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  • Cynocephalus volans (mammal)

    flying lemur: Besides the Philippine species, Cynocephalus volans, a series of races of Cynocephalus variegatus ranges from Myanmar (Burma) to the Malay Peninsula and from the islands of Sumatra to Borneo. Flying lemurs were formerly classified as insectivores, but they differ from them and from other mammals in several basic anatomical…

  • Cynodictis (extinct mammal genus)

    dog: Ancestry: …into the first true dog—namely, Cynodictis. This was a medium-size animal, longer than it was tall, with a long tail and a fairly brushy coat. Over the millennia Cynodictis gave rise to two branches, one in Africa and the other in Eurasia. The Eurasian branch was called Tomarctus and is…

  • Cynodon dactylon (plant)

    Bermuda grass, (Cynodon dactylon), perennial turfgrass of the family Poaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. Bermuda grass is used in warm regions around the world as a lawn and pasture grass and for golf greens. It is considered an invasive species in Bermuda and various other places outside

  • cynodont (fossil tetrapod suborder)

    Cynodont, (suborder or infraorder Cynodontia), mammal-like reptiles of the order Therapsida (see therapsid) that existed from the Late Permian to the Early Jurassic Epoch (260.4 million to 175.6 million years ago). Cynodont fossils have been found in China, South Africa, South America, and North

  • Cynodontia (fossil tetrapod suborder)

    Cynodont, (suborder or infraorder Cynodontia), mammal-like reptiles of the order Therapsida (see therapsid) that existed from the Late Permian to the Early Jurassic Epoch (260.4 million to 175.6 million years ago). Cynodont fossils have been found in China, South Africa, South America, and North

  • cynodontid (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Cynodontidae (cynodontids) Large mouth, large canine teeth, long anal fin. Carnivorous, food fishes that inhabit South America. To about 65 cm (26 inches). 5 genera, 14 species. Family Acestrorhynchidae (acestrorhynchids) Elongate, pikelike. South America. 1 genus, 15 species. Family Crenuchidae (South

  • Cynodontidae (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Cynodontidae (cynodontids) Large mouth, large canine teeth, long anal fin. Carnivorous, food fishes that inhabit South America. To about 65 cm (26 inches). 5 genera, 14 species. Family Acestrorhynchidae (acestrorhynchids) Elongate, pikelike. South America. 1 genus, 15 species. Family Crenuchidae (South

  • Cynogale bennetti (mammal)

    civet: The Sunda otter civet (Cynogale bennetti), the African civet (Civettictis civetta), and the rare Congo water civet (Genetta piscivora) are semiaquatic. Civets feed on small animals and on vegetable matter. Their litters usually consist of two or three young.

  • Cynoglossidae (fish family)

    Tonguefish, any of the small marine flatfishes of the family Cynoglossidae, found in the tropics, especially in Asia. Tonguefish are flattened, drop-shaped flatfish with small eyes, both on the left side of the head, and with long dorsal and anal fins that join with the tail fin. Most tonguefish

  • Cynoglossum (plant)

    Hound’s-tongue, any of 75 species of the plant genus Cynoglossum, in the family Boraginaceae, including the bright-blue-flowered Chinese forget-me-not (C. amabile), native in mostly temperate areas of the New World and Old World. They are named for their usually rough, tongue-shaped leaves. Two

  • Cynoglossum amabile (plant)

    hound's-tongue: …family Boraginaceae, including the bright-blue-flowered Chinese forget-me-not (C. amabile), native in mostly temperate areas of the New World and Old World. They are named for their usually rough, tongue-shaped leaves.

  • Cynoglossum germanicum (plant)

    hound's-tongue: officinale and C. germanicum, are widespread along roadsides and in dry soils, the former naturalized in North America. They are 60 to 90 cm (2 to 3 feet) tall and produce curving sprays of small, five-lobed blooms and sticktight clusters of spined seeds.

  • Cynoglossum officinale (plant)

    hound's-tongue: …purplish-red-flowered, European species of hound’s-tongue, C. officinale and C. germanicum, are widespread along roadsides and in dry soils, the former naturalized in North America. They are 60 to 90 cm (2 to 3 feet) tall and produce curving sprays of small, five-lobed blooms and sticktight clusters of spined seeds.

  • Cynognathus (fossil therapsid genus)

    Cynognathus, genus of extinct advanced therapsids (mammals and their relatives) found as fossils in Lower Triassic deposits (251 million to 245.9 million years ago) in South Africa and South America. Cynognathus is representative of the Theriodontia, a group of cynodont therapsids that gave rise to

  • Cynometra alexandrii (tree species)

    Ituri Forest: Plant and animal life: There, Cynometra alexandrii and Brachystegia laurentii, which together comprise less than 40 percent of the canopy, are interspersed with numerous other tall species (e.g., Albizia, Celtis, and Ficus).

  • cynomolgus monkey (primate)

    cloning: Early cloning experiments: …of two clones of the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), the first primate clones using the SCNT process. (SCNT has been carried out with very limited success in humans, in part because of problems with human egg cells resulting from the mother’s age and environmental factors.)

  • Cynomys (rodent)

    Prairie dog, (genus Cynomys), any of five species of burrowing, colony-forming squirrels that inhabit plains, high plateaus, and montane valleys in North America. Their short, coarse fur is grizzled yellowish buff to reddish or rich cinnamon. Prairie dogs have a short tail, small rounded ears, and

  • Cynomys gunnisoni (rodent)

    prairie dog: … from Canada to northern Mexico; Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) occurs where Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah meet; the white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) is found from eastern Wyoming through intermontane Rocky Mountain valleys to the eastern margin of the Great Basin; the Utah prairie dog (C. parvidens) is…

  • Cynomys leucurus (rodent)

    prairie dog: …Mexico, and Utah meet; the white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) is found from eastern Wyoming through intermontane Rocky Mountain valleys to the eastern margin of the Great Basin; the Utah prairie dog (C. parvidens) is restricted to the southern part of that state; and the Mexican prairie dog (C. mexicanus)…

  • Cynomys ludovicianus (rodent)

    prairie dog: The common black-tailed (C. ludovicianus) and Mexican (C. mexicanus) species live in large, dense colonies that early explorers described as “towns.” Colonies are divided by topographic and vegetational features into semidiscrete wards formed from smaller extended family groups, or coteries. Colonies usually cover about 100 hectares (247…

  • Cynomys mexicanus (rodent)

    prairie dog: ludovicianus) and Mexican (C. mexicanus) species live in large, dense colonies that early explorers described as “towns.” Colonies are divided by topographic and vegetational features into semidiscrete wards formed from smaller extended family groups, or coteries. Colonies usually cover about 100 hectares (247 acres), but the largest…

  • Cynomys parvidens (rodent)

    prairie dog: …of the Great Basin; the Utah prairie dog (C. parvidens) is restricted to the southern part of that state; and the Mexican prairie dog (C. mexicanus) occurs in northern Mexico.

  • Cynops (amphibian genus)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: …Taricha in North America, and Cynops in Japan) and about 120 species. There is disagreement concerning the classification of salamanders below the ordinal level. Some authorities recognize no suborders, and some separate the genus Necturus into the family Necturidae, distinct from the Proteidae. Molecular data (nucleic acid

  • Cynoscephalae (hills, Greece)

    Cynoscephalae, (Greek: “Dogs’ Heads”), ancient range of hills in Thessaly, Greece, 7 miles (11 km) west of modern Vólos. It was the site of the victory (197 bc) that ended the Second Macedonian War when the Romans under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated Philip V of Macedon. The combat engaged

  • Cynoscephalae, Battle of (197 BC)

    Battle of Cynoscephalae, (197 bce), conclusive engagement of the Second Macedonian War, in which Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus checked the territorial ambitions of Philip V of Macedonia and bolstered Roman influence in the Greek world. Hoping to capitalize on the gains he had made during

  • Cynoscion (fish)

    Weakfish, (genus Cynoscion), any member of a group of fishes in the croaker family, Sciaenidae (order Perciformes). A half dozen species inhabit the coastal regions of North America. The weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) is a marine sport fish but is usually less than 60 cm (2 feet) long. Much larger s

  • Cynoscion nebulosus (fish)

    weakfish: The spotted sea trout (C. nebulosus), found along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of Florida, is slightly smaller than the weakfish. Although the sea trouts are similar to the true trouts (order Salmoniformes) in appearance, the two groups are not related.

  • Cynoscion regalis (fish)

    weakfish: The weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) is a marine sport fish but is usually less than 60 cm (2 feet) long. Much larger specimens have been caught on occasion. The term weakfish refers to their delicate mouths, which are easily torn by fishhooks. Weakfish are also caught commercially along…

  • Cynric (king of Wessex)

    Cynric, king of the West Saxons, or Wessex (from 534). By some accounts he also reigned jointly (519–534) with his grandfather (or father?), Cerdic, founder of Wessex. The period was apparently one of consolidating gains climaxed by the Battle of Mount Badon (520) rather than a period of further

  • Cynthia (work by Propertius)

    Sextus Propertius: It was known as the Cynthia and also as the Monobiblos because it was for a long time afterward sold separately from his other three books. Complete editions of all four books were also available. Cynthia seems to have had an immediate success, for the influential literary patron Maecenas invited…

  • cynthia moth (insect)

    saturniid moth: The caterpillar of the cynthia moth (Samia cynthia or walkeri), also known as the ailanthus silk moth, native to Asia and introduced into North America, feeds chiefly on leaves of the ailanthus tree and the castor oil plant. The olive green adult has a distinctive pattern of crescents on…

  • Cynthia’s Revels (play by Jonson)

    Ben Jonson: Theatrical career: …experiment; for them Jonson wrote Cynthia’s Revels (c. 1600) and Poetaster (1601). Even in these, however, there is the paradox of contempt for human behaviour hand in hand with a longing for human order.

  • Cynthius (Italian poet and dramatist)

    Giambattista Giraldi, Italian poet and dramatist who wrote the first modern tragedy on classical principles to appear on the Italian stage (Orbecche), and who was one of the first writers of tragicomedy. He studied under Celio Calcagnini and succeeded him in the chair of rhetoric at Ferrara (1541),

  • Cynwulf (English poet)

    Cynewulf, author of four Old English poems preserved in late 10th-century manuscripts. Elene and The Fates of the Apostles are in the Vercelli Book, and The Ascension (which forms the second part of a trilogy, Christ, and is also called Christ II) and Juliana are in the Exeter Book. An epilogue to

  • CYO (Roman Catholic organization)

    Catholic Youth Organization (CYO), an agency of the Roman Catholic Church organized at the level of the diocese and serving youth in its religious, recreational, cultural, and social needs. The first Catholic Youth Organization (CYO), a boys’ athletic program, was founded in Chicago in 1930 by

  • CYP27B1 (gene)

    multiple sclerosis: Suspected causes of multiple sclerosis: …in a gene known as CYP27B1 that result in reduced vitamin D levels in the body. The inheritance of one copy (from one parent) of the mutated gene is sufficient to produce MS (inheritance of two copies, one from each parent, causes vitamin D-dependent rickets I, or pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets).…

  • Cyperaceae (plant family)

    Cyperaceae, sedge family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. The Cyperaceae are grasslike herbaceous plants found especially in wet regions throughout the world. The Cyperaceae, among the 10 largest families of flowering plants, contain about 5,000 species and,

  • Cyperoideae (plant subfamily)

    Cyperaceae: Evolution and classification: The Cyperoideae, the largest subfamily including about 70 genera and 2,400 species, has usually perfect flowers in simple spikes with often numerous spirally arranged or two-ranked scales. The Caricoideae, the next largest subfamily, has 2,100 species dispersed among only 5 genera and is characterized by unisexual…

  • Cyperus (plant genus)

    Cyperaceae: Distribution and abundance: …photograph), with about 2,000 species; Cyperus, with nearly 650 species; Rhynchospora (beak rushes), with roughly 250 species; and Fimbristylis, Eleocharis (spike rushes), and Scleria (nut rushes), each with about 200 species. Other large genera are Bulbostylis, with approximately 100 species; Schoenus, also with about 100 species; and Mapania, with up…

  • Cyperus alternifolius (plant)

    Umbrella plant, any of several unrelated but similarly leaved plants. Cyperus alternifolius (family Cyperaceae), also called umbrella palm and umbrella sedge, is widely cultivated in water gardens and as a potted plant. It grows up to 1 m (3 feet) high. Native to Madagascar, Réunion, and

  • Cyperus alteruifolius (plant)

    umbrella plant: …alternifolius (family Cyperaceae), also called umbrella palm and umbrella sedge, is widely cultivated in water gardens and as a potted plant. It grows up to 1 m (3 feet) high. Native to Madagascar, Réunion, and Mauritius, it is widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics.

  • Cyperus esculentus (plant)

    groundnut: Cyperus esculentus, nut sedge or yellow nut grass, is a papyrus relative (family Cyperaceae) that also bears edible tubers, especially in the variety called chufa or earth almond.

  • Cyperus esculentus sativus (plant)

    groundnut: …especially in the variety called chufa or earth almond.

  • Cyperus isocladus (plant)

    papyrus: The dwarf papyrus (C. isocladus, also given as C. papyrus ‘Nanus’), up to 60 cm tall, is sometimes potted and grown indoors.

  • Cyperus papyrus (plant)

    papyrus: …ancient times and also the plant from which it was derived, Cyperus papyrus (family Cyperaceae), also called paper plant. The papyrus plant was long cultivated in the Nile delta region in Egypt and was collected for its stalk or stem, whose central pith was cut into thin strips, pressed together,…

  • Cyperus papyrus ‘Nanus’ (plant)

    papyrus: The dwarf papyrus (C. isocladus, also given as C. papyrus ‘Nanus’), up to 60 cm tall, is sometimes potted and grown indoors.

  • Cypher, Julie (American director)

    Melissa Etheridge: …Etheridge’s relationship with film director Julie Cypher became a matter of public record. The couple, who had been together since 1990, appeared on the cover of Newsweek magazine in 1996, and in 2000 they revealed in an article in Rolling Stone that musician David Crosby had supplied the sperm for…

  • cyphonaute (larva)

    moss animal: Reproduction: …triangular, bivalved larvae, known as cyphonautes, which for several weeks live among, and feed on, plankton. Larvae from brood chambers and cyphonautes metamorphose in a similar way; i.e., both locate a suitable surface and explore it with sensory cilia. Attachment is achieved by flattening a sticky holdfast, which pulls the…

  • Cypovirus (virus genus)

    virus: Annotated classification: …in mammals, including humans), and Cypovirus (prototype causes cytoplasmic polyhedrosis disease in insects). Assorted Referencescell-mediated immunitychromosomes

  • Cypraea (marine snail)

    Cowrie, any of several marine snails of the subclass Prosobranchia (class Gastropoda) comprising the genus Cypraea, family Cypraeidae. The humped, thick shell is beautifully coloured (often speckled) and glossy; the apertural lips, which open into the first whorl in the shell, are inrolled and may

  • Cypraea aurantium (marine snail)

    cowrie: The 10-centimetre (4-inch) golden cowrie (C. aurantium) was traditionally worn by royalty in Pacific Islands, and the money cowrie (C. moneta), a 2.5-centimetre (1-inch) yellow species, has served as currency in Africa and elsewhere.

  • Cypraea moneta (marine snail)

    cowrie: …in Pacific Islands, and the money cowrie (C. moneta), a 2.5-centimetre (1-inch) yellow species, has served as currency in Africa and elsewhere.

  • Cypraeacea (gastropod superfamily)

    gastropod: Classification: Superfamily Cypraeacea Cowrie shells (Cypraeidae) and egg shells (Ovulidae) have highly polished and brilliantly coloured shells; mantle, which may cover the shell, is a totally different colour pattern; if touched, members of group suddenly withdraw, the change in colour serving to confuse predators; common in shallow…

  • Cypraeidae (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: Cypraeacea Cowrie shells (Cypraeidae) and egg shells (Ovulidae) have highly polished and brilliantly coloured shells; mantle, which may cover the shell, is a totally different colour pattern; if touched, members of group suddenly withdraw, the change in colour serving to confuse predators; common in shallow tropical oceans, some…

  • cypress (plant)

    Cypress, any of 12 species of ornamental and timber evergreen conifers constituting the genus Cupressus of the family Cupressaceae, distributed throughout warm-temperate and subtropical regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. Many resinous, aromatic evergreen trees called cypress belong to

  • Cypress Gardens (park, Florida, United States)

    Winter Haven: Cypress Gardens, just southeast of the city, is Florida’s first theme park (1936). It is noted for its botanical gardens and water ski show, as well as for light shows, a butterfly conservatory, and an aviary. Other attractions include the Water Ski Museum and Hall…

  • Cypress Hills (hills, Canada)

    Cypress Hills, isolated range in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, extending for 100 miles (160 km) in an east-west direction, north of the Montana, U.S., border. Rising to 4,816 feet (1,468 m—the highest point in Saskatchewan), the hills are the most prominent relief in

  • cypress pine (plant, genus Callitris)

    Cypress pine, (genus Callitris), genus of 15 species of coniferous shrubs and trees in the cypress family (Cupressaceae). Cypress pines are native to Australasia and grow best in arid localities. The wood is often attractively marked and is resistant to termite attack. Tannin, sandarac resin, and

  • cypress spurge (plant)

    spurge: …ornamentals of temperate climes include: cypress spurge (E. cyparissias), from Europe, a globe-shaped plant with needlelike foliage that is covered with golden bracts in spring; E. venata or E. wulfenii, from Europe, a plant, 0.9 to 1.2 metres tall, with greenish yellow heads on bluish foliage; cushion spurge (E. epithymoides),…

  • cypress vine (plant)

    Cypress vine, (Ipomoea quamoclit), tropical American twining climber naturalized in southern North America. It has star-shaped scarlet, pink, or white blooms amid deep green, deeply lobed leaves. It is a member of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) and is an annual. The closely related star

  • Cypresses Believe in God, The (work by Gironella)

    José María Gironella: …cipreses creen en Dios (1953; The Cypresses Believe in God), in which the conflicts within a family portrayed in the novel symbolize the dissension that overtook the people of Spain during the years preceding the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. The book, which won the National Prize for Literature, was…

  • Cyprian, Saint (Christian theologian and bishop [died 258])

    St. Cyprian, early Christian theologian and bishop of Carthage who led the Christians of North Africa during a period of persecution from Rome. Upon his execution he became the first bishop-martyr of Africa. Cyprian was born of wealthy pagan parents and was educated in law. He practiced as a lawyer

  • Cyprian, Saint (metropolitan of Moscow [died 15th century])

    Saint Cyprian, ; feast day September 16), metropolitan of Moscow in 1381–82 and 1390–1406. Educated in Greece, Cyprian was appointed by Constantinople to be metropolitan of Kiev and Lithuania in 1375 and then of Moscow in 1381. In 1382 Cyprian was forced into exile by the prince of Moscow, Dmitry,

  • cyprid (zoology)

    barnacle: …stages precede formation of a cypris—a nonfeeding larval stage (see video). The cypris has a bivalved shell of chitin (a hard protein substance), cement glands on the antennules (first antennae), and a series of thoracic legs used for swimming. The cypris eventually cements itself to a hard substrate (or invades…

  • Cypridina hilgendorfii (ostracod)

    bioluminescence: The range and variety of bioluminescent organisms: hilgendorfii (or C. hilgendorfii), found in the coastal waters and sands of Japan. That tiny, shelled organism, which ejects a blue luminous secretion into the water when disturbed, may be collected and dried for the light-emitting components, which are active indefinitely.

  • Cyprinidae (fish family)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Cyprinidae (minnows, goldfish, bitterlings, barbs, and carps) Pharyngeal teeth in 1 to 3 rows. Some with 1 or 2 pairs of small barbels. Food habits variable. Food fishes of sport and commercial value; aquarium fishes. Size 2.5–250 cm (1 inch to more than 8 feet).…

  • Cypriniformes (fish order)

    fish: Annotated classification: Order Cypriniformes (carps and minnows) Pharyngeal teeth, mouth toothless, protractile. Adipose fin rarely present. About 3,270 species. A few North Asian forms enter the sea. Worldwide in fresh water except South America, Antarctica and Australia. Paleocene to present. Order Siluriformes (

  • Cyprinodon (fish)

    Death Valley: Plant and animal life: Several species of pupfish of the genus Cyprinodon live in Salt Creek and other permanent bodies of water; the highly endangered Devils Hole pupfish (C. diabolis) lives in a single desert pool.

  • Cyprinodon diabolis (fish)

    Death Valley: Plant and animal life: …of water; the highly endangered Devils Hole pupfish (C. diabolis) lives in a single desert pool.

  • cyprinodont (fish)

    Killifish, any of a few hundred species of usually elongated fishes of the family Cyprinodontidae (order Atheriniformes), found worldwide, especially in the tropics of Africa and the New World. They inhabit brackish, salt, and fresh water, including certain desert hot springs. Killifish grow, at

  • Cyprinodontidae (fish)

    Killifish, any of a few hundred species of usually elongated fishes of the family Cyprinodontidae (order Atheriniformes), found worldwide, especially in the tropics of Africa and the New World. They inhabit brackish, salt, and fresh water, including certain desert hot springs. Killifish grow, at

  • Cyprinodontiformes (fish order)

    fish: Annotated classification: Order Cyprinodontiformes (killifishes and live-bearers) Symmetrical caudal skeleton with single epural mirroring autogenous parhypural; 1st pleural rib on the 2nd, rather than the 3rd vertebra. 9 families, with about 109 genera and at least 1,000 species. Freshwater and coastal marine. Order Beloniformes

  • Cyprinus carpio (fish species)

    Carp, (usually Cyprinus carpio), hardy greenish brown fish of the family Cyprinidae. It is native to Asia but has been introduced into Europe and North America and elsewhere. A large-scaled fish with two barbels on each side of its upper jaw, the carp lives alone or in small schools in quiet,

  • Cypriot syllabary (linguistics)

    Cypriot syllabary, system of writing used on the island of Cyprus, chiefly from the 6th to the 3rd century bc. The syllabary consists of 56 signs, each of which represents a different syllable. Most inscriptions written with this syllabary are in the Greek language, although the syllabary was

  • Cypripedioideae (plant)

    Lady’s slipper, (subfamily Cypripedioideae), subfamily of five genera of orchids (family Orchidaceae), in which the lip of the flower is slipper-shaped. Lady’s slippers are found throughout Eurasia and the Americas, and some species are cultivated. Lady’s slipper orchids are usually terrestrial,

  • Cypripedium (plant genus)

    lady's slipper: Genera: The genus Cypripedium has about 50 temperate and subtropical species, most of which are terrestrial. One well-known species is the yellow lady’s slipper (C. calceolus). Another is the pink lady’s slipper (C. acaule), also known as the moccasin flower. Most species have one or two flowers on…

  • Cypripedium acaule (plant)

    lady's slipper: Genera: Another is the pink lady’s slipper (C. acaule), also known as the moccasin flower. Most species have one or two flowers on a stem about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 inches) tall.

  • Cypripedium calceolus (plant)

    lady's slipper: Genera: One well-known species is the yellow lady’s slipper (C. calceolus). Another is the pink lady’s slipper (C. acaule), also known as the moccasin flower. Most species have one or two flowers on a stem about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 inches) tall.

  • cypris (zoology)

    barnacle: …stages precede formation of a cypris—a nonfeeding larval stage (see video). The cypris has a bivalved shell of chitin (a hard protein substance), cement glands on the antennules (first antennae), and a series of thoracic legs used for swimming. The cypris eventually cements itself to a hard substrate (or invades…

  • Cypro-Minoan script (writing system)

    Cypriot syllabary: …development of the still undeciphered Cypro-Minoan script (containing 63 syllabic symbols), which was found on a number of clay tablets from Cyprus and Syria and dates from about 1500 to about 1100 bc. The Cypro-Minoan script in turn is thought to be a distant offshoot of the early Cretan scripts…

  • Cypro-Phoenician script (writing system)

    Phoenician alphabet: …Phoenician alphabet, are classified as Cypro-Phoenician (10th–2nd century bc) and Sardinian (c. 9th century bc) varieties. A third variety of the colonial Phoenician script evolved into the Punic and neo-Punic alphabets of Carthage, which continued to be written until about the 3rd century ad. Punic was a monumental script and…

  • cyproterone (chemistry)

    steroid: Antiandrogens and antiestrogens: Other antiandrogens are cyproterone (27) and A-nortestosterone and A-norprogesterone and their derivatives.

  • Cyprus (work by Hitchens)

    Christopher Hitchens: …wrote Cyprus (1984; reissued as Hostage to History: Cyprus from the Ottomans to Kissinger, 1989), an analysis of the role of imperial powers in the 1974 conflicts in Cyprus, and The Elgin Marbles: Should They Be Returned to Greece? (1987).

  • Cyprus

    Cyprus, an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea renowned since ancient times for its mineral wealth, superb wines and produce, and natural beauty. A “golden-green leaf thrown into the Sea” and a land of “wild weather and volcanoes,” in the words of the Greek Cypriot poet Leonidas Malenis, Cyprus

  • Cyprus cedar

    cedar: atlantica), the Cyprus cedar (C. brevifolia), the deodar (C. deodara), and the cedar of Lebanon (C. libani) are the true cedars. They are tall trees with large trunks and massive, irregular heads of spreading branches. Young trees are covered with smooth, dark-gray bark that becomes brown, fissured,…

  • Cyprus Convention of 1878 (Cypriot history)

    Cyprus: British rule: The Cyprus Convention of 1878 between Britain and Turkey provided that Cyprus, while remaining under Turkish sovereignty, should be administered by the British government. Britain’s aim in occupying Cyprus was to secure a base in the eastern Mediterranean for possible operations in the Caucasus or Mesopotamia…

  • Cyprus Forestry College (college, Prodhromos, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing: …reforestation was pursued, and the Cyprus Forestry College was established at Prodhromos, on the western slopes of Mount Olympus; the Greek Cypriot government continues to operate an ambitious program of forest preservation and development. Forests are found mostly in the mountainous areas and in the Paphos district.

  • Cyprus, Church of (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Church of Cyprus, one of the oldest autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, churches of the Eastern Orthodox communion. Its independence, first recognized by the third ecumenical Council of Ephesus (431), was reaffirmed by the Council in Trullo (692) and was never lost, not even during the

  • Cyprus, flag of

    national flag consisting of a white field (background) showing a yellow silhouette of Cyprus above two green olive branches. Its width-to-length ratio is 3 to 5.For centuries Cyprus was part of the Ottoman Empire and flew Turkish flags. By agreement with the Turkish sovereign, however, the British

  • Cyprus, history of

    Cyprus: History: Tools and other artifacts provide the earliest evidence of human activity on Cyprus; artifacts and burned animal bones found at Aetokremnos on the southern coast have been dated to about 12,000 years ago. Whether these finds indicate a permanent human occupation of…

  • Cyprus, Orthodox Church of (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Church of Cyprus, one of the oldest autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, churches of the Eastern Orthodox communion. Its independence, first recognized by the third ecumenical Council of Ephesus (431), was reaffirmed by the Council in Trullo (692) and was never lost, not even during the

  • Cypselid family (Corinthian family)

    Periander: …Cypselus, the founder of the Cypselid dynasty of Corinth. To promote and protect Corinthian trade, Periander established colonies at Potidaea in Chalcidice and at Apollonia in Illyria. He conquered Epidaurus and annexed Corcyra. The diolkos (“portage way”) across the Isthmus of Corinth was perhaps built during his reign. It appears…

  • Cypseloides (bird genus)

    apodiform: Reproduction and life cycle: In one genus, Cypseloides, the young develop a coat of downlike semiplumes (fluffy feathers) prior to the appearance of the juvenile pennaceous (smooth) contour feathers, and this fluffy coat also appears to aid in thermoregulation.

  • Cypselus (tyrant of Corinth)

    Cypselus, tyrant of Corinth (c. 657– c. 628 bce). Though his mother belonged to the ruling Bacchiadae dynasty, clan members attempted to kill him at birth because his father was an outsider. When he grew up, he overthrew them and set up the first tyrant dynasty. He was encouraged in his quest for

  • Cypsiurus parvus (bird)

    swift: …extreme example being the tropical Asian palm swift (Cypsiurus parvus), which glues its eggs to a tiny, flat feather nest on the surface of a palm leaf, which may be hanging vertically or even upside down. Swifts lay from one to six white eggs (usually two or three). Both eggs…

  • Cyr, Louis (American athlete)

    physical culture: Athletic clubs and sports: Sullivan and the feats of Louis Cyr and Katie Sandwina, billed as the world’s strongest man and world’s strongest woman, respectively. Fox virtually invented sports pages. His efforts were complemented by the garish entertainments of Coney Island, which provided a healthy outlet for the teeming immigrant masses, much as spas…

  • Cyrankiewicz, Józef (Polish premier)

    Józef Cyrankiewicz, Polish prime minister (1947–52, 1954–70) who presided over Poland’s turbulent post-World War II period. Cyrankiewicz attended Jagiellonian University in Kraków, where he became secretary of the local branch of the Polish Socialist Party (PSP) in 1935. During World War II he was

  • Cyrano de Bergerac (film by Gordon [1950])

    Michael Gordon: Films of the 1940s: …was a critical disappointment, but Cyrano de Bergerac (1950) was a distinguished production that should have vaulted Gordon to the top rank of directors—particularly after José Ferrer won an Academy Award for his performance as Cyrano. But after making two films for Twentieth Century-Fox in 1951—the garment industry drama I…

  • Cyrano de Bergerac (play by Rostand)

    Cyrano de Bergerac, verse drama in five acts by Edmond Rostand, performed in 1897 and published the following year. It was based only nominally on the 17th-century nobleman of the same name, known for his bold adventures and large nose. Set in 17th-century Paris, the action revolves around the

  • Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien (French author)

    Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, French satirist and dramatist whose works combining political satire and science-fantasy inspired a number of later writers. He has been the basis of many romantic but unhistorical legends, of which the best known is Edmond Rostand’s play Cyrano de Bergerac (1897), in

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