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  • cyclotron instability (physics)

    geomagnetic field: Decay of the ring current: …the ring current is the cyclotron instability of particles gyrating in Earth’s field. In this process an electromagnetic wave with a frequency near that at which particles gyrate about the field interacts with the particles exchanging energy. If conditions are right, the wave gains energy at the expense of the…

  • cyclotron resonance (physics)

    plasma: Methods of describing plasma phenomena: This phenomenon is called cyclotron resonance and is the basis of the cyclotron particle accelerator.

  • cyclotron resonance maser (electronics)

    electron tube: Fast-wave electron tubes: …fast-wave electron tube is the gyrotron. Sometimes called the cyclotron resonance maser, this device can generate megawatts of pulsed RF power at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. Gyrotrons make use of an energy-transfer mechanism between an electron orbiting in a magnetic field and an electromagnetic field at the cyclotron frequency. The…

  • cyclozoonosis (pathology)

    animal disease: Zoonoses: The transmission cycle of the cyclozoonoses, of which tapeworm infections are an example, requires at least two different vertebrate species. Both vertebrate and invertebrate animals are required as intermediate hosts in the transmission to humans of metazoonoses; arboviral and trypanosomal diseases are good examples of metazoonoses. The cycles of saprozoonoses…

  • Cycorp, Inc. (computer science)

    CYC, a project begun in 1984 under the auspices of the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, a consortium of American computer, semiconductor, and electronics manufacturers, to advance work on artificial intelligence (AI). In 1995 Douglas Lenat, the CYC project director, spun off

  • Cydamus (oasis, Libya)

    Ghadames, oasis, northwestern Libya, near the Tunisian and Algerian borders. It lies at the bottom of a wadi bordered by the steep slopes of the stony al-Ḥamrāʾ Plateau. Located at the junction of ancient Saharan caravan routes, the town was the Roman stronghold Cydamus (whose ruins remain). It was

  • Cydia molesta (insect)

    olethreutid moth: …pomonella) and Cydia molesta, the Oriental fruit moth (previously Laspeyresia, or Grapholitha, molesta). Though originally from Europe, the codling moth exists wherever apples are grown. The larvae burrow in the apples and, when fully grown, emerge and pupate under debris or bark or in loose soil.

  • Cydia pomonella

    olethreutid moth: …examples include Cydia pomonella, the codling moth (previously Carpocapsa, or Laspeyresia, pomonella) and Cydia molesta, the Oriental fruit moth (previously Laspeyresia, or Grapholitha, molesta). Though originally from Europe, the codling moth exists wherever apples are grown. The larvae burrow in the apples and, when fully grown, emerge and pupate under…

  • Cydippe (Greek legend)

    Acontius: …Delos, Acontius saw and loved Cydippe, a girl of a rich and noble family. He wrote on an apple the words “I swear to wed Acontius” and threw it at her feet. She picked it up and mechanically read the words aloud, thus binding herself by an oath. Thereafter, although…

  • Cydippida (ctenophore order)

    ctenophore: Natural history.: In Pleurobrachia and in other Cydippida, the larva closely resembles the adult, so that there is little change with maturation. Most ctenophores, however, have a so-called cydippid larva, which is ovoid or spherical with two retractable tentacles. The metamorphosis of the globular cydippid larva into an adult is direct in…

  • Cydnidae (insect)

    Burrower bug, (family Cydnidae), any of some 750 species of insects (order Heteroptera) that burrow underground around clumps of grass, in sandy places, or beneath ground litter. These insects may be up to 7 mm (0.3 inch) long. Their oval bodies are brown or black, and there are spines on the

  • Cydones, Demetrius (Byzantine scholar and statesman)

    Demetrius Cydones, Byzantine humanist scholar, statesman, and theologian who introduced the study of the Greek language and culture to the Italian Renaissance. Cydones was a student of the Greek classical scholar and philosopher Nilus Cabasilas. In 1354 he went to Italy, where he studied the

  • Cydones, Prochorus (Byzantine theologian)

    Prochorus Cydones, Eastern Orthodox monk, theologian, and linguist who, by his advocacy of Western Aristotelian thought and his translation of Latin Scholastic writings, based his opposition movement against the leading school of Byzantine mystical theology. A priest-monk of the Lavra (monastery)

  • Cydonia oblonga (plant)

    Quince, (Cydonia oblonga), a small tree or shrub of the rose family (Rosaceae), grown for its edible fruit. Quince is the only member of the genus Cydonia and is native to Iran, Turkey, and possibly Greece and the Crimean Peninsula. The fruit has a strong aroma and is astringent in the raw state

  • Cyfarthfa Castle (castle, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Merthyr Tydfil: …of a former ironmaster’s mansion, Cyfarthfa Castle (1825), which now houses a museum.

  • cyfarwyddiaid (Welsh history)

    Celtic literature: The Middle Ages: …of prose by storytellers (cyfarwyddiaid), who recited oral tales made up of a medley of mythology, folklore, and heroic elements. Some of these were recorded in writing; the most famous collection is the Mabinogion, preserved in The White Book of Rhydderch (c. 1300–25) and The Red Book of Hergest…

  • Cyfeiliog of Powys, Owain (Welsh prince and poet)

    Owain Cyfeiliog, Welsh warrior-prince of Powys and poet of distinct originality among the gogynfeirdd (court poets). After ruling over the people of southern Powys from 1160 to 1195, Owain retired to the Cistercian monastery of Strata Marcella (Ystrad Marchell), which he had established in 1170. He

  • Cyfflé, Paul-Louis (French sculptor)

    pottery: 18th-century developments: …influenced by the work of Paul-Louis Cyfflé at Lunéville (see above France and Belgium). Ralph Wood I is also noted for the typical English Toby jug (first made soon after 1700), which is a beer jug in the form of a man, usually seated and holding a pipe and a…

  • Cyfnerth, Book of (Welsh law)

    Welsh law: …Book of Blegywryd, and the Book of Cyfnerth. The oldest manuscripts are those of the Book of Iorwerth, though the Book of Cyfnerth—which is attributed to Morgenau and his son Cyfnerth, members of the most famous family of lawyers in Gwynedd—reflects the earliest stage of development. The Book of Blegywryd…

  • Cyfraith Hywel

    Welsh law, the native law of Wales. Although increasingly superseded by English law after the 13th century, Welsh law has been preserved in lawbooks that represent important documents of medieval Welsh prose. The traditional name given to Welsh law is Cyfraith Hywel, or Law of Howel. Howel Dda

  • Cygnaeus, Uno (Finnish educator)

    Uno Cygnaeus, educator known as “the father of the primary school in Finland.” Graduating from the gymnasium (secondary school) at Tavastehus in 1827, Cygnaeus attended the University of Helsingfors, becoming Filosofie Magister there in 1836. He then spent two years as assistant pastor and prison

  • Cygne, Le (poem by Baudelaire)

    Charles Baudelaire: Les Fleurs du mal: …greatest poems, most notably “Le Cygne,” where the memory of a swan stranded in total dereliction near the Louvre becomes a symbol of an existential condition of loss and exile transcending time and space. Having gone through the city forever meeting himself, the traveler turns, in the much shorter…

  • cygnet (bird)

    swan: The young, called cygnets, emerge short-necked and thickly downed; though capable of running and swimming a few hours after hatching, they are carefully tended for several months; in some species they may ride about on their mother’s back. Immature birds wear mottled gray or brown plumage for two…

  • Cygnus (bird genus)

    swan: …are classified in the genus Cygnus. Swans are gracefully long-necked, heavy-bodied, big-footed birds that glide majestically when swimming and fly with slow wingbeats and with necks outstretched. They migrate in diagonal formation or V-formation at great heights, and no other waterfowl moves as fast on the water or in the…

  • Cygnus (constellation)

    Cygnus, (Latin: “Swan”) constellation in the northern sky at about 21 hours right ascension and 40° north in declination. The brightest star in Cygnus is Deneb, the 19th brightest star in the sky. Along with Vega and Altair, Deneb is one of the stars of the prominent asterism, the Summer Triangle.

  • Cygnus (spacecraft)

    Cygnus, uncrewed spacecraft developed by the American firm Orbital Sciences Corporation to carry supplies to the International Space Station (ISS). In 2008 Orbital Sciences was contracted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to build Cygnus to resupply the ISS after the end of the

  • Cygnus A (astronomy)

    Cygnus A, most powerful cosmic source of radio waves known, lying in the northern constellation Cygnus about 500,000,000 light-years (4.8 × 1021 km) from Earth. It has the appearance of a double galaxy. For a time it was thought to be two galaxies in collision, but the energy output is too large

  • Cygnus buccinator (bird)

    Trumpeter swan, Black-billed species (Cygnus cygnus buccinator) of swan, named for its far-carrying, low-pitched call. About 6 ft (1.8 m) long, with a 10-ft (3-m) wingspan, it is the largest swan, though it weighs less than the mute swan. Once threatened with extinction (fewer than 100 were counted

  • Cygnus columbianus (bird)

    Whistling swan, (Cygnus columbianus), species of North American swan that calls with a soft musical note. It has a black bill, usually with a small yellow spot near the eye. It breeds in the Arctic tundra and winters in shallow fresh or salt water, especially along eastern and western U.S.

  • Cygnus cygnus buccinator (bird)

    Trumpeter swan, Black-billed species (Cygnus cygnus buccinator) of swan, named for its far-carrying, low-pitched call. About 6 ft (1.8 m) long, with a 10-ft (3-m) wingspan, it is the largest swan, though it weighs less than the mute swan. Once threatened with extinction (fewer than 100 were counted

  • Cygnus Loop (astronomy)

    Cygnus Loop, group of bright nebulae (Lacework Nebula, Veil Nebula, and the nebulae NGC 6960, 6979, 6992, and 6995) in the constellation Cygnus, thought to be remnants of a supernova—i.e., of the explosion of a star probably 10,000 years ago. The Loop, a strong source of radio waves and X-rays, is

  • Cygnus olor (bird)

    swan: …of the Northern Hemisphere: the mute swan, with a black knob at the base of its orange bill, curved posture of the neck, and aggressive wing arching; the trumpeter swan (C. cygnus buccinator), named for its far-carrying low-pitched call and having an all-black bill; the whooper swan (C. cygnus cygnus),…

  • Cygnus X-1 (star system)

    Cygnus X-1, binary star system that is a strong source of X-rays and that provided the first major evidence for the existence of black holes. Cygnus X-1 is located about 7,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus. The primary star, HDE 226868, is a hot supergiant revolving about an

  • Cyinda (historical state, Anatolia)

    Anatolia: The Cimmerians, Lydia, and Cilicia, c. 700–547 bce: …punished the Anatolian prince of Kundu (Cyinda) and Sissu (Sisium, modern Sis), who had allied himself with Phoenician rebels against Assyrian rule. The regions to the north of the Cilician plain repeatedly caused trouble for Assyria. Early in the reign of Ashurbanipal (668–627), however, another Cimmerian invasion threatened the Anatolian…

  • cylinder (device)

    fax: Early telegraph facsimile: …were transmitted and received on cylinders—a method that was widely practiced through the 1960s. At the transmitter the image to be scanned was written with varnish or some other nonconducting material on tinfoil, wrapped around the transmitter cylinder, and then scanned by a conductive stylus that, like Bain’s stylus, was…

  • cylinder (mathematics)

    Cylinder, in geometry, surface of revolution that is traced by a straight line (the generatrix) that always moves parallel to itself or some fixed line or direction (the axis). The path, to be definite, is directed along a curve (the directrix), along which the line always glides. In a right

  • cylinder (engineering)

    Cylinder, in mechanical engineering, chamber of an engine in which a piston moves. See piston and

  • cylinder block (engine)

    gasoline engine: Cylinder block: The main structural member of all automotive engines is a cylinder block that usually extends upward from the centre line of the main support for the crankshaft to the junction with the cylinder head. The block serves as the structural framework of the engine…

  • cylinder escapement (watchmaking)

    George Graham: He perfected the cylinder escapement designed by Tompion, which had been patented by Edward Barlow, William Houghton, and Tompion in 1695, and also perfected the dead-beat escapement, developed by Richard Towneley and Tompion in the mid-1670s. In 1721 Graham invented the temperature-compensated mercury pendulum, which was extensively adopted…

  • cylinder function (mathematics)

    Bessel function, any of a set of mathematical functions systematically derived around 1817 by the German astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel during an investigation of solutions of one of Kepler’s equations of planetary motion. Particular functions of the set had been formulated earlier by the

  • cylinder machine (device)

    Cylinder machine, device for producing paper, paperboard, and other fibreboards, invented in 1809 by John Dickinson. It consists of one or more tubes of wire screen partially immersed and rotated in a vat containing a mixture of pulp and water; the screen picks up a film from which the water

  • cylinder mill (device)

    mineral processing: Grinding: …be further disintegrated in a cylinder mill, which is a cylindrical container built to varying length-to-diameter ratios, mounted with the axis substantially horizontal, and partially filled with grinding bodies (e.g., flint stones, iron or steel balls) that are caused to tumble, under the influence of gravity, by revolving the container.

  • cylinder press (device)

    embossing: …wallpapers, textiles, and felt, copper cylinders are engraved with the patterns to be raised. The cylinders press against rollers with yielding surfaces or with elevations and depressions corresponding in reverse to those on the cylinders.

  • cylinder recording (phonograph record)

    Cylinder recording, earliest form of phonograph record, invented by Thomas A. Edison in 1877. The sound to be recorded was focused by a horn onto a diaphragm, causing it to vibrate; the vibrations were transmitted to a stylus and modulated its motion as it followed a helical path along the surface

  • cylinder seal (ancient art)

    Cylinder seal, small stone cylinder engraved in intaglio on its surface to leave impressions when rolled on wet clay. Cylinder seals are characteristic artifacts of ancient Mesopotamian civilization and are considered some of its finest artistic achievements. The seals first appear during the

  • cylinder-head injection (engineering)

    gasoline engine: Combustion chamber: …the volume occupied between the cylinder head and the piston face when the piston is farthest from the cylinder head. The volume at top dead centre (VTDC) is the volume occupied when the piston is closest to the cylinder head; the distance between the piston face and cylinder head at…

  • cylindrical bearing (machine part)

    roller bearing: The rollers may be cylinders or truncated cones. Only radial loads (i.e., loads perpendicular to the axis of rotation) can be carried when the rollers are cylindrical, but with conical rollers both radial and thrust, or axial, loads (i.e., ones parallel to the axis of rotation) can be carried.…

  • cylindrical bore (wind instrument)

    sound: Bore configuration and harmonicity: Cylindrical and conical bores can produce resonances that are harmonics of the fundamental frequencies, but bores that flare faster than a cone create nonharmonic overtones and thus produce raucous tones rather than good musical sounds. A fact discovered by early musical instrument builders, this is…

  • cylindrical cryptograph (cryptology)

    cipher: Bazeries’s so-called cylindrical cryptograph was made up of 20 numbered rotatable disks, each with a different alphabet engraved on its periphery. The disks were arranged in an agreed-upon order on a central shaft and rotated so that the first 20 letters of the message plaintext appeared in…

  • cylindrical lens (optics)

    optics: Nonclassical imaging systems: Cylindrical lenses are therefore used wherever it is desired to vary the magnification from one meridian to a perpendicular meridian. Cylindrical surfaces are employed in the anamorphic lenses used in some wide-screen motion-picture systems to compress the image horizontally in the camera and stretch it…

  • cylindrical mask (religion)

    mask: Therapeutic uses: Cylindrical masks, covering the entire head and resting on the shoulders, are of a primal type. They are made of leather and are humanized by the addition of hair and a variety of adjuncts. Eyes are represented by incisions or by buckskin balls filled with…

  • cylindrical projection (cartography)

    Cylindrical projection, in cartography, any of numerous map projections of the terrestrial sphere on the surface of a cylinder that is then unrolled as a plane. Originally, this and other map projections were achieved by a systematic method of drawing the Earth’s meridians and latitudes on the

  • Cylindrophis (snake)

    Pipe snake, any primitive burrowing snake characterized by remnants of a pelvic girdle and belonging to the genera Cylindrophis, Anilius, or Anomochilus. Each genus represents a distinct family: the Cylindrophiidae, Aniliidae, and Anomochilidae, respectively. All are small to moderately sized

  • Cylindropuntia (plant)

    Cholla, (genus Cylindropuntia), genus of about 35 species of cylindroid-jointed cacti (family Cactaceae) native to North and South America and the West Indies. The living plants serve as food for desert livestock, and cholla wood, a hollow cylinder with regularly spaced holes, is used for fuel and

  • Cylindropuntia bigelovii (cactus)
  • Cylindropuntia imbricata (cactus)
  • Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (plant, Cylindropuntia species)
  • Cylindropuntia whipplei (cactus)
  • cylix (pottery)

    Kylix, in ancient Greek pottery, wide-bowled drinking cup with horizontal handles, one of the most popular pottery forms from Mycenaean times through the classical Athenian period. There was usually a painted frieze around the outer surface, depicting a subject from mythology or everyday life, and

  • Cylon (ancient Greek tyrant)

    ancient Greek civilization: The distinctiveness of Athens: …at tyranny itself, that of Cylon, the Olympic victor (630s). The close connection between athletic success and military values has been noted; there was an equally close connection between athletic and political achievement, and not just in the Archaic age. Cylon was helped by his father-in-law Theagenes of Megara, a…

  • cyma recta (architecture)

    molding: Compound or composite: (1) The cyma recta, a projecting molding, consists essentially of a cavetto above an ovolo, forming in profile one continuous double curve, often used as a crowning member, in which case it is sometimes known as a cymatium. When used as a base the convex portion is…

  • cyma reversa (architecture)

    molding: Compound or composite: (2) The cyma reversa, or ogee—a projecting molding that is essentially a reversed cyma recta with ovolo above cavetto—is used for a crown or a base. (3) A bird’s beak, or thumb, molding is essentially similar to the cyma reversa, except that the upper convexity is separated…

  • Cymatiidae (gastropod family)

    Triton shell, any of several marine snails constituting the family Cymatiidae (subclass Prosobranchia of the class Gastropoda), in which the shell usually is spired, the body whorl is large, and the aperture in the first whorl of the shell is broadly or narrowly toothed. The triton’s shell may be

  • cymbal (musical instrument)

    Cymbal, percussion instrument consisting of a circular flat or concave metal plate that is struck with a drumstick or is used in pairs struck glancingly together. They were used, often ritually, in Assyria, Israel (from c. 1100 bce), Egypt, and other ancient civilizations and reached East Asia in

  • cymbala (musical instrument)

    bell chime: …the bells, was called a cymbala. In the 12th century, cymbala were wired to organ keys, thus forming the first organ chimes. The knowledge of tuning acquired with the cymbala resulted in the design of differently pitched bells placed in towers and struck by jacquemarts, or clock jacks (usually a…

  • cymbalon (musical instrument)

    Cimbalom, an elaborate stringed instrument of the dulcimer family used in small music ensembles by central European Roma (Gypsies). The instrument has a trapezoidal body that stands on four legs. It has a chromatic range of four octaves and, unlike other dulcimers, a pedal mechanism for damping the

  • Cymbalum Mundi (work by Des Périers)

    Bonaventure Des Périers: …became skepticism in Des Périers’s Cymbalum Mundi (1538; Cymbalum Mundi: Four Very Ancient Joyous and Facetious Dialogues), a brilliant and violent attack upon Christianity. The allegorical form of its four dialogues in imitation of the Greek rhetorician Lucian did not conceal its real meaning. It was suppressed (c. 1538), but…

  • Cymbalum Mundi: Four Very Ancient Joyous and Facetious Dialogues (work by Des Périers)

    Bonaventure Des Périers: …became skepticism in Des Périers’s Cymbalum Mundi (1538; Cymbalum Mundi: Four Very Ancient Joyous and Facetious Dialogues), a brilliant and violent attack upon Christianity. The allegorical form of its four dialogues in imitation of the Greek rhetorician Lucian did not conceal its real meaning. It was suppressed (c. 1538), but…

  • Cymbeline (work by Shakespeare)

    Cymbeline, comedy in five acts by William Shakespeare, one of his later plays, written in 1608–10 and published in the First Folio of 1623 from a careful transcript of an authorial manuscript incorporating a theatrical playbook that had included many authorial stage directions. Set in the

  • Cymbeline (fictional character)

    Cymbeline: In the play Cymbeline, the king of Britain, decides that his daughter, Imogen, must marry his horrid stepson Cloten. When Cymbeline learns that Imogen is secretly married to Posthumus, he banishes Posthumus, who heads for Rome. In a conversation with a villainous Italian, Iachimo, Posthumus finds himself drawn…

  • Cymbidium (plant)

    Cymbidium, (genus Cymbidium), genus of 50–70 species of tropical and subtropical orchids (family Orchidaceae). The genus is primarily distributed in Asia, though several species are native to northern Australia. The orchids are popular as florists’ plants and ornamentals, and there are several

  • cymbidium (plant)

    Cymbidium, (genus Cymbidium), genus of 50–70 species of tropical and subtropical orchids (family Orchidaceae). The genus is primarily distributed in Asia, though several species are native to northern Australia. The orchids are popular as florists’ plants and ornamentals, and there are several

  • Cymbopogon (plant)

    Oil grass, (genus Cymbopogon), genus of about 70 species of aromatic oil-containing grasses in the family Poaceae. Oil grasses are native to the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa, and Australia and have been introduced to tropical America. Several species have a strong citrus scent and are

  • Cymbopogon citratus (plant)

    oil grass: Lemongrass, or sweet rush (Cymbopogon citratus), contains citral, obtained by steam distillation of the leaves. The plant is common in Asian cuisine and is also used in scented cosmetics and medicine. Citronella grass (C. nardus) contains geraniol (citronella oil), used in cosmetics and insect repellents.

  • Cymbopogon nardus (plant)

    oil grass: Citronella grass (C. nardus) contains geraniol (citronella oil), used in cosmetics and insect repellents.

  • Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (Welsh organization)

    Plaid Cymru: History: The formation of the Welsh Language Society in 1962 was particularly propitious, because it allowed Plaid to turn more of its attention to electoral politics. The party won its first seat in Parliament in a by-election in 1966, and its policies helped to bring about the passage of the…

  • cyme (plant anatomy)

    inflorescence: Determinate inflorescence.: A cyme is a flat-topped inflorescence in which the central flowers open first, followed by the peripheral flowers, as in the onion (genus Allium).

  • Cymmrodorion Society (Welsh literature)

    Welsh literary renaissance: The Cymmrodorion Society, established by the Welsh community in London as a centre for Welsh literary studies, combined with other such scholarly groups (e.g., the Gwyneddigion and Cymreigyddion societies) to encourage the reestablishment of local eisteddfods (poetic assemblies or contests). As a result, the National Eisteddfod…

  • cymograph (medical instrument)

    Carl F.W. Ludwig: …a device known as a kymograph to record changes in arterial blood pressure; a simple stromuhr (1867), or flowmeter, to measure the rate of blood flow through arteries and veins; and a mercurial blood-gas pump for the separation of gases from the blood, which led to an understanding of the…

  • cymophane (gemstone)

    Cymophane, variety of the gemstone chrysoberyl

  • cymose inflorescence (plant anatomy)

    inflorescence: Determinate inflorescence.: In determinate (cymose) inflorescences, the youngest flowers are at the bottom of an elongated axis or on the outside of a truncated axis. At the time of flowering, the apical meristem (the terminal point of cell division) produces a flower bud, thus arresting…

  • cymothoid (crustacean)

    crustacean louse: Of the latter, the family Cymothoidae (order Isopoda) is of special interest, as it is exclusively parasitic and infests both marine and freshwater fishes. Crustacean lice may live on the outer skin of the fish, under the bony covering protecting the gills, in the mouth cavity, and even within the…

  • Cymothoidae (crustacean)

    crustacean louse: Of the latter, the family Cymothoidae (order Isopoda) is of special interest, as it is exclusively parasitic and infests both marine and freshwater fishes. Crustacean lice may live on the outer skin of the fish, under the bony covering protecting the gills, in the mouth cavity, and even within the…

  • Cymraeg

    Welsh language, member of the Brythonic group of the Celtic languages, spoken in Wales. Modern Welsh, like English, makes very little use of inflectional endings; British, the Brythonic language from which Welsh is descended, was, however, an inflecting language like Latin, with word endings m

  • Cymru (constituent unit, United Kingdom)

    Wales, constituent unit of the United Kingdom that forms a westward extension of the island of Great Britain. The capital and main commercial and financial centre is Cardiff. Famed for its strikingly rugged landscape, the small nation of Wales—which comprises six distinctive regions—was one of

  • Cynara cardunculus (plant)

    Cardoon, (Cynara cardunculus), thistlelike perennial herb of the family Asteraceae, native to southern Europe and North Africa, where it is used as a vegetable. Its blanched inner leaves and stalk (called the chard, though not to be confused with Swiss chard, or leaf beet) and thick main roots are

  • Cynara cardunculus, variety scolymus (plant and vegetable)

    Artichoke, (Cynara cardunculus, variety scolymus), large thistlelike perennial plant of the aster family (Asteraceae) grown for its edible flower buds. The thick bracts and the receptacle of the immature flower head, known as the heart, are a culinary delicacy. The artichoke’s flavour is delicate

  • Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr (Welsh poet)

    Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, (Welsh: “Cynddelw the Great Poet”) outstanding Welsh poet of the 12th century, court poet to Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys (d. 1160), and then to Madog’s enemy Owain Gwynedd, prince of Gwynedd (d. 1170). Cynddelw was also court poet to Owain Cyfeiliog (d. c. 1197) and is

  • Cynddilig (poem by Jones)

    T. Gwynn Jones: …an ideal community; and “Cynddilig,” a bitter protest against war written in the style of the Llywarch Hen cycle. His translations of Goethe’s Faust (1922) and his collection of Greek poems and Latin epigrams, Blodau o Hen Ardd (1927; “Flowers from an Ancient Garden”), with H.J. Rose, are considered…

  • Cynegetica (work by Nemesianus)

    Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus: …incomplete poem on hunting (Cynegetica). Two small fragments on bird catching (De aucupio) are also generally attributed to him. The four eclogues are in the Virgilian tradition and are also influenced by Calpurnius. They are purely imitative and of conventional form and imagery, yet they are attractive because of…

  • Cynegils (king of Wessex)

    Cynegils, king of the West Saxons, or Wessex (611–643), in England and the first to be converted to Christianity. With his son Cwichelm (d. 636), Cynegils defeated the advancing Britons at Bampton in Oxfordshire in 614, and Cwichelm sought to arrest the growing power of the Northumbrian king

  • Cynewulf (English poet)

    Cynewulf, author of four Old English poems preserved in late 10th-century manuscripts. Elene and The Fates of the Apostles are in the Vercelli Book, and The Ascension (which forms the second part of a trilogy, Christ, and is also called Christ II) and Juliana are in the Exeter Book. An epilogue to

  • Cynewulf (king of Wessex)

    Cynewulf, king of the West Saxons, or Wessex (757–786), in England who succeeded to the throne following the deposition of Sigebert. Cynewulf was constantly at war with the Welsh. In 779 Offa of Mercia defeated him and took Bensington. In 785 he was surprised and killed, with all his thanes

  • cynghanedd (prosody)

    Cynghanedd, (Welsh: “harmony”) Welsh poetic device. It is a complicated system of alliteration and internal rhyme, obligatory in the 24 strict metres of Welsh bardic verse. Cynghanedd had developed by the 13th century from the prosodic devices of the early bards and was formally codified at the

  • Cynic (ancient Greek philosophy)

    Cynic, member of a Greek philosophical sect that flourished from the 4th century bce to well into the Common Era, distinguished as much for its unconventional way of life as for its rejection of traditional social and political arrangements, professing instead a cosmopolitan utopia and communal

  • Cynicism (ancient Greek philosophy)

    Cynic, member of a Greek philosophical sect that flourished from the 4th century bce to well into the Common Era, distinguished as much for its unconventional way of life as for its rejection of traditional social and political arrangements, professing instead a cosmopolitan utopia and communal

  • Cynictis penicillata (mammal)

    meerkat: The yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), sometimes called the red meerkat, sometimes shares warrens with meerkats and is intermediate in form between meerkats and other mongooses. It has four toes on the hind feet but five on the forefeet, larger ears, and a bushy coat and tail.

  • cynipid wasp (insect)

    Gall wasp, (subfamily Cynipinae), any of a group of wasps in the family Cynipidae (order Hymenoptera) that are notable for their ability to stimulate the growth of galls (tissue swellings) on plants. Some gall wasp species are gall inquilines, meaning they do not cause the formation of galls but

  • Cynipinae (insect)

    Gall wasp, (subfamily Cynipinae), any of a group of wasps in the family Cynipidae (order Hymenoptera) that are notable for their ability to stimulate the growth of galls (tissue swellings) on plants. Some gall wasp species are gall inquilines, meaning they do not cause the formation of galls but

  • Cynocephalus variegatus (mammal)

    flying lemur: …a series of races of Cynocephalus variegatus ranges from Myanmar (Burma) to the Malay Peninsula and from the islands of Sumatra to Borneo. Flying lemurs were formerly classified as insectivores, but they differ from them and from other mammals in several basic anatomical features, especially in the form of the…

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