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  • Carlton, Steven Norman (American baseball player)

    Steve Carlton, American professional baseball player. In 1983 Carlton became the second pitcher to surpass Walter Johnson’s career record of 3,508 strikeouts (Nolan Ryan was the first). Carlton pitched for Miami-Dade, a junior college in Florida, before the left-hander signed a contract with the

  • Carlucci, Frank (United States government official)

    Colin Powell: …soon became an assistant to Frank Carlucci, then deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). He held various posts over the next few years, in the Pentagon and elsewhere, and in 1983 became senior military assistant to Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. In 1987 he joined the…

  • Carluccio delle Madonne (Italian painter)

    Carlo Maratta, one of the leading painters of the Roman school in the later 17th century and one of the last great masters of Baroque classicism. His final works offer an early example of “arcadian good taste” (named for the Academy of Arcadians, of which he was a member), a style that was to

  • Carludovica palmata (botany)

    Cyclanthaceae: Panama hat palm order of monocotyledonous flowering plants, which has 11 genera of mostly stemless, perennial, palmlike herbs, woody herbaceous shrubs, and climbing vines that are distributed in Central America and tropical South America.

  • Carlyle Group, The (American company)

    Lou Gerstner: …2003 Gerstner became chairman of the Carlyle Group, a leading private equity firm. After stepping down from that post in 2008, he served as a senior advisor to the group until 2016.

  • Carlyle, Thomas (British essayist and historian)

    Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian and essayist, whose major works include The French Revolution, 3 vol. (1837), On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History (1841), and The History of Friedrich II of Prussia, Called Frederick the Great, 6 vol. (1858–65). Carlyle was the second son of James

  • CARMA (telescope array, Big Pine, California, United States)

    radio telescope: Radio telescope arrays: …interferometers and arrays are the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) near Big Pine, Calif., the IRAM Plateau de Bure facility in France, and the Japanese Nobeyama Radio Observatory. In 2003 the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, in collaboration with the Academia Sinica of Taiwan, completed the Submillimeter Array…

  • Carmack, John (American computer-game designer)

    John Carmack, American computer-game designer whose pioneering work on three-dimensional game design led to the popularization of the “first-person shooter” genre, exemplified by such hugely successful games as Doom and Quake. His company, id Software, developed shareware and Internet distribution

  • Carmack, John D., II (American computer-game designer)

    John Carmack, American computer-game designer whose pioneering work on three-dimensional game design led to the popularization of the “first-person shooter” genre, exemplified by such hugely successful games as Doom and Quake. His company, id Software, developed shareware and Internet distribution

  • Carmagnola, Il (Italian soldier)

    condottiere: …fortunate was another great condottiere, Carmagnola, who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. Mark (1432). Toward the…

  • carmagnole (French dance and clothing)

    Carmagnole, originally, a Piedmontese peasant costume (from the Italian town of Carmagnola) that was well known in the south of France and brought to Paris by the revolutionaries of Marseille in 1792. The costume, later the popular dress of the Jacobins, consisted of a short-skirted coat with rows

  • Carman, Bliss (Canadian poet)

    Bliss Carman, Canadian regional poet of the Maritime Provinces and the New England region of the United States who is remembered chiefly for poignant love poems and one or two rhapsodies in celebration of nature. Educated at Fredericton Collegiate and at the University of New Brunswick, in

  • Carman, George Alfred (British barrister)

    George Alfred Carman, British barrister (born Oct. 6, 1929, Blackpool, Lancashire, Eng.—died Jan. 2, 2001, London, Eng.), was renowned for his devastating cross-examinations, mastery of forensic details, and adroit courtroom witticisms, as well as his skill at forging a psychological connection w

  • Carman, William Bliss (Canadian poet)

    Bliss Carman, Canadian regional poet of the Maritime Provinces and the New England region of the United States who is remembered chiefly for poignant love poems and one or two rhapsodies in celebration of nature. Educated at Fredericton Collegiate and at the University of New Brunswick, in

  • Carmania (American ship)

    ship: Passenger liners in the 20th century: …at 650 feet (Caronia and Carmania) were fitted, respectively, with quadruple-expansion piston engines and a steam-turbine engine so that a test comparison could be made; the turbine-powered Carmania was nearly a knot faster. Cunard’s giant ships, the Lusitania and the Mauretania, were launched in 1906. The Lusitania

  • Carmania (historical region, Asia)

    Alexander the Great: Consolidation of the empire: …of extortion and summoned to Carmania, where they were arrested, tried, and executed. How far the rigour that from now onward Alexander displayed against his governors represents exemplary punishment for gross maladministration during his absence and how far the elimination of men he had come to distrust (as in the…

  • Carmarthen (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Carmarthen, town, administrative centre of the historic and present county of Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin), southwestern Wales. The town is located on the River Tywi 8 miles (13 km) above its Bristol Channel mouth. Recognizing the site’s strategic importance, both Romans and Normans built

  • Carmarthen, Thomas Osborne, Marquess of (English statesman)

    Thomas Osborne, 1st duke of Leeds, English statesman who, while chief minister to King Charles II, organized the Tories in Parliament. In addition he played a key role in bringing William and Mary to the English throne in 1689. The son of a Royalist Yorkshire landowner, Osborne did not become

  • Carmarthenshire (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Carmarthenshire, county of southwestern Wales, extending inland from the Bristol Channel. The present county is coterminous with the historic county of the same name. It rises from sea level along the Bristol Channel to an elevation of more than 2,000 feet (600 metres) at Black Mountain in the

  • Carmat (French company)

    artificial heart: Mechanical hearts: …artificial heart was developed by Carmat, a French company founded by cardiologist Alain Carpentier. The device was covered with a specially designed biosynthetic material to prevent the development of blood clots and to reduce the likelihood of immune rejection—problems associated with the AbioCor and Jarvik-7 artificial hearts. The Carmat heart…

  • Carme (astronomy)

    Jupiter: Other satellites: …distant group—made up of Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae, and Sinope— has retrograde orbits around Jupiter. The closer group—Leda, Himalia, Lysithea, and Elara—has prograde orbits. (In the case of these moons, retrograde motion is in the direction opposite to Jupiter’s spin and motion around the Sun,

  • Carmel (California, United States)

    Carmel, city, Monterey county, western California, U.S. It lies on the Carmel River and Carmel Bay, adjacent to Monterey, at the northern edge of the Big Sur region. The river was named by the Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno and a group of Carmelite friars in 1602. The nearby Mission San Carlos

  • Carmel Canyon (canyon, Pacific Ocean)

    Monterey Canyon: …east-west off Moss Landing, and Carmel Canyon to the south. Carmel Canyon, the principal tributary, trends north-northwest to join the main valley at an axial depth of 6,000 feet (1,800 metres). Below its junction with Carmel Canyon the Monterey Canyon trends sinuously southwestward and westward down to an axial depth…

  • Carmel Church (church, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: Disaster and reconstruction: …or rebuilt, but the 14th-century Carmel (Carmo) Church was left as it was. Looming from its hilltops over the Baixa, the roofless Gothic shell was converted into an archaeological museum, while its cloister served as the barracks for the National Republican Guard, a paramilitary security force. The Palace of the…

  • Carmel Sea (ancient sea, North America)

    Jurassic Period: North America: …referred to collectively as the Carmel and Sundance seas; the Carmel Sea is older and not as deep as the Sundance. In these epicontinental seaways, marine sandstones, mudstones, limestones, and shales were deposited—some with marine fossils. Fully marine sequences interfinger with terrestrial sediments deposited during times of low sea levels…

  • Carmel, Mount (mountain ridge, Israel)

    Mount Carmel, mountain range, northwestern Israel; the city of Haifa is on its northeastern slope. It divides the Plain of Esdraelon (ʿEmeq Yizreʿel) and the Galilee (east and north) from the coastal Plain of Sharon (south). A northwest–southeast-trending limestone ridge, about 16 mi (26 km) long,

  • Carmel-by-the-Sea (California, United States)

    Carmel, city, Monterey county, western California, U.S. It lies on the Carmel River and Carmel Bay, adjacent to Monterey, at the northern edge of the Big Sur region. The river was named by the Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno and a group of Carmelite friars in 1602. The nearby Mission San Carlos

  • Carmelites (religious order)

    Carmelite, one of the four great mendicant orders (those orders whose corporate as well as personal poverty made it necessary for them to beg for alms) of the Roman Catholic Church, dating to the Middle Ages. The origin of the order can be traced to Mount Carmel in northwestern Israel, where a

  • Carmelites, The (work by Bernanos)

    Dialogues des Carmélites, screenplay by Georges Bernanos, published posthumously in French as a drama in 1949 and translated as The Fearless Heart and The Carmelites. In Dialogues des Carmélites, Bernanos examined the religious themes of innocence, sacrifice, and death. Based on Gertrud von Le

  • Carmen (work by Mérimée)

    Carmen, novella about Spanish Gypsy life by French author Prosper Mérimée, first published serially in 1845. Georges Bizet’s opera Carmen is based on the story. As a hot-blooded young corporal in the Spanish cavalry stationed near Seville, Don José is ordered to arrest Carmen, a young, flirtatious

  • Carmen (ballet by Petit)

    Roland Petit: Carmen (1949) was one of Petit’s most popular ballets; the choreography was passionate and erotic, and Jeanmaire became famous for her interpretation of the title role. Le Jeune Homme et la mort (1946; “The Young Man and Death”) and Les Demoiselles de la nuit (1948;…

  • Carmen (film by Saura [1983])

    Carlos Saura: Carmen, based on Prosper Mérimée’s 1845 novella, included musical passages from Georges Bizet’s 1875 opera and fused rehearsal, performance, and a contemporary mirror of Mérimée’s plot; long portions of the film were danced without dialogue. Saura’s later movies included El Dorado (1988); Tango (1998), which…

  • Carmen (opera by Bizet)

    Carmen, opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet—with a libretto in French by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy—that premiered on March 3, 1875. With a plot based on the 1845 novella of the same name by Prosper Mérimée, Bizet’s Carmen was groundbreaking in its realism, and it rapidly

  • Carmen apolegeticum (work by Commodianus)

    Commodianus: His Carmen apologeticum (“Song with Narrative”) expounds Christian doctrine, dealing with the Creation, God’s revelation of himself to man, Antichrist, and the end of the world. All but two of his Instructiones—80 poems in two books—are in acrostic form, undoubtedly because the technique was a useful…

  • Carmen de se ipso (work by Gregory of Nazianzus)

    Saint Gregory of Nazianzus: …poem (commonly referred to as Carmen de se ipso, “Song Concerning One-self ”) and many short poems, mostly on religious subjects. His preserved works include a number of sermons, not improperly called orations, and a large collection of letters. His death is dated according to a statement of Jerome.

  • carmen figuratum (poetic form)

    Pattern poetry, verse in which the typography or lines are arranged in an unusual configuration, usually to convey or extend the emotional content of the words. Of ancient (probably Eastern) origin, pattern poems are found in the Greek Anthology, which includes work composed between the 7th century

  • Carmen Jones (film by Preminger [1954])

    Otto Preminger: Challenges to the Production Code: Next was Carmen Jones (1954), a well-mounted modernizing of the Georges Bizet opera, now set in the U.S. South with an all-black cast that featured Pearl Bailey, Harry Belafonte, and Dorothy Dandridge, who became the first African American to receive an Academy Award nomination for best actress.

  • Carmen Jones (musical comedy by Rose)

    Billy Rose: …an extravagant circus musical; and Carmen Jones (1943), the musical comedy version of the opera Carmen, with an all-black cast. Rose owned several nightclubs, and his varied career also included astute real estate and stock market investments, art collecting, and highly publicized philanthropy. One of his several marriages was to…

  • Carmen saeculare (work by Horace)

    Horace: Life: …17 bc he composed the Secular Hymn (Carmen saeculare) for ancient ceremonies called the Secular Games, which Augustus had revived to provide a solemn, religious sanction for the regime and, in particular, for his moral reforms of the previous year. The hymn was written in a lyric metre, Horace having…

  • Carmen, Doña (Spanish consort)

    Carmen Polo de Franco, Spanish consort who was thought to be the force behind many of the religious and social strictures imposed on Spain during the repressive regime of her husband, Francisco Franco (1939–75). She was born into a middle-class provincial family and had a strict Roman Catholic

  • Carmen, Eric (American musician)

    Burton Cummings: Solo stardom: …Cummings provided backup vocals on Eric Carmen’s Boats Against the Current album before releasing his own self-titled album in 1976. The album, on which Cummings adopted a soft-rock, adult-contemporary sound, was produced by Richard Perry, whose credits included recordings by Barbra Streisand, Carly Simon, and Ringo Starr. The lead single,…

  • Carmet, Jean-Gabriel-Edmond (French actor)

    Jean-Gabriel-Edmond Carmet, French actor (born April 25, 1920, Tours, France—died April 20, 1994, Sèvres, near Paris, France), appeared in some 200 motion pictures in a career that spanned 50 years. Carmet began as a stagehand and comedian in revues such as the Branquignols troupe (1948). His f

  • Carmichael number (mathematics)

    pseudoprime: These are known as Carmichael numbers after their discovery in 1909 by American mathematician Robert D. Carmichael.

  • Carmichael’s monkshood (plant)

    monkshood: Major species: …‘Sparks variety’ monkshood (Aconitum henryi), Carmichael’s monkshood (A. carmichaelii), and southern blue monkshood (A. uncinatum). All species contain the powerful poison aconitine. The common monkshood, or friar’s cap (A. napellus), native to mountain slopes in Europe and east to the Himalayas, has been the most important source of this drug,…

  • Carmichael, Harold (American football player)

    Philadelphia Eagles: 03 metres] tall) wide receiver Harold Carmichael. This span was highlighted by Philadelphia’s first Super Bowl berth in 1981, though it lost to the Oakland Raiders, 27–10. Before the 1985 season, the Eagles made two significant additions: Randall Cunningham, a fleet-footed quarterback who would set the career record for rushing…

  • Carmichael, Hoagland Howard (American composer, musician, and actor)

    Hoagy Carmichael, American composer, singer, self-taught pianist, and actor who wrote several of the most highly regarded popular standards in American music. Carmichael’s father was an itinerant electrician, and his mother earned extra money for the family as a pianist for dances and silent

  • Carmichael, Hoagy (American composer, musician, and actor)

    Hoagy Carmichael, American composer, singer, self-taught pianist, and actor who wrote several of the most highly regarded popular standards in American music. Carmichael’s father was an itinerant electrician, and his mother earned extra money for the family as a pianist for dances and silent

  • Carmichael, Ian Gillett (British actor)

    Ian Gillett Carmichael, British actor (born June 18, 1920, Kingston upon Hull, East Yorkshire, Eng.—died Feb. 5, 2010, Grosmont, North Yorkshire, Eng.), brilliantly embodied the character of a bumbling affable twit in numerous stage productions and films and memorably played the parts of Bertie

  • Carmichael, Leonard (American psychologist)

    Leonard Carmichael, U.S. psychologist and educator who, as secretary of the Smithsonian Institution from 1953 to 1964, was responsible for the modernization of the “nation’s attic.” Carmichael received his Ph.D. from Harvard University (1924) and was teacher of psychology at Princeton, Brown, and

  • Carmichael, Stokely (West Indian-American activist)

    Stokely Carmichael, West-Indian-born civil rights activist, leader of black nationalism in the United States in the 1960s and originator of its rallying slogan, “black power.” Carmichael immigrated to New York City in 1952, attended high school in the Bronx, and enrolled at Howard University in

  • Carmiel (Israel)

    Karmiʾel, (Hebrew: “Vineyard of God”), town, northern Israel, in the Valley of Bet Kerem, on the boundary of Upper and Lower Galilee, just off the main east–west highway from ʿAkko (Acre) to Ẕefat (Safed). One of Israel’s development towns, Karmiʾel is the first Jewish town in an area settled

  • Carmina Burana (medieval manuscript)

    Carmina Burana, 13th-century manuscript that contains songs (the Carmina Burana proper) and six religious plays. The contents of the manuscript are attributed to the goliards (q.v.), wandering scholars and students in western Europe during the 10th to the 13th century who were known for their songs

  • Carmina Burana (work by Orff)

    Carmina Burana, (Latin: “Songs of B[enediktb]euern”) cantata for orchestra, chorus, and vocal soloists by the German composer Carl Orff that premiered in 1937 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Orff drew his text from a 13th-century manuscript containing songs and plays written in Latin and medieval

  • carmina Fescennina

    Fescennine verse, early native Italian jocular dialogue in Latin verse. At vintage and harvest, and probably at other rustic festivals, these were sung by masked dancers. They were similar to ribald wedding songs and to the obscene carmina triumphalia sung to victorious generals during their

  • Carmina Nisibena (work by Ephraem Syrus)

    patristic literature: The schools of Edessa and Nisibis: His Carmina Nisibena (“Songs of Nisibis”) make a valuable sourcebook for historians, especially for information about the frontier wars.

  • carmine (pigment)

    Carmine, red or purplish-red pigment obtained from cochineal (q.v.), a red dyestuff extracted from the dried bodies of certain female scale insects native to tropical and subtropical America. Carmine was used extensively for watercolours and fine coach-body colours before the advent of synthetic

  • Carmo (Spain)

    Carmona, town, Sevilla provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain; it overlooks the Andalusian Plain from its site on a ridge of the Sierra de los Alcores. It originated as Carmo, the strongest town of the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior

  • Carmo Church (church, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: Disaster and reconstruction: …or rebuilt, but the 14th-century Carmel (Carmo) Church was left as it was. Looming from its hilltops over the Baixa, the roofless Gothic shell was converted into an archaeological museum, while its cloister served as the barracks for the National Republican Guard, a paramilitary security force. The Palace of the…

  • Carmo Miranda da Cunha, Maria do (Portuguese-born singer and actress)

    Carmen Miranda, Portuguese-born singer and actress whose alluring and flamboyant image made her internationally famous. Miranda’s family moved to Brazil when she was an infant. In the 1930s she became the most popular recording artist in that country, where she also appeared in five films.

  • Carmona (Spain)

    Carmona, town, Sevilla provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain; it overlooks the Andalusian Plain from its site on a ridge of the Sierra de los Alcores. It originated as Carmo, the strongest town of the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior

  • Carmona (Angola)

    Uíge, city, northwestern Angola. Settled by Portuguese colonists, Uíge grew from a small market centre in 1945 to become Angola’s major centre for coffee production in the 1950s and was designated a city in 1956. Its prosperity was short-lived, however, as the city was affected by recurrent

  • Carmona, António Oscar de Fragoso (Portuguese statesman)

    António Oscar de Fragoso Carmona, Portuguese general and statesman who rose to political prominence in the wake of the successful military revolt of 1926 and who, as president of Portugal from 1928 to 1951, served as a symbol of continuity during the regime (1932–68) of António de Oliveira Salazar.

  • Carnac (France)

    Carnac, village, Morbihan département, Bretagne (Brittany) region, western France, near the Atlantic coast, just southwest of Auray. It is the site of more than 3,000 prehistoric stone monuments. The single stone menhirs and multistone dolmens were hewn from local granite, now worn by time and

  • Carnage (film by Polanski [2011])

    Yasmina Reza: …a 2011 film version (titled Carnage), Reza cowrote the screenplay with Roman Polanski, who also directed. Reza’s later plays include Comment vous racontez la partie (2011; “How You Talk the Game”) and Bella figura (2015; “Beautiful Figure”), which she wrote for the Schaubühne in Berlin and later directed in a…

  • Carnal Knowledge (film by Nichols [1971])

    Mike Nichols: Early films: Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, The Graduate, and Carnal Knowledge: Carnal Knowledge (1971), however, won many critics back to Nichols’s side, but it too was controversial for its frank and realistic treatment of sex. The drama presents a trenchant but painfully sad portrait of two former college friends (Jack Nicholson and Garfunkel) as they struggle…

  • carnallite (mineral)

    Carnallite, a soft, white halide mineral, hydrated potassium and magnesium chloride (KMgCl3·6H2O), that is a source of potassium for fertilizers. Carnallite occurs with other chloride minerals in the upper layers of marine salt deposits, where it appears to be an alteration product of pre-existing

  • Carnap, Rudolf (German-American philosopher)

    Rudolf Carnap, German-born American philosopher of logical positivism. He made important contributions to logic, the analysis of language, the theory of probability, and the philosophy of science. From 1910 to 1914 Carnap studied mathematics, physics, and philosophy at the Universities of Jena and

  • Carnarvon (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Caernarfon, town, Gwynedd county, historic county of Caernarvonshire (Sir Gaernarfon), northern Wales. It lies near the west end of the Menai Strait separating the mainland from the Isle of Anglesey. Caernarfon is the administrative centre of Gwynedd and the historic county town (seat) of

  • Carnarvon (former county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Caernarvonshire, historic county of northwestern Wales, bordered on the north by the Irish Sea, on the east by Denbighshire, on the south by the county of Merioneth and Cardigan Bay, and on the west by Caernarfon Bay and the Menai Strait, which separates it from Anglesey. The total area is 569

  • Carnarvon Castle (castle, Caernarfon, Gwynedd, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Caernarfon: …and it was at the castle that his son, prince of Wales and later Edward II, was born in 1284. Only since 1911, however, has the castle been used for the investiture of the prince of Wales. Both castle and town walls are exceptionally well preserved and attract many tourists.…

  • Carnarvon Gorge (Queensland, Australia)

    Carnarvon Gorge, gorge in southeastern Queensland, Australia, on the eastern slopes of Carnarvon Range of the Great Dividing Range. The gorge, sometimes called “The Grand Canyon of Queensland,” is about 20 miles (32 km) long and 150 to 1,200 feet (45 to 370 m) wide, with vertical sandstone walls

  • Carnarvon National Park (national park, Queensland, Australia)

    Carnarvon Gorge: …feature of the 969-square-mile (2,510-square-kilometre) Carnarvon National Park (1932), which also offers caves containing Aboriginal art and highly diverse plant and wildlife.

  • Carnarvon Range (plateau, Queensland, Australia)

    Carnarvon Range, plateau section of the Great Dividing Range, southeast-central Queensland, Australia. The Carnarvon Range lies 230 to 280 miles (370 to 450 km) inland from the coast west of Bundaberg and extends 100 miles (160 km) south. Its peaks average 3,000 feet (900 m) in elevation. The

  • Carnarvon Terms (British history)

    Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 4th earl of Carnarvon: …1878 he proposed the so-called Carnarvon Terms, which a few years later provided the settlement of a major dispute between Canada and the British that had delayed the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

  • Carnarvon, George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th earl of (British Egyptologist)

    George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th earl of Carnarvon, British Egyptologist who was the patron and associate of archaeologist Howard Carter in the discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamen. Carnarvon was educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He began excavations in Thebes in

  • Carnarvon, Henry George Reginald Molyneux Herbert, 7th earl of (British racehorse manager)

    Henry George Reginald Molyneux Herbert, 7th earl of Carnarvon, British horse racing manager (born Jan. 19, 1924, Highclere, Hampshire, Eng.—died Sept. 11, 2001, Winchester, Hampshire), managed a stud farm and a racing stable for his own horses and those of Queen Elizabeth II, who was also a close p

  • Carnarvon, Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 4th earl of (British statesman)

    Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 4th earl of Carnarvon, British statesman, a liberally inclined member of Conservative Party governments, who tried, with varying success, to establish federal self-government in British overseas possessions. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford,

  • Carnarvon, James Brydges, Earl of (British noble)

    James Brydges, 1st duke of Chandos, English nobleman, patron of composer George Frideric Handel. The son and heir of James Brydges, 8th Baron Chandos of Sudeley, he was a member of Parliament from 1698 to 1714. For eight years (1705–13) during the War of the Spanish Succession, he was paymaster

  • Carnarvon, James Brydges, Marquess of (British noble)

    James Brydges, 1st duke of Chandos, English nobleman, patron of composer George Frideric Handel. The son and heir of James Brydges, 8th Baron Chandos of Sudeley, he was a member of Parliament from 1698 to 1714. For eight years (1705–13) during the War of the Spanish Succession, he was paymaster

  • Carnarvonshire (former county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Caernarvonshire, historic county of northwestern Wales, bordered on the north by the Irish Sea, on the east by Denbighshire, on the south by the county of Merioneth and Cardigan Bay, and on the west by Caernarfon Bay and the Menai Strait, which separates it from Anglesey. The total area is 569

  • carnassial (biology)

    carnivore: Form and function: Most carnivores have carnassial, or shearing, teeth that function in slicing meat and cutting tough sinews. The carnassials are usually formed by the fourth upper premolar and the first lower molar, working one against the other with a scissorlike action. Cats, hyenas, and weasels, all highly carnivorous, have well-developed carnassials.…

  • carnassial tooth (biology)

    carnivore: Form and function: Most carnivores have carnassial, or shearing, teeth that function in slicing meat and cutting tough sinews. The carnassials are usually formed by the fourth upper premolar and the first lower molar, working one against the other with a scissorlike action. Cats, hyenas, and weasels, all highly carnivorous, have well-developed carnassials.…

  • Carnatic (linguistic region, India)

    Karnataka, linguistic region of the Deccan plateau, south-central India, generally corresponding to Karnataka state. Of irregular shape, and defined as the area in which Kannada (Kanarese) is spoken, Karnataka was unified during the Vijayanagar kingdom (c. 1300–1600) until successive conquests by

  • Carnatic music (Indian music)

    Karnatak music, music of southern India (generally south of the city of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh state) that evolved from ancient Hindu traditions and was relatively unaffected by the Arab and Iranian influences that, since the late 12th and early 13th centuries, as a result of the Islamic

  • Carnatic Wars (Euro-Indian wars)

    Carnatic Wars, series of military contests during the 18th century between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore for control of the coastal strip of eastern India from Nellore (north of Madras [now Chennai]) southward (the Tamil country). The name Carnatic properly refers to the region

  • carnation (plant)

    Carnation, (Dianthus caryophyllus), herbaceous plant of the pink, or carnation, family (Caryophyllaceae), native to the Mediterranean area. It is widely cultivated for its fringe-petaled flowers, which often have a spicy fragrance. There are two general groups, the border, or garden, carnations and

  • carnation family (plant family)

    Caryophyllaceae, the pink, or carnation, family of flowering plants (order Caryophyllales), comprising some 86 genera and 2,200 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials, mainly of north temperate distribution. The members are diverse in appearance and habitat; most of them have swollen leaf and

  • carnation order (plant order)

    Caryophyllales, pink or carnation order of dicotyledonous flowering plants. The order includes 37 families, which contain some 12,000 species in 722 genera. Nearly half of the families are very small, with less than a dozen species each. Caryophyllales is a diverse order that includes trees,

  • Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (painting by Sargent)

    John Singer Sargent: That year his Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose (1885–86), a study of two little girls lighting Japanese lanterns, captured the hearts of the British public, and he began to experience the phenomenal acclaim in England and the United States that he would enjoy for the rest of his life.

  • Carnations, Revolution of the (Portuguese history)

    Portugal: Demographic trends: …that took place after the Revolution of the Carnations (April 25, 1974) inevitably had demographic repercussions on metropolitan Portugal because of the large number of people (mostly Portuguese) who left the former overseas provinces. Some one million refugees, most of whom came from Angola in part because of the civil…

  • carnauba palm (plant)

    carnauba wax: The carnauba tree is a fan palm of the northeastern Brazilian savannas, where it is called the “tree of life” for its many useful products. After 50 years, the tree can attain a height of over 14 metres (45 feet). It has a dense, large crown…

  • carnauba tree (plant)

    carnauba wax: The carnauba tree is a fan palm of the northeastern Brazilian savannas, where it is called the “tree of life” for its many useful products. After 50 years, the tree can attain a height of over 14 metres (45 feet). It has a dense, large crown…

  • carnauba wax

    Carnauba wax, a vegetable wax obtained from the fronds of the carnauba tree (Copernicia cerifera) of Brazil. Valued among the natural waxes for its hardness and high melting temperature, carnauba wax is employed as a food-grade polish and as a hardening or gelling agent in a number of products. The

  • carnauba wax palm (plant)

    carnauba wax: The carnauba tree is a fan palm of the northeastern Brazilian savannas, where it is called the “tree of life” for its many useful products. After 50 years, the tree can attain a height of over 14 metres (45 feet). It has a dense, large crown…

  • Carnaval des Animaux (work by Saint-Saëns)

    Camille Saint-Saëns: …Le Carnaval des animaux (The Carnival of Animals) for small orchestra, a humorous fantasy not performed during his lifetime that has since won considerable popularity as a work for young people’s concerts. Among the best of his later works are the Piano Concerto No. 5 (1895) and the Cello…

  • Carne (work by Piñera)

    Virgilio Piñera: …main character in “Carne” (“Meat”) who progressively eats himself to avoid starvation.

  • Carne trémula (film by Almodóvar [1997])

    Pedro Almodóvar: Carne trémula (1997; Live Flesh), based on a Ruth Rendell novel and starring Javier Bardem, examines the tangled consequences of an accidental gunshot. It was also the first of numerous Almodóvar’s films to feature Penélope Cruz.

  • Carne, Judy (British actress)

    Judy Carne, (Joyce Audrey Botterill), British actress (born April 27, 1939, Northampton, Eng.—died Sept. 3, 2015, Northampton), gained sudden fame in 1967 as the perky, miniskirted “sock it to me” girl on the zany American sketch-comedy TV show Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In. Carne trained as a dancer

  • Carné, Marcel (French director)

    Marcel Carné, motion-picture director noted for the poetic realism of his pessimistic dramas. He led the French cinema revival of the late 1930s. After holding various jobs, Carné joined the director Jacques Feyder as an assistant in 1928, and he also assisted René Clair on the popular comedy Sous

  • Carneades (Greek philosopher)

    Carneades, Greek philosopher who headed the New Academy at Athens when antidogmatic skepticism reached its greatest strength. A native of Cyrene (now in Libya), Carneades went in 155 bce on a diplomatic mission to Rome, where he delivered two public orations, in which he argued in favour of justice

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