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  • Caria (ancient district, Anatolia)

    Caria, ancient district of southwestern Anatolia. One of the most thoroughly Hellenized districts, its territory included Greek cities along its Aegean shore and a mountainous interior bounded by Lydia in the north and by Phrygia and Lycia in the east. The non-Greek Carians of the interior

  • Cariama cristata (bird)

    seriema: …red-legged, or crested, seriema (Cariama cristata), with long legs and neck, stands about 60 cm (2 feet) tall. The beak and legs are red, and the plumage is brownish above and dull white beneath, with bluish skin around the eyes. It inhabits grasslands, but the nest is built in…

  • Cariamae (bird suborder)

    gruiform: Evolution and paleontology: …the limpkins and the suborder Cariamae had their beginnings. The Cariamae are represented today by only two living species, Cariama cristata and Chunga burmeisteri, but their fossil history shows that in earlier epochs they were a more widespread and successful group. The Carimae included a number of flightless giants, the…

  • Cariamidae (bird)

    Seriema, South American bird of grasslands, constituting the family Cariamidae (order Gruiformes). There are two species, both restricted to southern-central South America. The red-legged, or crested, seriema (Cariama cristata), with long legs and neck, stands about 60 cm (2 feet) tall. The beak

  • Carian (people)

    Anatolia: Greek colonies on the Anatolian coasts, c. 1180–547 bce: The Carians, from the hinterland of Miletus and Halicarnassus, enter history as mercenaries in the service of the Egyptian king Psamtik, along with their Ionian neighbours, in the 7th century bce. Of the Lycians, to the east of Caria, nothing definite is known before the 6th…

  • Carian language

    Carian language, an extinct Anatolian language once spoken in Caria, an ancient district of southwest Anatolia. Most evidence for the language comes from Egypt, where Carian mercenaries in the service of the pharaohs from the 7th to 5th centuries bce left behind more than a hundred tomb

  • Cariappa, Kodandera Madappa (Indian military officer)

    Kodandera Madappa Cariappa, Indian military officer and the first chief of staff of the Indian army after India became independent of Great Britain. Cariappa was born and raised in a hilly region of what is now southwestern Karnataka state and was one of six children of an official in the British

  • Carías Andino, Tiburcio (president of Honduras)

    Honduras: The 20th century: …Depression, National Party leader General Tiburcio Carías Andino was elected president and remained in office until 1949. Carías’s policies, however, differed little from Liberal political or economic policy.

  • Carib (people)

    Carib, American Indian people who inhabited the Lesser Antilles and parts of the neighbouring South American coast at the time of the Spanish conquest. Their name was given to the Caribbean Sea, and its Arawakan equivalent is the origin of the English word cannibal. Today the term Cariban is used

  • Carib language

    South American Indian languages: Vocabulary: …(an Arawakan language), borrowings from Carib (a Cariban language) have formed a special part of the vocabulary, properly used only by men; these words were adopted after the Island Carib speakers were subjugated by Caribs.

  • Cariban languages

    Cariban languages, a group of South American Indian languages that were spoken before the Spanish conquest from what is now the Greater Antilles to the central Mato Grosso in Brazil; most of the languages, however, were spoken north of the Amazon River in what is now northern Brazil, the inland

  • Caribbean (island group, Atlantic Ocean)

    West Indies, crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles (3,200 km) long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north. From the peninsula of Florida on the mainland of the United States, the islands stretch

  • Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (international trade agreement)

    20th-century international relations: Nicaragua and El Salvador: …to counter with its 1982 Caribbean Basin Initiative, an Alliance for Progress confined to the islands. Grenada, a tiny island that had won independence from Britain in 1974, initially came under the control of Sir Eric Gairy, whose policies and conduct verged on the bizarre. In March 1979, Gairy was…

  • Caribbean coastal lowlands (plain, Colombia)

    Colombia: Relief: …width, generally known as the Atlantic lowlands (also called the Caribbean coastal lowlands). Dotted with hills and with extensive tracts of seasonally flooded land along the lower Magdalena and the Sinú rivers, it surrounds the inland portion of the Santa Marta Mountains. A much narrower lowland apron extends along the…

  • Caribbean Community (international organization)

    Caribbean Community (CARICOM), organization of Caribbean countries and dependencies originally established as the Caribbean Community and Commons Market in 1973 by the Treaty of Chaguaramas. It replaced the former Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA), which had become effective in 1968. The

  • Caribbean Community and Commons Market (international organization)

    Caribbean Community (CARICOM), organization of Caribbean countries and dependencies originally established as the Caribbean Community and Commons Market in 1973 by the Treaty of Chaguaramas. It replaced the former Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA), which had become effective in 1968. The

  • Caribbean Community and the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (international organization)

    Caribbean Community: …Treaty of Chaguaramas, establishing the Caribbean Community and the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME), which would harmonize economic policy and create a single currency. Movement toward a single market and economy was delayed over disagreements about the division of benefits, but in January 2006 the Caricom Single Market (CSM)—which…

  • Caribbean Court of Justice (international court)

    Belize: Justice: …of Caricom to establish a Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), which was inaugurated in 2005. Civil and criminal cases that were heard in the Court of Appeal were brought before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, while cases regarding Caricom treaties were appealed in the CCJ. In 2009 Belize…

  • Caribbean culture

    Native American dance: Northern South America: On the Caribbean coast the bullerengue, lumbalu, and the circular cumbia mingle indigenous and African features. The Colombian fandango derives more from Spanish diversions. The national dance, the bambuco, originated in the Andean zone. Male and female partners, waving kerchiefs, enact a courtship mime of pursuing and…

  • Caribbean Current (current, Atlantic Ocean)

    Caribbean Current, powerful surface oceanic current passing west through the Caribbean Sea, then north through the Yucatán Channel, and finally east out the Straits of Florida to form the Florida Current. The warm Caribbean Current, derived from the junction of the North Equatorial Current and the

  • Caribbean flamingo (bird)

    flamingo: …of the greater flamingo: the Caribbean flamingo (P. ruber ruber) and the Old World flamingo (P. ruber roseus) of Africa and southern Europe and Asia. The Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) is primarily an inland species. Two smaller species that live high in the Andes Mountains of South America are the…

  • Caribbean Free Trade Association (international organization)

    Guyana: Trade: In 1965 Guyana joined the Caribbean Free Trade Association (Carifta), now the Caribbean Community (Caricom), which has its headquarters in Georgetown.

  • Caribbean Islands (island group, Atlantic Ocean)

    West Indies, crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles (3,200 km) long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north. From the peninsula of Florida on the mainland of the United States, the islands stretch

  • Caribbean literature

    Caribbean literature, literary works of the Caribbean area written in Spanish, French, or English. The literature of the Caribbean has no indigenous tradition. The pre-Columbian American Indians left few rock carvings or inscriptions (petroglyphs), and their oral traditions did not survive

  • Caribbean manatee (mammal)

    manatee: …is one subspecies of the West Indian manatee (T. manatus). The other subspecies lives in nearshore waters, lagoons, estuaries, and rivers of eastern Mexico, down the Central American coast, and across northern South America. It also occurs around the Greater Antilles islands of the Caribbean

  • Caribbean monk seal (mammal)

    monk seal: The Caribbean, or West Indian, monk seal (M. tropicalis) was thought to be extinct by the early 1970s. The surviving species, both in danger of extinction, are the Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus) and the Hawaiian, or Laysan, monk seal (M. schauinslandi). The seals are threatened…

  • Caribbean National Forest (forest, Puerto Rico)

    Cordillera Central: …region is occupied by the Caribbean National Forest.

  • Caribbean pine (tree)

    tree: Tree height growth: …example, a selected strain of Caribbean pine that was certified not to foxtail in Australia reportedly exhibited 80 percent foxtailing when grown in Puerto Rico. Foxtailing decreases with altitude, stand density, and soil quality. The cause is thought to be due to hormone imbalances induced by exotic environments. Some species…

  • Caribbean Plate (geology)

    North America: 120 to 30 million years ago: …Cuba, was sheared off the Caribbean Plate and became fixed to the North American Plate. An east-dipping subduction zone was reestablished beneath Central America, detaching the Caribbean Plate from the Pacific. Continued subduction of the central Atlantic lithosphere beneath the eastern part of the Caribbean Plate gave rise to the…

  • Caribbean Reef (exhibit, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Shedd Aquarium: A special display called the Caribbean Reef (opened 1971) features a tank that circulates 90,000 gallons (340,000 litres) of seawater nearly every hour and contains a wide variety of marine animals, including nurse sharks, sea turtles, moray eels, and numerous rare and colourful varieties of fish. The Oceanarium, a major…

  • Caribbean Sea (sea, Atlantic Ocean)

    Caribbean Sea, suboceanic basin of the western Atlantic Ocean, lying between latitudes 9° and 22° N and longitudes 89° and 60° W. It is approximately 1,063,000 square miles (2,753,000 square km) in extent. To the south it is bounded by the coasts of Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama; to the west by

  • Caribbean Series (baseball)
  • Caribbean Series Champions

    Baseball was introduced in Cuba in 1864, and Cubans helped spread the game throughout the Caribbean. Currently, professional leagues exist in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic. The seasons last from October to January, and since 1949 the winners of each of the four leagues

  • Caribbean States, Association of (trading bloc)

    Association of Caribbean States (ACS), trading bloc composed of 25 countries of the Caribbean basin. Responding to a proposal by then U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), existing Caribbean-area trading blocs joined forces in 1995 to strengthen their economic

  • Caribbean stud poker (card game)

    poker: Caribbean stud poker: In Caribbean stud poker each player pits a five-card stud hand against the dealer’s hand. First the players make an ante bet. Then the dealer gives the players and himself five cards each. Four of the dealer’s cards are dealt facedown and…

  • Caribbean, Sea of the New World (work by Arciniegas)

    Germán Arciniegas: …as Biografía del Caribe (1945; Caribbean, Sea of the New World) and El continente de siete colores (1965; Latin America: A Cultural History) introduced an international audience to Arciniegas’s panoramic view of his continent.

  • caribe (fish)

    Piranha, any of more than 60 species of razor-toothed carnivorous fish of South American rivers and lakes, with a somewhat exaggerated reputation for ferocity. In movies such as Piranha (1978), the piranha has been depicted as a ravenous indiscriminate killer. Most species, however, are scavengers

  • Cariboo gold rush (Canadian history)

    Cariboo gold rush, Canadian gold rush that took place in the remote, isolated Cariboo Mountains region of British Columbia between 1860 and 1863. It began when prospectors drawn from the Fraser River gold rush discovered gold on the Horsefly River. After news spread of the rich payload found near

  • Cariboo Mountains (mountain range, Canada)

    Cariboo Mountains, range in eastern British Columbia, Canada, forming the northern subdivision of the Columbia Mountains. The Cariboo Mountains lie within an area enclosed by the great bend of the Fraser River and its tributary, the North Thompson. The mountains extend for about 190 miles (305 km)

  • Cariboo Road (historical trail, Canada)

    Cariboo Road, wagon trail that was constructed (1862–65) in the Fraser River valley, in southern British Columbia, Canada, to serve the Cariboo gold rush. The trail extended more than 400 miles (644 km) from Yale, at the head of steamboat navigation on the Fraser River, through Ashcroft, to

  • Caribou (Maine, United States)

    Caribou, city, Aroostook county, northeastern Maine, U.S. It lies along the Aroostook River, near the New Brunswick border, 13 miles (21 km) north of Presque Isle. Settled in 1824, it developed as a lumbering centre and was incorporated in 1859 as Lyndon. It was renamed Caribou in 1877 for the

  • caribou (mammal)

    Reindeer, (Rangifer tarandus), species of deer (family Cervidae) found in the Arctic tundra and adjacent boreal forests of Greenland, Scandinavia, Russia, Alaska, and Canada. Reindeer have been domesticated in Europe. There are two varieties, or ecotypes: tundra reindeer and forest (or woodland)

  • Caribou (poetry by Wright)

    Charles Wright: …Bye-and-Bye: Selected Late Poems (2012), Caribou (2014), and Oblivion Banjo: The Poetry of Charles Wright (2019).

  • Carica (plant genus)

    papaya: …two or more species of Carica native to Mexico and Central America. Today it is cultivated throughout the tropical world and into the warmest parts of the subtropics. The papaya fruit is slightly sweet, with an agreeable musky tang, which is more pronounced in some varieties and in some climates…

  • Carica papaya (tree and fruit)

    Papaya, (Carica papaya), succulent fruit of a large plant of the family Caricaceae. Though its origin is rather obscure, the papaya may represent the fusion of two or more species of Carica native to Mexico and Central America. Today it is cultivated throughout the tropical world and into the

  • Caricaceae (plant family)

    Brassicales: Caricaceae and Moringaceae: Caricaceae and Moringaceae form a very distinctive group with many anatomical features in common. Their stems are stout; the venation of the leaves is palmate; and there are tiny glands at the base of the petiole or on the blade; the stipules…

  • caricature (graphic arts)

    caricature and cartoon: Caricature: Caricature is the distorted presentation of a person, type, or action. Commonly, a salient feature or characteristic of the subject is seized upon and exaggerated, or features of animals, birds, or vegetables are substituted for parts of the human being, or analogy is made…

  • caricature and cartoon (graphic arts)

    Caricature and cartoon, in graphic art, comically distorted drawing or likeness, done with the purpose of satirizing or ridiculing its subject. Cartoons are used today primarily for conveying political commentary and editorial opinion in newspapers and for social comedy and visual wit in magazines.

  • caricature de moeurs (pictorial parody)

    Honoré Daumier: Background and early life: …of morals and manners (caricatures de moeurs), the first of these dating from 1822, when he was scarcely 15 years old and was just beginning to produce lithographs. Although some of his first works were signed, many others were not: they were portraits of celebrities that were signed by…

  • Caricature, La (French periodical)

    caricature and cartoon: France: …appearance of Charles Philipon’s periodical La Caricature, the first great vehicle of Honoré Daumier, Henri Monnier, “Grandville” (J.-I.-I. Gérard), and others. The presiding genius had great politico-legal skill and knew exactly how far he and his artists could go. The famous likening of Louis Philippe to a pear, which was…

  • caricature-plant (plant)

    Acanthaceae: caricature-plant (Graptophyllum pictum). The largest genera include Justicia (600 species; now comprising former segregate genera such as Jacobinia and Beloperone), Reullia (355), Stobilanthes (350), Barleria (300), Aphelandra (170),

  • Caricoideae (plant subfamily)

    Cyperaceae: Evolution and classification: The Caricoideae, the next largest subfamily, has 2,100 species dispersed among only 5 genera and is characterized by unisexual flowers with the female in single-flowered spikelets enclosed by a bract. The subfamily Sclerioideae has about 14 genera and 300 species; its flowers also are unisexual, but…

  • CARICOM (international organization)

    Caribbean Community (CARICOM), organization of Caribbean countries and dependencies originally established as the Caribbean Community and Commons Market in 1973 by the Treaty of Chaguaramas. It replaced the former Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA), which had become effective in 1968. The

  • Caricom Single Market (international organization)

    Caribbean Community: …but in January 2006 the Caricom Single Market (CSM)—which removed barriers to goods, services, trade, and several categories of labour—was implemented by all member states except The Bahamas and Haiti. A year earlier, CARICOM had officially inaugurated the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), which replaced the Judicial Committee of the…

  • Caridad, Hospital de la (building, Seville, Spain)

    Pedro Roldán: …work on the altarpiece at La Caridad is a fine example of his gift for bringing the arts together.

  • Caridad, Virgen de la (protectress of Cuba)

    Santiago de Cuba: …most important shrine—dedicated to the Virgen de la Caridad (Virgin of Charity), proclaimed to be the protectress of Cuba. It attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors per year seeking blessings and healings. Pop. (2002) 423,392; (2011 est.) 425,851.

  • caries (dental disease)

    Caries, cavity or decay of a tooth, a localized disease that begins at the surface of the tooth and may progress through the dentine into the pulp cavity. It is believed that the action of microorganisms in the mouth on ingested sugars and carbohydrates produces acids that eat away the enamel. The

  • Carifta (international organization)

    Guyana: Trade: In 1965 Guyana joined the Caribbean Free Trade Association (Carifta), now the Caribbean Community (Caricom), which has its headquarters in Georgetown.

  • Carignano Palace (palace, Turin, Italy)

    Guarino Guarini: The Palazzo Carignano in Turin (1679) is Guarini’s masterpiece of palace design. With its billowing facade, its magnificent curved double stair, and its astonishing double dome in the main salon, it well deserves to be acclaimed the finest urban palace of the second half of the…

  • Carignano, Palazzo (palace, Turin, Italy)

    Guarino Guarini: The Palazzo Carignano in Turin (1679) is Guarini’s masterpiece of palace design. With its billowing facade, its magnificent curved double stair, and its astonishing double dome in the main salon, it well deserves to be acclaimed the finest urban palace of the second half of the…

  • Carillo, Alfonso (Spanish archbishop)

    Francisco, Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros: The archbishop, Alfonso de Carillo, refused to accept the letter and, in 1473, when Jiménez insisted on his rights, threw him into prison. Refusing release at the price of giving up his claims, Jiménez remained in prison until 1479, when Carillo gave way. In 1482 Cardinal Pedro…

  • carillon (musical instrument)

    Carillon, musical instrument consisting of at least 23 cast bronze bells in fixed suspension, tuned in chromatic order (i.e., in half steps) and capable of concordant harmony when sounded together. Customarily located in a tower, it is played from a clavier, or keyboard, containing wooden levers

  • Carillon, Battle of (American history [1758])

    Battle of Carillon, (July 8, 1758), one of the bloodiest conflicts of the French and Indian War (1754–63) and a major defeat for the British. It was fought at Fort Carillon on the shores of the southern tip of Lake Champlain on the border of New York and Vermont. (The battle is also known as the

  • Carillon, Fort (fort and village, New York, United States)

    Ticonderoga, unincorporated village and town (township), Essex county, northeastern New York, U.S., at the north outlet (La Chute River) of Lake George where it drains into Lake Champlain. Located on an ancient Indian portage, its name is derived from the Iroquois word cheonderoga meaning “between

  • Carina (constellation)

    Carina, (Latin: “Keel”) constellation in the southern sky that stretches from about 7 to 11 hours right ascension and at about 60° south in declination. Its brightest star is Canopus, the second brightest star in the sky, with a magnitude of −0.7. Eta Carinae is a variable star that was even

  • Carinata (bird taxon)

    vertebrate: Annotated classification: Subclass Neornithes (true birds) Well-developed sternum; tail is not long; no teeth; forelimbs modified to wings; teeth replaced by horny rhamphoteca over bill. Class Mammalia Warm-blooded; mammary glands; lower jaw is composed of 1 bone; hair; advanced brain; skin with different glands and hair; ears with…

  • Caring (work by Noddings)

    ethics: Feminist ethics: …developed in works such as Caring (1984), by the American feminist philosopher Nel Noddings, this approach held that normative ethics should be based on the idea of caring for those with whom one has a relationship, whether that of parent, child, sibling, lover, spouse, or friend. Caring should take precedence…

  • Carinhall (estate, Germany)

    Hermann Göring: This he called Carinhall in honour of his first wife. It was at Carinhall that he kept the greater part of his enormous art collection. On June 2, 1938, Emmy bore him a daughter, his only child, Edda.

  • Carinthia (state, Austria)

    Kärnten, Bundesland (federal state), southern Austria, bordered by Bundesländer Salzburg (north and east) and Steiermark (Styria; north), on the south by Slovenia and Italy, and on the west by East Tirol. Drained by the Drava (Drau), Gail, Möll, Gurk, and Lavant rivers, it occupies an area of 3,681

  • Carinus (Roman emperor)

    Carinus, Roman emperor from ad 283 to 285. With the title of Caesar, he was sent by his father, the emperor Carus, to the army of the Rhine in 282. On his father’s death in the summer of 283, Carinus became emperor in the West, his brother Numerian becoming emperor in the East. After a campaign on

  • Carioca, Tahia (Egyptian actor and dancer)

    Tahia Carioca, (Badawiyya Muhammad Karim), Egyptian dancer and motion picture actress whose subtle sexuality and superb technique in the art of raqs sharqi, or belly dancing, made her a national figure and earned her the title “Queen of Oriental Dancing” (b. Feb. 22, 1919, Egypt—d. Sept. 20, 1999,

  • Caris River (river, South America)

    Orinoco River: Physiography of the Orinoco: Suatá (Zuata), Pao, and Caris rivers, which enter on the left bank, and the Cuchivero and Caura rivers, which join the main stream on the right. So much sediment is carried by these rivers that islands often form at the mouths. The Caroní River, one of the Orinoco’s largest…

  • Carisbrooke (Isle of Wight, England, United Kingdom)

    Carisbrooke, locality on the Isle of Wight, historic county of Hampshire, England. It lies just southwest of Newport. The locality’s chief landmark is a great castle on a steep hill that shows three main periods of building—Roman, Norman, and Elizabethan. The remnants of a 3rd-century-ce Roman fort

  • Carisbrooke Castle (castle, Carisbrooke, England, United Kingdom)

    Carisbrooke: …chief landmark is a great castle on a steep hill that shows three main periods of building—Roman, Norman, and Elizabethan. The remnants of a 3rd-century-ce Roman fort became the site of a Norman castle in the late 11th century. Further walls were added over the centuries, and the castle was…

  • carisiri (plant)

    lancewood: The black lancewood, or carisiri, of the Guianas, Guatteria virgata, grows to a height of about 50 feet (15 m) and has a remarkably slender trunk that is seldom more than 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter. The yellow lancewood tree (Duguetia quitarensis), or yari-yari, of…

  • cariso (music)

    Calypso, a type of folk song primarily from Trinidad though sung elsewhere in the southern and eastern Caribbean islands. The subject of a calypso text, usually witty and satiric, is a local and topical event of political and social import, and the tone is one of allusion, mockery, and double

  • Carissimi, Giacomo (Italian composer)

    Giacomo Carissimi, one of the greatest Italian composers of the 17th century, chiefly notable for his oratorios and secular cantatas. Following brief appointments at Tivoli and Assisi, Carissimi settled in Rome in the late 1620s as director of music at the German College and its associated Church

  • Caristiidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Caristiidae (manefishes) Rare black pomfretlike fish from midwater depth of 1,000 metres (3,300 feet) over much deeper bottoms; dorsal fin begins far forward over end of cranium, high and like a mane; pelvic fins very long; about 5 oceanic species. Family Monodactylidae (fingerfishes) Includes family

  • Caritas (international organization)

    Caritas Internationalis, (Latin: “Love Between Nations”) international confederation of Roman Catholic charitable organizations and international groups dedicated to promoting peace, economic justice, and human welfare. In the early 21st century its membership included more than 160 organizations

  • Caritas Catholica (international organization)

    Caritas Internationalis, (Latin: “Love Between Nations”) international confederation of Roman Catholic charitable organizations and international groups dedicated to promoting peace, economic justice, and human welfare. In the early 21st century its membership included more than 160 organizations

  • Caritas Internationalis (international organization)

    Caritas Internationalis, (Latin: “Love Between Nations”) international confederation of Roman Catholic charitable organizations and international groups dedicated to promoting peace, economic justice, and human welfare. In the early 21st century its membership included more than 160 organizations

  • Cariya Pitaka (Buddhist text)

    Jataka: …constitute the last book, the Cariya Pitaka (“Basket of Conduct”), of the Khuddaka Nikaya (“Short Collection”). Beyond this, a Sinhalese commentary of the 5th century that is questionably attributed to a Buddhist scholar named Buddhagosa and called the Jatakatthavannana, or Jatakatthakatha, gathers together about 550 Jataka stories, some of which…

  • Carjat, Étienne (French caricaturist and photographer)

    history of photography: Portraiture: …used the pseudonym of Nadar; Étienne Carjat, likewise a Parisian caricaturist; and Julia Margaret Cameron.

  • Carl and Anna (work by Frank)

    Leonhard Frank: …masterpiece, Karl und Anna (1926; Carl and Anna), a realistic, if sentimental, account of a soldier who seduces his comrade’s wife.

  • Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig (German physiologist)

    Carl F.W. Ludwig, a founder of the physicochemical school of physiology in Germany. A professor of physiology at the universities of Marburg (1846–49), Zürich (1849–55), Vienna (1855–65), and Leipzig (1865–95), Ludwig is best known for his study of the cardiovascular system. He invented (1847) a

  • Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus (king of Sweden)

    Carl XVI Gustaf, king of Sweden from 1973. The only son of King Gustav VI Adolf’s eldest son, Prince Gustav Adolf (who died in an air crash in 1947), Carl Gustaf became crown prince in 1950, when his grandfather acceded to the throne. He studied at military cadet schools, at the University of

  • Carl Hagenbeck Tierpark (zoo, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hagenbeck Zoo, zoological park in Hamburg, Ger., which pioneered the use of moated, barless, open-air enclosures that resemble the animals’ natural habitats. The zoo was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck, who originated the type of wild-animal acts characteristic of modern circus performances.

  • Carl Hagenbeck Zoo (zoo, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hagenbeck Zoo, zoological park in Hamburg, Ger., which pioneered the use of moated, barless, open-air enclosures that resemble the animals’ natural habitats. The zoo was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck, who originated the type of wild-animal acts characteristic of modern circus performances.

  • Carl Johan (king of Sweden and Norway)

    Charles XIV John, French Revolutionary general and marshal of France (1804), who was elected crown prince of Sweden (1810), becoming regent and then king of Sweden and Norway (1818–44). Active in several Napoleonic campaigns between 1805 and 1809, he subsequently shifted allegiances and formed

  • Carl Ludvig Eugen (king of Sweden and Norway)

    Charles XV, king of Sweden and Norway from 1859 to 1872 (called Karl IV in Norway). Succeeding his father, Oscar I, on July 8, 1859, Charles was an intelligent and artistically inclined ruler much liked in both kingdoms. The royal power, however, was considerably reduced during his reign as the

  • Carl Sagan Memorial Station (United States spacecraft)

    Mars Pathfinder, robotic U.S. spacecraft launched to Mars to demonstrate a new way to land a spacecraft on the planet’s surface and the operation of an independent robotic rover. Developed by NASA as part of a low-cost approach to planetary exploration, Pathfinder successfully completed both

  • Carl XIII (king of Sweden)

    Charles XIII, king of Sweden from 1809 and, from 1814 to 1818, first king of the union of Sweden and Norway (called Karl II in Norway). The second son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, he was created duke of Södermanland by his elder brother, King Gustav III, and later served as admiral of the

  • Carl XV (king of Sweden and Norway)

    Charles XV, king of Sweden and Norway from 1859 to 1872 (called Karl IV in Norway). Succeeding his father, Oscar I, on July 8, 1859, Charles was an intelligent and artistically inclined ruler much liked in both kingdoms. The royal power, however, was considerably reduced during his reign as the

  • Carl XVI Gustaf (king of Sweden)

    Carl XVI Gustaf, king of Sweden from 1973. The only son of King Gustav VI Adolf’s eldest son, Prince Gustav Adolf (who died in an air crash in 1947), Carl Gustaf became crown prince in 1950, when his grandfather acceded to the throne. He studied at military cadet schools, at the University of

  • Carle, Antonio (Italian scientist)

    Giulio Bizzozero: …in treating pulmonary tuberculosis; and Antonio Carle and Giorgio Rattone, who demonstrated the transmissibility of tetanus.

  • Carle, Eric (American children’s author and illustrator)

    Eric Carle, American writer and illustrator of children’s literature who published numerous best-selling books, among them The Very Hungry Caterpillar (1969), which by 2018 had sold some 50 million copies and had been translated into more than 60 languages. Carle was born to German immigrant

  • Carle, Guillaume (French leader)

    Jacquerie: Under their captain general, Guillaume Cale, or Carle, they joined forces with Parisian rebels under Étienne Marcel. The Parisians were defeated at Meaux on June 9 by Gaston Phoebus of Foix and Jean III de Grailly. Charles II of Navarre routed Cale at Clermont-en-Beauvaisis on June 10. A massacre…

  • Carleson, Lennart (Swedish mathematician)

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