertebrates, such as carrion beetles, live almost entirely on decomposing animal matter. The burying beetles actually enter the dead bodies of small animals before feeding on them underground. Among vertebrates

  • Carrizo Mountains (mountains, North America)

    Carrizo Mountains, segment of the Colorado Plateau, in extreme northeastern Arizona, U.S. The highest point of this extinct volcanic range is Pastora Peak (9,412 ft [2,869 m]). The arid mountains are within the Navajo Indian

  • carro (theatre)

    theatre: Staging conventions: The wagons, called carros, on which the scenery was mounted were positioned next to platforms that had been erected in every town. Developments were somewhat different in England and the Netherlands. There, the mansions themselves became portable, being called pageant wagons in England and wagonseel in the Netherlands.…

  • carroballistae (catapult)

    military technology: Mechanical artillery: …operations, and a complement of carroballistae, small wheel-mounted torsion engines, was a regular part of the legion. The onager and the medieval catapult were identical in concept, but ballistae were not used after the classical era.

  • Carroll (county, Maryland, United States)

    Carroll, county, northern Maryland, U.S. It consists of a piedmont region bounded by Pennsylvania to the north, the Patapsco River (north branch) and Liberty Reservoir to the southeast, the Patapsco River (south branch) to the south, and the Monocacy River to the northwest. The southeastern corner

  • Carroll (county, New Hampshire, United States)

    Carroll, county, eastern New Hampshire, U.S., bordered by Lake Winnipesaukee to the southwest, the White Mountains to the northwest, and Maine to the east. Mountain ranges include the Squam and Ossipee mountains and Robbins Ridge. The principal streams are the Saco, Ellis, Swift, Pine, and Ossipee

  • Carroll, Anna Ella (American political pamphleteer)

    Anna Ella Carroll, political pamphleteer and constitutional theorist who claimed to have played a role in determining Union strategy during the American Civil War (1861–65). Carroll was a member of one of the state’s most prominent families. She emerged in the 1850s as a spokesperson for the

  • Carroll, Charles (United States statesman)

    Charles Carroll, American patriot leader, the longest- surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, and the only Roman Catholic to sign that document. Until 1765 Carroll attended Jesuit colleges in Maryland and France and studied law in France and England. Before and during the American

  • Carroll, Daniel Patrick (Irish-born British actor and female impersonator)

    Danny La Rue, (Daniel Patrick Carroll), Irish-born British actor and female impersonator (born July 26, 1927, Cork, Ire.—died May 31, 2009, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, Eng.), was a self-described “comic in a frock,” elevating female impersonation from its dubious history as a bawdy drag act into a

  • Carroll, Earl (American showman)

    Earl Carroll, American showman, theatrical producer, and director, best known for his Earl Carroll’s Vanities (1922–48), which were popular revues of songs, dances, and flamboyantly costumed ladies. Over the doors of his Earl Carroll Theatre in New York City and his Earl Carroll Restaurant in

  • Carroll, James (American physician)

    Walter Reed: …appointed Reed and army physician James Carroll to investigate Sanarelli’s bacillus. It also sent Aristides Agramonte, an assistant surgeon in the U.S. Army, to investigate the yellow-fever cases in Cuba. Agramonte isolated Sanarelli’s bacillus not only from one-third of the yellow-fever patients but also from persons suffering from other diseases.…

  • Carroll, James Dennis (American poet and musician)

    Jim Carroll, (James Dennis Carroll), American poet and rock musician (born Aug. 1, 1949, New York, N.Y.—died Sept. 11, 2009, New York City), wrote several acclaimed collections of poems but was best known for The Basketball Diaries (1978; filmed 1995), an unvarnished account of his drug-addled

  • Carroll, Jim (American poet and musician)

    Jim Carroll, (James Dennis Carroll), American poet and rock musician (born Aug. 1, 1949, New York, N.Y.—died Sept. 11, 2009, New York City), wrote several acclaimed collections of poems but was best known for The Basketball Diaries (1978; filmed 1995), an unvarnished account of his drug-addled

  • Carroll, John (American bishop)

    John Carroll, first Roman Catholic bishop in the United States and the first archbishop of Baltimore. Under his leadership the Roman Catholic church became firmly established in the United States. Carroll was the son of a prominent Maryland family. Because there were no schools for the training of

  • Carroll, John B. (American psychologist)

    human intelligence: Psychometric theories: The American psychologist John B. Carroll, in Human Cognitive Abilities (1993), proposed a “three-stratum” psychometric model of intelligence that expanded upon existing theories of intelligence. Many psychologists regard Carroll’s model as definitive, because it is based upon reanalyses of hundreds of data sets. In the first stratum, Carroll…

  • Carroll, John Sawyer (American journalist)

    John Sawyer Carroll, American journalist (born Jan. 23, 1942, New York, N.Y.—died June 14, 2015, Lexington, Ky.), guided three newspapers to Pulitzer Prizes and famously resigned (2005) as editor of the Los Angeles Times rather than make the deep staff cuts required by the newspaper’s owner. As

  • Carroll, Lewis (British author)

    Lewis Carroll, English logician, mathematician, photographer, and novelist, especially remembered for Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking-Glass (1871). His poem The Hunting of the Snark (1876) is nonsense literature of the highest order. Dodgson was the

  • Carroll, Madeleine (British actress)

    The 39 Steps: …board he meets Pamela (Madeleine Carroll), an attractive young woman who tries to have him arrested. Hannay manages to escape, but he later goes to the local police to tell his story. They do not believe him, however, and Hannay runs. Soon thereafter he is spotted by Pamela, who…

  • Carroll, Vinnette (American director and actress)

    Vinnette Carroll, American playwright, stage director, and actress, the first African American woman to direct on Broadway. Carroll attended Long Island University (B.A., 1944) and New York University (M.A., 1946). Although she was educated in psychology and for a time worked as a clinical

  • Carroll, Vinnette Justine (American director and actress)

    Vinnette Carroll, American playwright, stage director, and actress, the first African American woman to direct on Broadway. Carroll attended Long Island University (B.A., 1944) and New York University (M.A., 1946). Although she was educated in psychology and for a time worked as a clinical

  • Carrollton (Georgia, United States)

    Carrollton, city, seat (1829) of Carroll county, western Georgia, U.S. It is situated near the Little Tallapoosa River, about 45 miles (70 km) southwest of Atlanta. Formerly called Troupsville, it was renamed (1829) for the Maryland plantation of patriot Charles Carroll. It developed as a trade and

  • carros (theatre)

    theatre: Staging conventions: The wagons, called carros, on which the scenery was mounted were positioned next to platforms that had been erected in every town. Developments were somewhat different in England and the Netherlands. There, the mansions themselves became portable, being called pageant wagons in England and wagonseel in the Netherlands.…

  • Carrosse d’or, Le (film by Renoir [1952])

    Vito Pandolfi: …commedia dell’arte in the film The Golden Coach (1952). Pandolfi also directed two films: Gli ultimi (1962; “The Last Ones”), based on a work by Father Davide Maria Turoldo, and Provincia di Latina (1965; “The Province of Latina”), a documentary.

  • carrot (plant)

    Carrot, (Daucus carota), herbaceous, generally biennial plant of the Apiaceae family that produces an edible taproot. Among common varieties root shapes range from globular to long, with lower ends blunt to pointed. Besides the orange-coloured roots, white-, yellow-, and purple-fleshed varieties

  • carrot rust fly (insect)

    rust fly: The carrot rust fly (Psila rosae; also known as Chamaepsila rosae) often damages carrots, celery, and related plants.

  • carrot-yellows virus (pathology)

    malformation: Translocation of organs: The carrot-yellows virus, for example, stimulates production of aerial tubers in the axils of the leaves of potato plants. Large numbers of adventitious roots (arising in abnormal places) appear on the stems of tomato plants infected with the bacteria Pseudomonas solanacearum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens as well…

  • carroting (textiles)

    felt: This operation, known as carroting, provides the fibres with optimum felting power. The release of mercury fumes during the felting process led to an especially high rate of mercury poisoning within people working in the industry.

  • carrousel (equestrian display)

    tournament: …tournament eventually degenerated into the carrousel, a kind of equestrian polonaise, and the more harmless sport of tilting at a ring. In modern times there have been occasional romantic revivals, the most famous perhaps being the tournament at Eglinton Castle, in Scotland, in 1839, described in Disraeli’s novel Endymion (1880).…

  • Carrousel Garden (garden, Paris, France)

    Jacques Wirtz: …a contest to redesign the Carrousel Garden, which connected the Louvre Museum in Paris with the 63-acre (25-hectare) Tuileries Gardens, redesigned in 1664 by the celebrated French landscape architect André Le Nôtre.

  • Carrousel, Arc de Triomphe du (arch, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Triumphal Way: Northwest from the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (Carrousel Triumphal Arch), located in the courtyard between the open arms of the Louvre, extends one of the most remarkable perspectives to be seen in any modern city. It is sometimes called la Voie Triomphale (“the Triumphal Way”). From the…

  • Carrpos (plant genus)

    bryophyte: Ecology and habitats: …Lejeuneaceae), salt pans (the liverwort Carrpos), bases of quartz pebbles (the moss Aschisma), and copper-rich substrata (the moss Scopelophila).

  • Carrucci, Jacopo (Florentine artist)

    Jacopo da Pontormo, Florentine painter who broke away from High Renaissance classicism to create a more personal, expressive style that is sometimes classified as early Mannerism. Pontormo was the son of Bartolommeo Carrucci, a painter. According to the biographer Giorgio Vasari, he was apprenticed

  • carrulim (beverage)

    Paraguay: Daily life and social customs: …is a tradition to imbibe carrulim, a Guaraní drink made of caña, ruda (a root plant that produces yellow flowers and is used mostly as a medicine), and lemon. Those three ingredients, according to Guaraní beliefs, bring happiness, drive away evil, and protect a person’s health. Many Paraguayans believe that…

  • Carruth, Hayden (American poet and literary critic)

    Hayden Carruth, American poet and literary critic best known for his jazz-influenced style and for works that explore mental illness. Carruth was educated at the University of North Carolina (B.A., 1943) and the University of Chicago (M.A., 1948). He worked as an editor for several magazines,

  • Carry Back (racehorse)

    Carry Back, (foaled 1958), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) that in 1961 won the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness Stakes but lost the Belmont Stakes, ending his bid for the coveted Triple Crown of American horse racing. Carry Back was an unattractive, scrawny-looking colt. His owner thought so

  • carrying capacity (biology)

    Carrying capacity, the average population density or population size of a species below which its numbers tend to increase and above which its numbers tend to decrease because of shortages of resources. The carrying capacity is different for each species in a habitat because of that species’

  • CARS (physics)

    spectroscopy: Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): This technique involves the phenomenon of wave mixing, takes advantage of the high intensity of stimulated Raman scattering, and has the applicability of conventional Raman spectroscopy. In the CARS method two strong collinear laser beams at frequencies ν1 and ν2…

  • Cars (film by Lasseter [2006])

    John Lasseter: He codirected Cars (2006), which followed an array of anthropomorphic vehicles. During that time Lasseter also produced such Pixar films as Monsters, Inc. (2001), about the clash between the monster and human worlds, and Finding Nemo (2003), about a clownfish’s oceanic search for his son.

  • Cars 2 (film by Lasseter [2011])

    John Lasseter: In addition, he codirected Cars 2 (2011).

  • Cars 3 (film by Fee [2017])

    Chris Cooper: …to the Pixar animated film Cars 3. Cooper’s film credits from 2019 included A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood, about Mister Rogers (played by Tom Hanks).

  • Cars That Ate Paris, The (film by Weir [1974])

    Peter Weir: …first feature film, the comic-horror The Cars That Ate Paris (1974), which he also wrote, received some critical notice. He won an international audience with the haunting and atmospheric Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975), followed by The Last Wave (1977), for which he also cowrote the screenplay and which was…

  • ƈarşaf (garment)

    Afghanistan: Daily life and social customs: …have continued to wear the chador (or chadri, in Afghanistan), the full body covering mandated by the Taliban. This has been true even of those women of the middle class (most in Kabul) who had shed that garment during the communist era. Some men have shaved or trimmed their beards,…

  • Carson City (Nevada, United States)

    Carson City, capital of Nevada, U.S., in Eagle Valley near the eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada range, 30 miles (48 km) south of Reno and 14 miles (23 km) east of Lake Tahoe. Founded in 1858 on the site of Eagle Station (later Eagle Ranch), it took its name from the nearby Carson River, which

  • Carson of Duncairn, Edward Henry Carson, Baron (Anglo-Irish politician)

    Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, lawyer and politician, known as the “uncrowned king of Ulster,” who successfully led Ulster unionist resistance to the British government’s attempts to introduce Home Rule for the whole of Ireland. Although Carson was to become the champion of the northern

  • Carson Pirie Scott & Co. store (Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Western architecture: Construction in iron and glass: …the Schlesinger-Mayer Department Store (later Carson Pirie Scott) in Chicago (1898–1904), in which the towered corner marked the climax of the logic of the steel frame and the entrance was made inviting with rich, naturalistic ornament. At the very end of the 19th century, the important emblem of modern commerce…

  • Carson River (river, United States)

    Carson River, river formed by headstreams in the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S. The Carson flows 125 miles (200 km) northeast into western Nevada, where it disappears into the Carson Sink. Together with the Truckee and Walker rivers, the Carson serves extensive irrigation and reclamation

  • Carson, Anne (Canadian poet)

    Anne Carson, Canadian poet, essayist, translator, and Classicist whose work treats Classical subjects in what has been called a postmodern fashion. Carson’s genre-averse approach to writing mixes poetry with essay, literary criticism, and other forms of prose, and her style is at once quirky,

  • Carson, Ben (American neurosurgeon and politician)

    Ben Carson, American politician and neurosurgeon who performed the first successful separation of conjoined twins who were attached at the back of the head (occipital craniopagus twins). The operation, which took place in 1987, lasted some 22 hours and involved a 70-member surgical team. Carson

  • Carson, Benjamin Solomon, Sr. (American neurosurgeon and politician)

    Ben Carson, American politician and neurosurgeon who performed the first successful separation of conjoined twins who were attached at the back of the head (occipital craniopagus twins). The operation, which took place in 1987, lasted some 22 hours and involved a 70-member surgical team. Carson

  • Carson, Christopher Houston (American frontiersman)

    Kit Carson, American frontiersman, trapper, soldier, and Indian agent who made an important contribution to the westward expansion of the United States. His career as an Indian fighter earned him both folk hero status through its aggrandizement in the dime novels of his day and condemnation from

  • Carson, David (American graphic designer)

    David Carson, American graphic designer, whose unconventional style revolutionized visual communication in the 1990s. Carson came to graphic design relatively late in life. He was a competitive surfer—ranked eighth in the world—and a California high-school teacher when, at age 26, he enrolled in a

  • Carson, Edward Henry Carson, Baron (Anglo-Irish politician)

    Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson, lawyer and politician, known as the “uncrowned king of Ulster,” who successfully led Ulster unionist resistance to the British government’s attempts to introduce Home Rule for the whole of Ireland. Although Carson was to become the champion of the northern

  • Carson, Fort (fort, Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States)

    Colorado Springs: Fort Carson (1942) is on the city’s southern edge, while the U.S. Air Force Academy (1958) is set against a backdrop of the Rampart Range.

  • Carson, John William (American entertainer)

    Johnny Carson, American comedian who, as host of The Tonight Show (1962–92), established the standard format for television chat shows—including the guest couch and the studio band—and came to be considered the king of late-night television. Following high school graduation and service in the navy

  • Carson, Johnny (American entertainer)

    Johnny Carson, American comedian who, as host of The Tonight Show (1962–92), established the standard format for television chat shows—including the guest couch and the studio band—and came to be considered the king of late-night television. Following high school graduation and service in the navy

  • Carson, Kit (American frontiersman)

    Kit Carson, American frontiersman, trapper, soldier, and Indian agent who made an important contribution to the westward expansion of the United States. His career as an Indian fighter earned him both folk hero status through its aggrandizement in the dime novels of his day and condemnation from

  • Carson, Rachel (American biologist)

    Rachel Carson, American biologist well known for her writings on environmental pollution and the natural history of the sea. Carson early developed a deep interest in the natural world. She entered Pennsylvania College for Women with the intention of becoming a writer but soon changed her major

  • Carson, Rachel Louise (American biologist)

    Rachel Carson, American biologist well known for her writings on environmental pollution and the natural history of the sea. Carson early developed a deep interest in the natural world. She entered Pennsylvania College for Women with the intention of becoming a writer but soon changed her major

  • Carson, Robert (American screenwriter)

    Beau Geste: Production notes and credits:

  • Carstairs, William (Scottish minister)

    William Carstares, Presbyterian minister and leader of the Scottish church at the time of the Revolution Settlement. Carstares was ordained in exile in Holland. During the reign of Charles II he was twice arrested for subversive activities in England and Scotland. At the time of the Rye House plot,

  • Carstares, William (Scottish minister)

    William Carstares, Presbyterian minister and leader of the Scottish church at the time of the Revolution Settlement. Carstares was ordained in exile in Holland. During the reign of Charles II he was twice arrested for subversive activities in England and Scotland. At the time of the Rye House plot,

  • Carstens, Asmus Jacob (German painter)

    Asmus Jacob Carstens, portrait and historical painter of the German Neoclassical school who did much to infuse a classical spirit into the arts of the late 18th century. Carstens studied at Copenhagen Academy (1776–83) but was largely self-educated. He went to Italy in 1783, where he was impressed

  • Carstens, Erasmus Jakob (German painter)

    Asmus Jacob Carstens, portrait and historical painter of the German Neoclassical school who did much to infuse a classical spirit into the arts of the late 18th century. Carstens studied at Copenhagen Academy (1776–83) but was largely self-educated. He went to Italy in 1783, where he was impressed

  • Carstens, Karl (president of West Germany)

    Karl Carstens, German politician who helped shape West Germany’s place in postwar Europe, serving as the republic’s president from 1979 to 1984. Carstens studied law and political science at the universities of Frankfurt, Munich, Königsberg, and Hamburg (LL.D., 1937). He joined the Nazi Party in

  • Carstensz, Gunung (mountain peak, Indonesia)

    Jaya Peak, highest peak on the island of New Guinea, in the Sudirman Range, western central highlands. Located in the Indonesian province of Papua, the 16,024-foot (4,884-metre) summit is the highest in the southwestern Pacific and the highest island peak in the world. It marks the terminus of a

  • Carstone, Richard (fictional character)

    Richard Carstone, fictional character, the heir of John Jarndyce in Charles Dickens’s Bleak House

  • Carswell, John (Scottish bishop)

    Celtic literature: Continuation of the oral tradition: …in Gaelic in Scotland: Bishop John Carswell’s Foirm na n-Urrnuidheadh a translation of John Knox’s liturgy, in Classical Common Gaelic.

  • CART (American racing organization)

    Indianapolis 500: …open-wheel racing series known as Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART) was formed in 1979. By the mid-1990s CART had successfully replaced USAC as the leading power in IndyCar racing. In 1996 speedway owner Tony George formed the Indy Racing League (IRL) to counteract the influence of CART. The IRL has…

  • cart (vehicle)

    Cart, two-wheeled vehicle drawn by a draft animal, used throughout recorded history by numerous societies for the transportation of freight, agricultural produce, refuse, and people. The cart, usually drawn by a single animal, is known to have been in use by the Greeks and the Assyrians by 1800 bc

  • Carta a los españoles americanos (work by Viscardo y Guzmán)

    Latin American literature: Historiographies: …less significant is the brief Carta a los españoles americanos (“Letter to American Spaniards”), written in 1791 by the Peruvian Juan Pablo Viscardo y Guzmán. It was published first in French (1799) and then in Spanish (1801). Viscardo claimed that rapacious adventurers had transformed a shining conquest of souls into…

  • Carta de Jamaica, La (work by Bolívar)

    Simón Bolívar: Independence movement: …La carta de Jamaica (“The Letter from Jamaica”), in which he outlined a grandiose panorama from Chile and Argentina to Mexico. “The bonds,” wrote Bolívar, “that united us to Spain have been severed.” He was not dismayed that the Spaniards had in certain instances won the upper hand. “A…

  • Carta marina (map by Magnus)

    Olaus Magnus: Olaus Magnus’ Carta marina (1539) was the first detailed map of Scandinavia with any pretensions to accuracy. His foremost work, however, is the Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (1555), a history of the northern peoples inspired by humanist historiography and imbued with patriotic warmth, which gives a picture…

  • Carta Pisana (ancient sea chart)

    map: The Middle Ages: …Pisa and known as the Carta Pisana, it is now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Thought to have been made about 1275, it is hand drawn on a sheepskin and depicts the entire Mediterranean Sea. Such charts, often known as portolans named for the portolano or pilot book, listing sailing…

  • Cartagena (Spain)

    Cartagena, port city, in the provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Murcia, southeastern Spain. It is the site of Spain’s chief Mediterranean naval base. Its harbour, the finest on the east coast, is a deep spacious bay dominated to seaward by four hills crowned with

  • Cartagena (Colombia)

    Cartagena, capital of Bolívar departamento, northern Colombia, at the northern end of Cartagena Bay. The old walled sections, including the 17th-century fortress of San Felipe de Barajas, lie on a peninsula and the island of Getsemaní, but the city now spreads over the islands of Manga and

  • Cartagena (plain, Murcia, Spain)

    Murcia: Geography: …eastward into the plain of Cartagena. The tableland of Jumilla and Yecla rises in the northern portion of Murcia. To the west of Murcia is the pre-Baetic cordillera. The Segura River runs northwest to southeast through the centre of Murcia, irrigating the rich huertas (irrigated farming plots that are usually…

  • Cartago (Costa Rica)

    Cartago, city, east-central Costa Rica. The city lies 4,720 feet (1,439 metres) above sea level in the fertile Valle Central, at the foot of Irazú Volcano. Cartago was founded in 1563 and was the capital of Costa Rica until 1823. No colonial buildings survive, as the city has been damaged

  • Cartan, Élie-Joseph (French mathematician)

    Élie-Joseph Cartan, French mathematician who greatly developed the theory of Lie groups and contributed to the theory of subalgebras. In 1894 Cartan became a lecturer at the University of Montpellier, where he studied the structure of continuous groups introduced by the noted Norwegian

  • Cartan, Henri (French mathematician)

    Henri Cartan, French mathematician who made fundamental advances in the theory of analytic functions. Son of the distinguished mathematician Élie Cartan, Henri Cartan began his academic career as professor of mathematics at the Lycée Caen (1928–29). He was appointed deputy professor at the

  • Cartan, Henri-Paul (French mathematician)

    Henri Cartan, French mathematician who made fundamental advances in the theory of analytic functions. Son of the distinguished mathematician Élie Cartan, Henri Cartan began his academic career as professor of mathematics at the Lycée Caen (1928–29). He was appointed deputy professor at the

  • Cartaphilus (legendary figure)

    wandering Jew: …Armenia a man formerly called Cartaphilus who claimed he had been Pontius Pilate’s doorkeeper and had struck Jesus on his way to Calvary, urging him to go faster. Jesus replied, “I go, and you will wait till I return.” Cartaphilus was later baptized Joseph and lived piously among Christian clergy,…

  • Cartas de relación (letters by Cortés)

    Latin American literature: Chronicles of discovery and conquest: …whose Cartas de relación (1519–26; Letters from Mexico) told of the tortuous campaign by which a few hundred Spaniards took over the powerful Aztec empire, aided by gunpowder, horses, cunning, and the resentful peoples who were subject to Aztec rule. Cortés was a vigorous writer, with a flair for the…

  • Cartas eruditas y curiosas (work by Feijóo y Montenegro)

    Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro: …Teatro crítico universal (1726–39) and Cartas eruditas y curiosas (1742–60), deal with an encyclopaedic variety of subjects: natural science, education, law, medicine, philology, and popular beliefs or superstitions.

  • Cartas marruecas (work by Cadalso y Vázquez)

    José de Cadalso y Vázquez: …Spanish writer famous for his Cartas marruecas (1793; “Moroccan Letters”), in which a Moorish traveler in Spain makes penetrating criticisms of Spanish life. Educated in Madrid, Cadalso traveled widely and, although he hated war, enlisted in the army against the Portuguese during the Seven Years’ War. His prose satire Los…

  • Carte de Cassini (work by Cassini)

    César-François Cassini de Thury: Published in 1789, this Carte géométrique de la France (“Geometric Map of France”), or Carte de Cassini, was the first map of an entire country drawn up on the basis of extensive triangulation and topographic surveys. Another of his works is Description géométrique de la Terre (1775; “Geometric Description…

  • Carte du ciel (star catalogue)

    Carte du ciel, (French: “Map of the Heavens”) projected photographic mapping of some 10 million stars in all parts of the sky that was planned to include all stars of the 14th magnitude or brighter and to list in an associated catalog all of the 12th magnitude or brighter. The plan, devised about

  • Carte et le territoire, La (novel by Houellebecq)

    Michel Houellebecq: …Carte et le territoire (2010; The Map and the Territory), which featured a character by the name of Houellebecq, won the 2010 Prix Goncourt. Soumission (2015; Submission) was a dystopian work of speculative fiction in which France has become an Islamic state. The novel was published on the day of…

  • Carte géométrique de la France (work by Cassini)

    César-François Cassini de Thury: Published in 1789, this Carte géométrique de la France (“Geometric Map of France”), or Carte de Cassini, was the first map of an entire country drawn up on the basis of extensive triangulation and topographic surveys. Another of his works is Description géométrique de la Terre (1775; “Geometric Description…

  • Carte, Richard D’Oyly (English impresario)

    Richard D’Oyly Carte, English impresario remembered for having managed the first productions of operas by Sir W. S. Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan, for elevating his era’s musical taste, and for contributing to the development of theatre technology. Originally an aspiring composer, Carte became a

  • carte-de-visite (photography)

    Carte-de-visite, originally, a calling card, especially one with a photographic portrait mounted on it. Immensely popular in the mid-19th century, the carte-de-visite was touted by the Parisian portrait photographer André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri, who patented the method in 1854. Disdéri used a

  • Cartegena Convention (international agreement)

    Caribbean Sea: Resources: …the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartegena Convention) was adopted officially by about half of the countries of the Caribbean in 1983, but its measures have since been implemented more broadly across the Caribbean community. The Cartegena Convention calls for its signatories to provide—individually and jointly—protection, development, and management of the…

  • Carteggio di Pietro e Alessandro Verri (work by Verri)

    Pietro Verri: His correspondence with Alessandro, Carteggio di Pietro e Alessandro Verri, 12 volumes (1910–42), provides a vibrant picture of Milanese life in their time.

  • cartel (economics)

    Cartel, association of independent firms or individuals for the purpose of exerting some form of restrictive or monopolistic influence on the production or sale of a commodity. The most common arrangements are aimed at regulating prices or output or dividing up markets. Members of a cartel maintain

  • Carter Center (American organization)

    Atlanta: The contemporary city: Carter’s presidency, and the adjoining Carter Center is a human rights organization. The house where novelist Margaret Mitchell wrote Gone with the Wind is preserved, and Underground Atlanta is a restored section of 19th-century buildings near the State Capitol. Atlanta’s other cultural institutions include museums of science and of natural…

  • Carter Doctrine (United States foreign policy initiative)

    Carter Doctrine, foreign policy initiative of the United States, introduced by U.S. President Jimmy Carter in his 1980 State of the Union address, that returned the country to its traditional strategy of containment of the Soviet Union. In his speech, Carter declared that the United States would

  • Carter family (American singers)

    Carter Family, singing group that was a leading force in the spread and popularization of the songs of the Appalachian Mountain region of the eastern United States. The group consisted of Alvin Pleasant Carter, known as A.P. Carter (b. April 15, 1891, Maces Spring, Virginia, U.S.—d. November 7,

  • Carter Presidential Center (institution, Atlanta, Georgia, United States)

    Jimmy Carter: Life after the presidency: …her husband in establishing the Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta, which included a presidential library and museum.

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