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  • car pool

    mass transit: Alternative service concepts: …better parking arrangements to encourage carpooling, the sharing of auto rides by people who make similar or identical work trips. Car-pool vehicles are privately owned, the guideways (roads) are in place, drivers do not have to be compensated, and vehicle operating costs can be shared. On the other hand, carpoolers…

  • car seat (safety system)

    child safety: The correct use of child safety seats in passenger cars can reduce the risk of death from car accidents by as much as 71 percent for children under one year of age. Likewise, the use of helmets can significantly reduce the risk of brain injury from bicycling accidents.

  • car sickness

    Motion sickness, sickness induced by motion and characterized by nausea. The term motion sickness was proposed by J.A. Irwin in 1881 to provide a general designation for such similar syndromes as seasickness, train sickness, car sickness, and airsickness. This term, though imprecise for scientific

  • Car Wash, Operation (Brazilian history)

    Aldemir Bendine: …wide-ranging federal investigation (known as Lava Jato [“Car Wash”]) alleged that Petrobras executives and dozens of Brazilian politicians—most of them members of the ruling Workers’ Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores; PT) and its allies—had received millions of dollars in bribes and kickback payments for contracts with Petrobras, principally from large construction…

  • Car Wheels on a Gravel Road (album by Williams)

    Lucinda Williams: …recording of her fifth album, Car Wheels on a Gravel Road. Her initial unhappiness with the work led to a number of delays, and it was not released until 1998. The album brought Williams her first real commercial success. Universally acclaimed, Car Wheels on a Gravel Road also won a…

  • Cara, Irene (American actress and singer-songwriter)
  • Cara, Marchetto (Italian composer)

    frottola: 1535) and Marchetto Cara (d. c. 1530). At times the same person wrote both text and music.

  • Caraballo Mountains (mountains, Philippines)

    Caraballo Mountains, mountains in central Luzon, Philippines. The range reaches an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,680 metres). It joins the Cordillera Central to the north and the Sierra Madre to the east. Drained by the headwaters of the northward-flowing Cagayan River, the mountains are heavily

  • Carabaya, Cordillera de (mountains, Peru)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Central Andes: …emerge northward, the Cordilleras de Carabaya and Vilcanota, separated by a deep gorge; a third range, the Cordillera de Vilcabamba, appears to the west of these and northwest of the city of Cuzco. The three ranges are products of erosive action of rivers that have cut deep canyons between them.…

  • Carabello, Mike (American musician)

    Santana: September 4, 2000), Mike Carabello (b. November 18, 1947, San Francisco, California, U.S.), José (“Chepito”) Areas (b. July 25, 1946, León, Nicaragua), and Mike Shrieve (b. July 6, 1949, San Francisco).

  • Carabias Lillo, Julia (Mexican ecologist and environmentalist)

    Julia Carabias Lillo, Mexican ecologist and environmentalist who served as Mexico’s secretary of the environment, natural resources, and fisheries from 1994 to 2000. Carabias earned both bachelor’s (1977) and master’s (1981) degrees in biology from the National Autonomous University of Mexico

  • carabid beetle (insect)

    Ground beetle, (family Carabidae), any member of more than 40,000 insect species in one of the largest families in the insect order Coleoptera. They can be found in almost any terrestrial habitat on Earth. Ground beetles are recognized by their long legs and shiny black or brown elytra (wing

  • Carabidae (insect)

    Ground beetle, (family Carabidae), any member of more than 40,000 insect species in one of the largest families in the insect order Coleoptera. They can be found in almost any terrestrial habitat on Earth. Ground beetles are recognized by their long legs and shiny black or brown elytra (wing

  • Carabina, Harry Christopher (American sportscaster)

    Harry Caray, American sportscaster who gained national prominence for his telecasts of Chicago Cubs baseball games on Chicago-based superstation WGN during the 1980s and ’90s. After failing to become a professional baseball player out of high school, Caray sold gym equipment before turning his eye

  • carabine à tige (weaponry)

    small arm: Early rifling: His carabine à tige embodied a post or pillar (tige) at the breech against which the bullet was expanded.

  • carabiner (metal ring)

    mountaineering: Techniques: …rope, the artificial anchor, and carabiner (or snap link, a metal loop or ring that can be snapped into an anchor and through which the rope may be passed) are used primarily as safety factors. An exception occurs in tension climbing, in which the leader is supported by a judiciously…

  • Carabiniere (Italian police)

    Carabiniere, one of the national police forces of Italy. Originally an elite military organization in the Savoyard states, the corps became part of the Italian armed forces at the time of national unification (1861). For almost 140 years the Carabinieri were considered part of the army, but in 2000

  • Carabinieri (Italian police)

    Carabiniere, one of the national police forces of Italy. Originally an elite military organization in the Savoyard states, the corps became part of the Italian armed forces at the time of national unification (1861). For almost 140 years the Carabinieri were considered part of the army, but in 2000

  • Carabobo (state, Venezuela)

    Carabobo, estado (state), northwestern Venezuela, bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the north and by the states of Aragua (east), Guárico and Cojedes (south), and Yaracuy (west). It was named in commemoration of the battle that proved decisive in the Venezuelan independence movement At the time the

  • Carabobo, Battle of (South American history)

    Battle of Carabobo, (June 24, 1821), during the Latin American wars of independence, a victory won by South American patriots over Spanish royalists on the plains to the west of Caracas; it virtually freed Venezuela from Spanish control. Following the instructions of the recently installed liberal

  • caracal (mammal species)

    Caracal, (Felis caracal), short-tailed cat (family Felidae) found in hills, deserts, and plains of Africa, the Middle East, and central and southwestern Asia. The caracal is a sleek, short-haired cat with a reddish brown-coat and long tufts of black hairs on the tips of its pointed ears. Long

  • Caracal caracal (mammal species)

    Caracal, (Felis caracal), short-tailed cat (family Felidae) found in hills, deserts, and plains of Africa, the Middle East, and central and southwestern Asia. The caracal is a sleek, short-haired cat with a reddish brown-coat and long tufts of black hairs on the tips of its pointed ears. Long

  • Caracalla (Roman emperor)

    Caracalla, Roman emperor, ruling jointly with his father, Septimius Severus, from 198 to 211 and then alone from 211 until his assassination in 217. His principal achievements were his colossal baths in Rome and his edict of 212, giving Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire.

  • Caracalla, Baths of (building, Rome, Italy)

    Baths of Caracalla, public baths in ancient Rome begun by the emperor Septimius Severus in ad 206 and completed by his son the emperor Caracalla in 216. Among Rome’s most beautiful and luxurious baths, designed to accommodate about 1,600 bathers, the Baths of Caracalla continued in use until the

  • Caracalla, Edict of (ancient Rome)

    civitas: In ad 212 the Edict of Caracalla granted citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire.

  • Caracallus (Roman emperor)

    Caracalla, Roman emperor, ruling jointly with his father, Septimius Severus, from 198 to 211 and then alone from 211 until his assassination in 217. His principal achievements were his colossal baths in Rome and his edict of 212, giving Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire.

  • caracara (bird)

    Caracara, any of about 10 species of birds of prey of the New World subfamily Polyborinae (or Daptriinae) of the family Falconidae. Caracaras feed largely on carrion, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They are gregarious and aggressive. In spite of their smaller size, they dominate vultures when

  • Caracara plancus (bird)

    caracara: …crested caracara (Caracara plancus or Polyborus plancus) occurs from Florida, Texas, Arizona, Cuba, and the Isle of Pines south to the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego. Some authorities classify the entire population of caracaras within this range as crested caracaras, dividing them into several subspecies, while others define only…

  • Caracas (national capital, Venezuela)

    Caracas, city, capital of Venezuela, and one of the principal cities of South America. It is Venezuela’s largest urban agglomeration and the country’s primary centre of industry, commerce, education, and culture. Founded in 1567 as Santiago de León de Caracas, the city grew slowly until the 1940s,

  • Caracas and La Guaira Railway (railway, Venezuela)
  • Caracas Company (Spanish trading company)

    Compañía Guipuzcoana, (Spanish: “Guipúzcoa Company”) trading concern chartered by the Spanish crown in 1728, with a monopoly on trade between Spain and Venezuela. It was one of a number of companies for colonial trade established under the 18th-century Bourbon kings, and it was the only one that

  • Caracas, Poliedro de (building, Caracas, Venezuela)

    construction: Postwar developments in long-span construction: …largest geodesic dome is the Poliedro de Caracas, in Venezuela, built of aluminum tubes spanning 143 metres (469 feet).

  • Caracas, Universidad de (university, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Central University Botanical Garden: …state-supported tropical garden occupying a 65-hectare (160-acre) site in Caracas, Venez. The garden has excellent collections of palms, cacti, aroids, bromeliads, pandanuses, and other groups of tropical plants of considerable botanical interest; also important is a large, untouched tract of the original mountainside vegetation. The herbarium maintained by the research…

  • Caracciola, Rudolf (German race–car driver)

    Rudolf Caracciola, German automobile-racing driver who was one of the most successful and versatile of modern times. He participated in hill climbs and speed trials as well as races. Caracciola began racing in 1922 and from 1923, except for a brief period, drove on the Mercedes team. He won more

  • Caraccioli Altarpiece (work by Ordónez and de Siloé)

    Bartolomé Ordóñez: …Diego de Siloé on the Caraccioli Altarpiece (1514–15; San Giovanni a Carbonara) and worked on the marble tomb of Andrea Bonifacio (c. 1518; SS. Severino e Sosia), both in Naples. He probably established himself in Barcelona about 1515. He was commissioned by the Barcelona Cathedral in 1517 to make wooden…

  • Caracciolo, Carlo (Italian publisher)

    Carlo Caracciolo, Italian publisher (born Oct. 23, 1925, Florence, Italy—died Dec. 15, 2008, Rome, Italy), cofounded (1976), with editor Eugenio Scalfari, La Repubblica, a Rome-based centre-left newspaper that in 2008 had a circulation of some 624,000, making it one of the 100 largest daily

  • Caracciolo, Domenico (Habsburg viceroy)

    Italy: Naples and Sicily: At the same time, Domenico Caracciolo, the viceroy to Sicily from 1781 to 1785, implemented a reform program that abolished the Inquisition and challenged the fabric of the feudal system, but again without concrete results. In the end, political ties to Austria and Britain against Revolutionary France put Naples…

  • Caracciolo, Francesco, duca di Brienza (Italian admiral)

    Francesco Caracciolo, duke di Brienza, Neapolitan admiral who was executed on the orders of the British admiral Horatio Nelson for supporting the republican revolution at Naples in 1799. Considered a traitor by some Italians, he at first supported King Ferdinand IV of Naples but later accepted

  • Caracciolo, Giovanni (Italian courtier)

    Joan II: Joan appointed her next lover, Giovanni Caracciolo (called Sergianni), as grand seneschal; he made peace with Sforza and appointed him grand constable. Nevertheless, Sforza supported Louis III of Anjou’s claim to the Neapolitan throne. Joan thereupon called on Alfonso V the Magnanimous of Aragon for aid, adopting him as her…

  • Caracol (archaeological site, Belize)

    Caracol, major prehistoric Mayan city, now an archaeological site in west-central Belize, 47 miles (76 km) southeast of the Guatemalan Mayan city of Tikal. The name is Spanish (meaning “snail”); the original Mayan name is unknown. Discovered in 1938 by a woodcutter, the ruins were first

  • Caracol, El (observatory, Mexico)

    astronomical observatory: …out the same practice at El Caracol, a dome-shaped structure somewhat resembling a modern optical observatory. There is again no evidence of any scientific instrumentation, even of a rudimentary nature.

  • caracole (military tactic)

    tactics: Adaptation of pike and cavalry tactics: …dance and known as the caracole. Insofar as they sacrificed the cavalry’s greatest advantages—namely, its mobility and sheer mass—such methods were never very effective. A much better system was to rely on combined arms, bombarding infantry formations with artillery (another 14th-century invention that began to make its impact felt on…

  • Caracole (novel by White)

    Edmund White: …he issued the bizarrely comic Caracole, about the bacchanalian escapades of the denizens of an imagined city. Some of White’s short fiction was collected as Skinned Alive (1995), in which he related tales of homosexual love, thwarted and requited, in the coruscating prose that was his trademark. With the publication…

  • Caractacus (king of a large area in southern Britain)

    Caratacus, king of a large area in southern Britain, son of Cunobelinus. Caratacus was from the Catuvellauni tribe, but his kingdom included other peoples, most notably the Trinovantes. He ruled an area that embraced the Atrebates of Hampshire and probably the Dobunni of Gloucestershire. At the

  • Caracteres de Theophraste traduits du grec avec Les Caracteres ou les moeurs de ce siecle, Les (work by La Bruyère)

    Jean de La Bruyère: …moeurs de ce siècle (1688; The Characters, or the Manners of the Age, with The Characters of Theophrastus), which is considered to be one of the masterpieces of French literature.

  • Caractères originaux de l’histoire rurale française, Les (work by Bloch)

    Marc Bloch: …de l’histoire rurale française (1931; French Rural History: An Essay on Its Basic Characteristics), is a rich, evocative study of France’s diverse field patterns and its forms of agrarian civilization from the Middle Ages to the French Revolution, drawing on the disciplines of agronomy, cartography, economics, geography, philology, psychology, sociology,…

  • Caradeuc de la Chalotais, Louis-René de (French magistrate)

    Louis-René de Caradeuc de La Chalotais, French magistrate who led the Breton Parlement (high court of justice) in a protracted legal battle against the authority of the government of King Louis XV. The struggle resulted in the purging and suspensions (1771–74) of the Parlements. La Chalotais became

  • Caradoc (king of a large area in southern Britain)

    Caratacus, king of a large area in southern Britain, son of Cunobelinus. Caratacus was from the Catuvellauni tribe, but his kingdom included other peoples, most notably the Trinovantes. He ruled an area that embraced the Atrebates of Hampshire and probably the Dobunni of Gloucestershire. At the

  • Caradon (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Caradon, former district, Cornwall unitary authority, England. It lies between Bodmin Moor and the English Channel in southeastern Cornwall. The River Tamar forms the boundary with Devon to the east. The district depends on Plymouth in Devon for many services and is linked to that city by road and

  • Caradon of St. Cleer, Hugh Mackintosh Foot, Baron (British diplomat)

    Hugh Foot, British diplomat who led British colonies to their independence. Foot was the son of a Liberal member of Parliament, and his three brothers were also elected to Parliament. After attending the University of Cambridge (B.A., 1929) Foot entered the civil administrative service. After

  • Carafa, Gian Pietro (pope)

    Paul IV, Italian Counter-Reformation pope from 1555 to 1559, whose anti-Spanish policy renewed the war between France and the Habsburgs. Of noble birth, he owed his ecclesiastical advancement to the influence of his uncle Cardinal Oliviero Carafa. As bishop of Chieti, Carafa served Pope Leo X as

  • Carafa, Oliviero (Italian cardinal)

    Donato Bramante: Roman period: …had come in contact with Oliviero Carafa, the wealthy and politically influential cardinal of Naples, who had a deep interest in letters, the arts, and antiquity. Carafa commissioned the first work in Rome known to be by Bramante: the monastery and cloister of Santa Maria della Pace (finished 1504). Bramante…

  • carageenan extract (biology)

    Irish moss: …moss is a gelatinous substance, carrageenan, which can be extracted by boiling. Carrageenan is used for curing leather and as an emulsifying and suspending agent in pharmaceuticals, food products, cosmetics, and shoe polishes. It is often harvested from shallow water by dredging with special rakes or obtained from broken fronds…

  • Caragiale, Costache (Romanian actor)

    Costache Caragiale, actor-manager who helped to encourage the development of a unique Romanian drama. Caragiale made his stage debut in 1835 in Bucharest, and in 1838 he organized a theatre of contemporary drama in Iași (now Jassy). During the next 15 years he worked with regional theatres, notably

  • Caragiale, Ion Luca (Romanian author)

    Ion Luca Caragiale, Romanian playwright and prose writer of great satirical power. Caragiale’s comedies expose the effects on Romanian urban society of the hasty introduction of a modern way of life and the comical results of social and political change. Conul Leonida (1879; “Mr. Leonida”), O

  • Carajá (people)

    Carajá, tribe of South American Indians living along the Araguaia River, near the inland island of Bananal, in central Brazil. Their language may be distantly related to Ge, which is spoken by most of the surrounding tribes. The three subtribes of the Carajá—the Carajá proper, the Shambioá, and t

  • Carajás Mountains (mountains, Brazil)

    mineral deposit: Iron deposits: …Labrador Trough deposits of Canada, Serra dos Carajas in Brazil, the Transvaal Basin deposits of South Africa, and the Hamersley Basin of Australia.

  • Carajás, Serra dos (mountains, Brazil)

    mineral deposit: Iron deposits: …Labrador Trough deposits of Canada, Serra dos Carajas in Brazil, the Transvaal Basin deposits of South Africa, and the Hamersley Basin of Australia.

  • Caraka-saṃhitā (Indian medical text)

    Charaka-samhita, comprehensive text on ancient Indian medicine credited to Charaka, who was a practitioner of the traditional system of Indian medicine known as Ayurveda. Charaka is thought to have flourished sometime between the 2nd century bce and the 2nd century ce. The Charaka-samhita as it

  • Caraka-samhita (Indian medical text)

    Charaka-samhita, comprehensive text on ancient Indian medicine credited to Charaka, who was a practitioner of the traditional system of Indian medicine known as Ayurveda. Charaka is thought to have flourished sometime between the 2nd century bce and the 2nd century ce. The Charaka-samhita as it

  • Carales (Italy)

    Cagliari, city, capital of the island regione of Sardinia, Italy. It lies at the northern extremity of the Gulf of Cagliari, on the south coast of the island. Although it was probably occupied in prehistoric times, its foundation is attributed to the Phoenicians. It was known to the Greeks as

  • Caralis (Italy)

    Cagliari, city, capital of the island regione of Sardinia, Italy. It lies at the northern extremity of the Gulf of Cagliari, on the south coast of the island. Although it was probably occupied in prehistoric times, its foundation is attributed to the Phoenicians. It was known to the Greeks as

  • Caramanlis, Constantine (Greek statesman)

    Konstantinos Karamanlis, Greek statesman who was prime minister from 1955 to 1963 and again from 1974 to 1980. He then served as president from 1980 to 1985 and from 1990 to 1995. Karamanlis gave Greece competent government and political stability while his conservative economic policies stimulated

  • caramel (candy)

    Caramel, candy substance obtained by boiling sugar to or beyond approximately 240° F (115° C), at which point its mass takes on a slightly yellowish colour and pleasantly burnt smell. Caramels vary in consistency between the short, or soft, and the long, or more chewy types depending upon the

  • caramelization (food processing)

    candy: Caramels and toffee: This process is termed caramelization.

  • Caramúru: Poema épico do descubrimento da Bahia (poem by Durão)

    José de Santa Rita Durão: …known for his long poem Caramúru. Durão was a pioneer in his use of the South American Indians as subjects of literature.

  • Cāraṇ (Hindu caste)

    Cāraṇ, Hindu caste of hereditary genealogists, bards, and storytellers located in Gujarāt state in western India. They claim origin from the Rājput caste of Rājasthān and may be of mixed Brahman (priestly) and Rājput extraction. Many of their customs are similar to those of their northern Indian

  • Caran d’Ache (Russian-French caricaturist)

    Caran d’Ache, caricaturist and illustrator whose line drawing was notable for its crisp, forceful simplicity. The name Caran d’Ache transliterates the Russian word for pencil. He was educated in Moscow but settled in Paris, where he gained great popularity as a contributor to several periodicals. H

  • Caranchos de la Florida, Los (work by Lynch)

    Benito Lynch: His first important novel, Los caranchos de la Florida (1916; “The Vultures of La Florida”), deals with the conflict between a father, master of a cattle ranch, and his son, who has returned after study in Europe.

  • Carangi, Gia (American fashion model)

    Cindy Crawford: …the late top fashion model Gia Carangi, Crawford immediately secured work. Her big break came when she was chosen as the cover model for the August 1986 issue of Vogue, the leading fashion magazine, whose decision not to airbrush out the beauty mark above her upper lip—which many industry professionals…

  • carangid (fish)

    Carangid, any fish of the family Carangidae (order Perciformes), which contains more than 200 species of marine fishes, including such well-known forms as the jacks and pompanos. Carangids are swift, predatory, usually silvery fishes found throughout the world in warm and tropical regions. They

  • Carangidae (fish)

    Carangid, any fish of the family Carangidae (order Perciformes), which contains more than 200 species of marine fishes, including such well-known forms as the jacks and pompanos. Carangids are swift, predatory, usually silvery fishes found throughout the world in warm and tropical regions. They

  • carangiform locomotion (biology)

    locomotion: Carangiform and ostraciiform locomotion: Fish with fusiform bodies exhibit carangiform locomotion, in which only the posterior half of the body flexes with the passage of contraction waves. This arrangement of body form and locomotion apparently is the most efficient one, for it occurs in the most active and fastest of fish. The advantage of…

  • Caranjee (Pakistan)

    Karāchi, city and capital of Sindh province, southern Pakistan. It is the country’s largest city and principal seaport and is a major commercial and industrial centre. Karāchi is located on the coast of the Arabian Sea immediately northwest of the Indus River Delta. The city has been variously

  • Caranqui (people)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The highlands and the low countries: The Karanqa also controlled corn (maize) fields at less lofty altitudes in what today is Chilean territory, several days’ walk away. Farther west and closer to the coast were their fruit and coca-leaf gardens. Finally, even farther north, across the Atacama Desert near the modern city…

  • Caranx bartholomaei (fish)

    jack: …warm Atlantic waters and the yellow jack (C. bartholomaei), which frequents warm Atlantic waters and is noted for its golden-yellow sides and fins.

  • Caranx crysos (fish)

    runner: The blue runner (Caranx crysos) is a shiny, greenish or bluish fish of the Atlantic. Like others in the family, blue runners have deeply forked tails. They are popular game fish that reach lengths of 60 cm (2 feet).

  • Caranx hippos (fish)

    jack: …game fish, such as the crevalle jack (C. hippos) of warm Atlantic waters and the yellow jack (C. bartholomaei), which frequents warm Atlantic waters and is noted for its golden-yellow sides and fins.

  • Caranx speciosus (fish)

    jack: …warm Atlantic waters and the yellow jack (C. bartholomaei), which frequents warm Atlantic waters and is noted for its golden-yellow sides and fins.

  • carapace (biology)

    boxfish: …by a hard, boxlike, protective carapace covering most of the body. The alternative name cowfish refers to the hornlike projections on the heads of some species. The members of the family, found along the bottom in warm and tropical seas throughout the world, are considered good to eat and are…

  • Carapichea ipecacuanha (plant)

    emetic: …from the dried roots of Carapichea ipecacuanha, a plant indigenous to Brazil and Central America.

  • Carapidae (fish)

    Pearlfish, any of about 32 species of slim, eel-shaped marine fishes of the family Carapidae noted for living in the bodies of sea cucumbers, pearl oysters, starfishes, and other invertebrates. Pearlfishes are primarily tropical and are found around the world, mainly in shallow water. They are

  • Carapus acus (fish)

    paracanthopterygian: Life cycle and reproduction: In the Mediterranean pearlfish (Carapus acus), a member of the order Ophidiiformes (family Carapidae), clumps of eggs released by the female in late summer appear at the surface and hatch into a specialized larva, the vexillifer, which lives amid the plankton. After attaining a length of about…

  • Caraquet (New Brunswick, Canada)

    Caraquet, town and fishing port, Gloucester county, northeastern New Brunswick, Canada. It lies along Caraquet Bay (an inlet of Chaleur Bay), near the mouth of the Caraquet River, 42 miles (68 km) northeast of Bathurst. Founded about 1760 by shipwrecked French seamen, it is one of the province’s

  • Caraș-Severin (county, Romania)

    Caraș-Severin, județ (county), southwestern Romania. It is bounded on the south and west by Serbia. The Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians), including the ranges of Semenic, Cernei, and Poiana Rușcă, rise above settlement areas in the intermontane valleys. The eastward-flowing Danube River

  • Carassius auratus (fish)

    Goldfish, (Carassius auratus), ornamental aquarium and pond fish of the carp family (Cyprinidae) native to East Asia but introduced into many other areas. The goldfish resembles the carp (Cyprinus carpio) but differs from its relative in having no mouth barbels. It was domesticated by the Chinese

  • Carassius carassius (fish)

    carp: The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is a barbel-less European relative of the goldfish.

  • Carasso, Daniel (Greek entrepreneur)

    Daniel Carasso, Greek entrepreneur (born 1905, Thessalonika, Greece—died May 17, 2009, Paris, France), transformed the status of yogurt from a medical supplement to an international snack food as the head of Groupe Danone (Dannon). Carasso took over Danone yogurt from his father, who started

  • carat (gold measurement)

    Karat, a measure of the fineness (i.e., purity) of gold. It is spelled carat outside the United States but should not be confused with the unit used to measure the weight of gems, also called carat. A gold karat is 124 part, or 4.1667 percent, of the whole, and the purity of a gold alloy is e

  • carat (gem measurement)

    Carat, unit of weight for diamonds and certain other precious gems. Before 1913 the weight of a carat varied in different gem centres. Originally based on the weight of grains or leguminous seeds, which, of course, varied in size from place to place, the carat was equivalent to 0.2053 gram (3.168

  • Caratacus (king of a large area in southern Britain)

    Caratacus, king of a large area in southern Britain, son of Cunobelinus. Caratacus was from the Catuvellauni tribe, but his kingdom included other peoples, most notably the Trinovantes. He ruled an area that embraced the Atrebates of Hampshire and probably the Dobunni of Gloucestershire. At the

  • Caratasca Lagoon (lagoon, Honduras)

    Caratasca Lagoon, lagoon in northeastern Honduras. The country’s largest lagoon, Caratasca extends inland from the Caribbean Sea for approximately 25 miles (40 km) and measures up to 55 miles (88 km) from northwest to southeast. It is linked to the Caribbean by a 3-mile (5-kilometre) channel, on

  • Carathéodory, Constantin (Greek-German mathematician)

    Constantin Carathéodory, German mathematician of Greek origin who made important contributions to the theory of real functions, to the calculus of variations, and to the theory of point-set measure. After two years as an assistant engineer with the British Asyūṭ Dam project in Egypt, Carathéodory

  • Carausius (insect)

    insect: Reproduction: , the stick insect Carausius) rarely produce males, and the eggs develop without fertilization in a process known as parthenogenesis. During summer months in temperate latitudes, aphids occur only as parthenogenetic females in which embryos develop within the mother (viviparity). In certain gall midges (Diptera) oocytes start developing

  • Carausius, Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus (Roman officer)

    Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius, officer in the Roman military service who created a short-lived independent state in Britain. Born in Menapia, a district between the Scheldt and Meuse rivers (now in Belgium), Carausius was a pilot by profession. He had won honour in the Roman war against the

  • Caravaca (Spain)

    Caravaca, city in the provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Murcia, southeastern Spain, about 40 miles (65 km) west-northwest of Murcia city. The city’s churches include El Salvador (16th century), designed by Juan de Herrera, and La Santísima Cruz (1617), which once

  • Caravaca de la Cruz (Spain)

    Caravaca, city in the provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Murcia, southeastern Spain, about 40 miles (65 km) west-northwest of Murcia city. The city’s churches include El Salvador (16th century), designed by Juan de Herrera, and La Santísima Cruz (1617), which once

  • Caravaggio (film by Jarman [1986])

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