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  • Cushitic languages

    Cushitic languages, a division of the Afro-Asiatic phylum, comprising about 40 languages that are spoken mainly in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and northwestern Kenya. There are six major subdivisions within the Cushitic family: North Cushitic, or Beja; Central Cushitic (also known as Agau

  • Cushman Bros. & Co. (American company)

    Thomas William Lamont: …York Tribune, began working for Cushman Brothers Co., a New York food importer and exporter. The firm suffered financial problems, and Lamont came to its rescue with a reorganization plan and new capital, thus creating in 1898 the firm of Lamont, Corlis & Co. with his brother-in-law. Lamont’s success earned…

  • Cushman, Charlotte Saunders (American actress)

    Charlotte Saunders Cushman, first native-born star on the American stage. Cushman was encouraged by her musically gifted mother to train for the opera, and she joined a Boston company and appeared in April 1835 as Countess Almaviva in The Marriage of Figaro. Said to have had a fine contralto voice,

  • Cushman, Joseph Augustine (American paleontologist)

    Joseph Augustine Cushman, U.S. paleontologist known for his work on paleoecology as shown by Foraminifera (marine protozoans). Cushman was a member of the U.S. Geological Survey and museum director for the Boston Society of Natural History from 1913 until 1923, when he founded the Cushman

  • Cushman, Vera Charlotte Scott (American social worker)

    Vera Charlotte Scott Cushman, American social worker, an active and influential figure in the early 20th-century growth and war work of the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA). Vera Scott was the daughter of a Scots Irish immigrant merchant whose business eventually became part of the great

  • Cusi Inca Yupanqui (Inca emperor)

    Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, Inca emperor (1438–71), an empire builder who, because he initiated the swift, far-ranging expansion of the Inca state, has been likened to Philip II of Macedonia. (Similarly, his son Topa Inca Yupanqui is regarded as a counterpart of Philip’s son Alexander III the Great.)

  • Cusichaq, Francisco, Don (South American ethnic lord)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Andean civilization: Some of these, like Don Francisco Cusichaq, lord of Xauxa, the earliest colonial capital, lived long enough after 1532 to testify before a Spanish court of inquiry that he regretted having opened the country to the Europeans. For 30 years his bookkeepers had recorded on their knotted quipu (khipu)…

  • Cusio, Lago (lake, Italy)

    Lake Orta, lake in Novara and Verbano-Cusio-Ossola provincie, Piemonte (Piedmont) regione, northwestern Italy, just west of Lake Maggiore, from which it is divided by Mount Mottarone. About 8 miles (13 km) long and 0.75 mile (1.2 km) wide, it has an area of 7 square miles (18 square km). Its

  • cusk (fish)

    Cusk, (Brosme brosme), long-bodied food fish of the cod family, Gadidae, found along the ocean bottom in deep offshore waters on either side of the North Atlantic. The cusk is a small-scaled fish with a large mouth and a barbel on its chin. It has one dorsal and one anal fin, both long and both

  • cusk eel (fish)

    Cusk eel, any of about 30 species of slim, eel-like marine fishes of the family Ophidiidae, found worldwide in warm and temperate waters. Cusk eels are characterized by the union of their dorsal, anal, and tail fins into a single long fin, and by the position of their feeler-like pelvic fins,

  • cusp (tooth)

    gastropod: Food and feeding: …has three raised points, or cusps (i.e., is tricuspid), but modifications involving splitting of cusps or reductions to one cusp are numerous. The modification of the radular tooth reflects dietary differences between species. In particular, with each successive appearance of a carnivorous type during evolution, the teeth have been reduced…

  • cusp (architecture)

    Cusp, in architecture, the intersections of lobed or scalloped forms, particularly in arches (cusped arches) and in tracery. Thus the three lobes of a trefoil (cloverleaf form) are separated by three cusps. Cusped forms appear commonly in early Islamic work, as in the Mosque of Aḥmad ibn Ṭūlūn at

  • cuspate spit (coastal feature)

    lagoon: Waves, tides, and surf: …within the lagoon may develop cuspate (pointed) spits along the land side of the barrier and the inner edge of the lagoon. These features may eventually break the lagoon into almost circular or oval water bodies. Examples occur in the Chukchi Sea lagoons in northeastern Russia and elsewhere where vegetation…

  • cuspid (anatomy)

    Canine tooth, in mammals, any of the single-cusped (pointed), usually single-rooted teeth adapted for tearing food, and occurring behind or beside the incisors (front teeth). Often the largest teeth in the mouth, the canines project beyond the level of the other teeth and may interlock when the

  • Cuspidaria (mollusk genus)

    bivalve: Food and feeding: …a funnellike inhalant siphon (Cuspidaria). Food is then pushed into the mouth by the palps and foot. Others evert the inhalant siphon, like a hood, over the prey (Poromya and Lyonsiella). Prey items include small bottom-dwelling crustaceans, polychaete worms, and larvae of other benthic animals.

  • custard (food)

    Custard, mixture of eggs, milk, sugar, and flavourings which attains its consistency by the coagulation of the egg protein by heat. Baked custard contains whole eggs, which cause the dish to solidify to a gel. Flan, or crème caramel, is a custard baked in a dish coated with caramelized sugar that

  • custard apple (plant)

    Custard apple, (genus Annona), genus of about 160 species of small trees or shrubs of the family Annonaceae, native to the New World tropics. Custard apples are of local importance as traditional medicines, and several species are commercially grown for their edible fruits. Members of the genus are

  • custard orchid (plant)

    sun orchid: flexuosa), the custard orchid (T. violosa), and the scented sun orchid (T. avistata) are common Australian species.

  • custard-apple family (plant family)

    Annonaceae, the custard apple, or annona, family, the largest family of the magnolia order (Magnoliales) with 129 genera and about 2,120 species. The family consists of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers found mainly in the tropics, although a few species extend into temperate regions. Many species

  • Custer (South Dakota, United States)

    Custer, city, seat (1875) of Custer county, southwestern South Dakota, U.S. It lies in the southern Black Hills on French Creek, 5,318 feet (1,621 metres) above sea level. Custer is about 40 miles (65 km) southwest of Rapid City. The town, the oldest in the Black Hills, was laid out in 1875 after

  • Custer of the West (film by Siodmak [1968])

    Robert Siodmak: The Cinerama production Custer of the West (1968), a portrait of the U.S. cavalry officer (Robert Shaw), was the only western Siodmak made. After helming the adventure drama Kampf un Rom II–Der Verrat (Fight for Rome II) in 1969, Siodmak retired from directing.

  • Custer State Park (park, South Dakota, United States)

    Custer State Park, varied region of prairies and rugged mountains in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota, U.S. With an area of 114 square miles (295 square km), it is among the largest state parks in the continental United States. Located about 20 miles (30 km) south of Rapid City and

  • Custer’s Last Stand (United States history)

    Battle of the Little Bighorn, (June 25, 1876), battle at the Little Bighorn River in Montana Territory, U.S., between federal troops led by Lieut. Col. George A. Custer and Northern Plains Indians (Lakota [Teton or Western Sioux] and Northern Cheyenne) led by Sitting Bull. Custer and all the men

  • Custer, George Armstrong (United States military officer)

    George Armstrong Custer, U.S. cavalry officer who distinguished himself in the American Civil War (1861–65) but later led his men to death in one of the most controversial battles in U.S. history, the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Although born in Ohio, Custer spent part of his youth in the home of

  • Custine, Count de (French pottery manufacturer)

    Niderviller ware: In 1770–90, under Count de Custine, the decoration was inspired by the painter Nicolas Lancret. The Lanfrey period, 1790–1827, was the most original, producing trompe l’oeil wares.

  • Custis, Martha (American first lady)

    Martha Washington, American first lady (1789–97), the wife of George Washington, first president of the United States and commander in chief of the colonial armies during the American Revolutionary War. She set many of the standards and customs for the proper behaviour and treatment of the

  • custodia (liturgical vessel)

    metalwork: 16th century: …for the Host known as custodia. The most important Portuguese work, the Belém monstrance, created by Gil Vicente in 1506 for Belém Monastery near Lisbon, is still Gothic in style; later, Portugal developed its own style, related to Spanish work but not copied from it.

  • custody (law)

    family law: Questions of custody: Questions of custody cannot be determined solely by deduction from a rule of law. They require the exercise of judicial discretion that takes account of all the relevant circumstances, which may be very complex. In divorce cases the situation is often a de facto…

  • custom (English law)

    Custom, in English law, an ancient rule of law for a particular locality, as opposed to the common law of the country. It has its origin in the Anglo-Saxon period, when local customs formed most laws affecting family rights, ownership and inheritance, contracts, and personal violence. The Norman

  • custom

    crime: Africa: …by what was called “customary law.” Whereas general law now applies to the entire country, customary law, which originated in the customs and cultures of the indigenous peoples, still varies by area or district. Customary law is enforced in separate courts in which the judges are politically appointed tribal…

  • Custom House (building, New York City, New York, United States)

    Chester A. Arthur: Early life and career: The New York customhouse, which brought in the bulk of the nation’s tariff revenue, had long been conspicuous for flagrant use of the spoils system, by which Conkling’s political supporters were rewarded with government jobs. Although Arthur collected the customs duties with integrity, he continued the practice of…

  • Custom of Paris (law)

    family law: Separation of marital property: …the code, designating one, the Custom of Paris, as the legal regime that would apply if the parties did not select another in a marriage contract. In common-law countries, the tendency has been to favour separation of property—a tendency resulting more by accident than by intention. This has come about…

  • Custom of the Country, The (novel by Wharton)

    The Custom of the Country, a novel of manners by Edith Wharton, published in 1913. The Custom of the Country is the story of Undine Spragg, a young woman with social aspirations who convinces her nouveau riche parents to leave the Midwest and settle in New York. There she captures and marries a

  • Custom of the March (English history)

    Wales: Norman infiltration: …give the lords, under “the custom of the March,” extensive powers in their lordships and a large measure of autonomy in their relations with the king of England.

  • customary court (medieval law)

    court baron: …for free tenants and the customary court for those who were not free. In the 12th and 13th centuries, however, there was no distinction between the two. The manorial court usually met every three weeks and considered personal actions between its suitors. The lord had considerable power over his bound…

  • customary law

    crime: Africa: …by what was called “customary law.” Whereas general law now applies to the entire country, customary law, which originated in the customs and cultures of the indigenous peoples, still varies by area or district. Customary law is enforced in separate courts in which the judges are politically appointed tribal…

  • customer (business)

    marketing: The marketing actors: …be divided into three groups: customers, distributors, and facilitators. In addition to interacting with one another, these groups must interact within a business environment that is affected by a variety of forces, including governmental, economic, and social influences.

  • customer relationship management (information system)

    information system: Operational support and enterprise systems: …third type of enterprise system, customer relationship management (CRM), supports dealing with the company’s customers in marketing, sales, service, and new product development. A CRM system gives a business a unified view of each customer and its dealings with that customer, enabling a consistent and proactive relationship. In cocreation initiatives,…

  • customer satisfaction (business)

    marketing: The consumer buying process: …purchase has been made, a satisfied consumer is more likely to purchase another company product and to say positive things about the company or its product to other potential purchasers. The opposite is true for dissatisfied consumers. Because of this fact, many companies continue to communicate with their customers after…

  • customer service

    logistics: Customer service: Customer service involves an array of activities to keep existing customers satisfied. An example is computer software manufacturers who allow consumers to telephone them to discuss problems they are encountering with the software. Servicing equipment in the field and training new users are…

  • Customs and Excise Act (United Kingdom [1952])

    proof: In Great Britain, the Customs and Excise Act of 1952, declared proof spirits (100 proof ) to be those in which the weight of the spirits is 1213 the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at 51° F (11° C). Thus, proof spirits are 48.24 percent alcohol…

  • Customs Co-operation Council (intergovernmental organization)

    World Customs Organization (WCO), intergovernmental organization established as the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) in 1952 to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of customs administrations worldwide. In 1948 a study group of the Committee for European Economic Cooperation, a precursor of

  • Customs Congress (Prussian history)

    international trade: The Zollverein: …by a central authority, the Customs Congress, in which each state had a single vote. A common tariff, the Prussian Tariff of 1818, shielded the member states from foreign competition, but free trade was the rule internally.

  • customs duty (international trade)

    Tariff, tax levied upon goods as they cross national boundaries, usually by the government of the importing country. The words tariff, duty, and customs can be used interchangeably. Tariffs may be levied either to raise revenue or to protect domestic industries, but a tariff designed primarily to

  • customs union

    Customs union, a trade agreement by which a group of countries charges a common set of tariffs to the rest of the world while granting free trade among themselves. It is a partial form of economic integration that offers an intermediate step between free-trade zones (which allow mutual free trade

  • Custoza, battles of (Austrian-Italian history)

    Battles of Custoza, (1848 and 1866), two Italian defeats in the attempt to end Austrian control over northern Italy during the Italian Wars of Independence, both occurring at Custoza, 11 miles southwest of Verona, in Lombardy. The first battle, on July 24, 1848, was a crushing defeat for the forces

  • Custoza, First Battle of (Austrian-Italian history [1848])

    battles of Custoza: The first battle, on July 24, 1848, was a crushing defeat for the forces of Charles Albert, king of Sardinia-Piedmont, at the hands of the 82-year-old Austrian veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky. An armistice was signed August 9.

  • Custoza, Second Battle of (Austrian-Italian history [1866])

    battles of Custoza: In the second battle at Custoza, on June 24, 1866, four days after the Sardinian-dominated Kingdom of Italy declared war, the 80,000-man Austrian army, under Archduke Albert, defeated a disorganized, demoralized, and poorly led 120,000-man Italian army, under Victor Emmanuel II. In this battle, repeated Italian assaults…

  • CUT (trade union, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Labour and taxation: …groupings emerged, most notably the Unified Workers Central (Central Unitaria de Trabajadores; CUT). About one-eighth of workers are members of Paraguay’s more than 1,500 labour unions.

  • cut (cricket)

    cricket: Batting: …wicket on the leg side; cut, in which the batsman hits a ball on the uprise (after it has hit the ground on the off side), square with or behind the wicket; and pull or hook, in which the batsman hits a ball on the uprise through the leg side.

  • cut fastball (baseball pitch)

    Mariano Rivera: …to his delivery, but his cut fastball became nearly unhittable, and Rivera vaulted to stardom. Throwing the cutter almost exclusively, he led the American League in saves three times (1999, 2001, and 2004) and was named an All-Star on 13 occasions over the course of his career. On September 19,…

  • cut glass (decorative arts)

    Cut glass, glassware characterized by a series of facets on its surface produced by cutting. The prismatic surface designs greatly enhance the brilliance and reflecting power of glass and so have made cutting one of the most popularly practiced techniques of embellishing glassware. The cutting

  • Cut Piece (performance art by Ono)

    Yoko Ono: For the performance piece Cut Piece (1964), she sat passively while an audience, at her invitation, used scissors to cut off parts of the dress she wore; with its connotations of sexual violence, the work was later recognized as a landmark of feminist art. In 1966 Ono relocated to…

  • cut pile (textiles)

    pile: … the loops are uncut; in cut pile the same or similar loops are cut, either in the loom during weaving or by a special machine after the cloth leaves the loom.

  • cut stone (building material)

    architecture: Stone: …stonework for monumental architecture is ashlar masonry, which consists of regularly cut blocks (usually rectangular). Because of its weight and the precision with which it can be shaped, stone masonry (in contrast with brick) does not depend on strong bonding for stability where it supports only direct downward loads. The…

  • cut time (music)

    time signature: (cut time, or alla breve, ). Both derive from symbols of mensural notation (q.v.; used from c. 1260 to 1600), the system preceding the modern one.

  • Cut with the Kitchen Knife Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany (photomontage by Höch)

    Hannah Höch: Höch’s large-scale photomontage Cut with the Kitchen Knife Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany (1919)—a forceful commentary, particularly on the gender issues erupting in postwar Weimar Germany—was one of the most prominently displayed and well-received works of the show. Despite her critical success, as the…

  • Cut, The (play by Ravenhill)

    Michael Grandage: …Ian McKellen in Mark Ravenhill’s The Cut as well as Frost/Nixon, a play written by Peter Morgan that dramatized the 1977 television interviews in which British writer and broadcaster David Frost induced former U.S. president Richard Nixon (played by Frank Langella) to express regret for the Watergate scandal. In 2007…

  • cut-and-cover tunnel (tunnel)

    tunnels and underground excavations: …cut-and-cover tunnels (more correctly called conduits) are built by excavating from the surface, constructing the structure, and then covering with backfill. Tunnels underwater are now commonly built by the use of an immersed tube: long, prefabricated tube sections are floated to the site, sunk in a prepared trench, and covered…

  • cut-and-fill mining

    stoping: …steeply dipping ore bodies, is cut-and-fill mining, in which the opened stope is back-filled with waste materials as each layer of ore is removed.

  • cut-card work (silverwork)

    Cut-card work, technique for decorating silver objects, generally cups, bowls, or coffeepots, in which thin sheets of silver that have previously been cut into outline designs are soldered to the object, creating a relief and silhouette effect. The cards are usually cut and pierced into leaf

  • cut-leaved toothwort (plant)

    bittercress: Cut-leaved toothwort (C. concatenata), from the same area, has a whorl of three stem leaves. Each leaf is deeply cut into three narrow, bluntly toothed segments.

  • cut-off drain

    roads and highways: Drainage: Cut-off surface drains are used to prevent water from flowing without restriction down the slopes of cuttings and embankments.

  • cutaneous diphtheria (disease)

    diphtheria: Cutaneous diphtheria affects parts of the body other than the respiratory tract, notably the skin, following a wound or sore.

  • cutaneous larva migrans (pathology)

    hookworm: Development: …aberrant infection, “creeping eruption” or cutaneous larva migrans. This disease is characterized by serpiginous tunnels in the skin caused by migrations of larvae that are unable to penetrate the innermost layers.

  • cutaneous leishmaniasis (pathology)

    Oriental sore, infectious disease that is a type of leishmaniasis (

  • cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis (pathology)

    sporotrichosis: Cutaneous lymphatic sporotrichosis is painless and feverless; it usually responds quickly to treatment with potassium iodide. In its rare, blood-borne, disseminated form, sporotrichosis may affect the muscles, bones, joints, or central nervous system, causing fever, weight loss, fatigue, and pain; this form of the disease…

  • cutaneous nerve (physiology)

    human nervous system: Cervical plexus: …and parotid areas), transverse cervical cutaneous nerves (to the lateral and ventral neck surfaces), and supraclavicular nerves (along the clavicle, shoulder, and upper chest). Motor branches of the plexus serve muscles that stabilize and flex the neck, muscles that stabilize the hyoid bone (to assist in actions like swallowing), and…

  • cutaneous porphyria (pathology)

    porphyria: (3) Porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica, or cutaneous porphyria, is more common in males and usually begins insidiously later in life, in the fourth to eighth decade. The exposed skin is fragile and sensitive to light and other factors. Liver function impairment, if the patient also suffers…

  • cutaneous schistosomiasis (dermatology)

    Swimmer’s itch, an infection of the skin marked by prickling sensations and itching, caused by invasion of the skin by larvae of trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, often found in freshwater lakes and

  • cutaneous sense (physiology)

    human sensory reception: Cutaneous (skin) senses: As noted above, studies of cutaneous sensitivity yield evidence that the human senses number more than five. There is evidence for two pressure senses (for light and for deep stimulation), for two kinds of temperature sensitivity (warm and cold), and for a…

  • cutch (plant extract)

    Sir Humphry Davy: Early life: …study of tanning: he found catechu, the extract of a tropical plant, as effective as and cheaper than the usual oak extracts, and his published account was long used as a tanner’s guide. In 1803 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society and an honorary member of the…

  • Cutch, Gulf of (gulf, India)

    Gulf of Kachchh, northeastern arm of the Arabian Sea, extending between the Rann of Kachchh (a salt waste) and the Kāthiāwār Peninsula of west-central India. Reaching eastward for some 110 miles (180 km), the gulf varies in width from 10 to 40 miles (16 to 65 km). It is rimmed with mudflats, and

  • Cutch, Rann of (mud flats, Asia)

    Rann of Kachchh, saline mudflats, west-central India and southern Pakistan. The Great Rann covers an area of about 7,000 square miles (18,000 square km) and lies almost entirely within Gujarāt state, India, along the border with Pakistan. The Little Rann of Kachchh extends northeast from the Gulf

  • Cuterebra (insect)

    bot fly: The subfamily Cuterebrinae contains important rodent bot flies, such as Cuterebra cuniculi, which infects rabbits, and the tree squirrel bot fly (C. emasculator), which attacks the scrotum of squirrels, sometimes emasculating them. The human bot fly (Dermatobia hominis) attacks livestock, deer, and humans. The female attaches her eggs to mosquitoes,…

  • Cuthah (ancient city, Iraq)

    Cuthah, ancient city of Mesopotamia located north of the site of Kish in what is now south-central Iraq. Cuthah was devoted to the cult of Nergal, the god of the lower world, and because of its sanctity it seems to have been kept in repair by all Sumerian and Semitic rulers down to a few centuries

  • Cuthbert, Betty (Australian athlete)

    Betty Cuthbert, Australian sprinter, who starred at the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne, Australia, where she won three gold medals; she added a fourth gold medal at the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo. Cuthbert began running at age eight and was trained by a schoolteacher in the little New South Wales town

  • Cuthbert, Elizabeth (Australian athlete)

    Betty Cuthbert, Australian sprinter, who starred at the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne, Australia, where she won three gold medals; she added a fourth gold medal at the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo. Cuthbert began running at age eight and was trained by a schoolteacher in the little New South Wales town

  • Cuthbert, Rosa (American author)

    Rosa Guy, American writer who drew on her own experiences to create fiction for young adults that usually concerned individual choice, family conflicts, poverty, and the realities of life in urban America and the West Indies. Cuthbert lived in Trinidad until 1932, when she moved to the United

  • Cuthbert, Saint (bishop of Lindisfarne)

    Saint Cuthbert, ; feast day March 20), bishop of the great Benedictine abbey of Lindisfarne (or Holy Island) one of the most venerated English saints, who evangelized Northumbria and was posthumously hailed as a wonder-worker. After a divine vision, Cuthbert, a shepherd, entered (651) the

  • Cuthred (king of Wessex)

    Cuthred, king of the West Saxons, or Wessex, who acceded to the throne (740) when neighbouring Mercia was at the height of its power. Cuthred was apparently a dependent of Aethelbald, king of Mercia, and throughout much of his reign of 16 years had to struggle against the Mercians as well as the

  • cuticle (maceral)

    coal: Macerals: …typically preserved as flattened spheroids), cutinite (part of cross sections of leaves, often with crenulated surfaces), and resinite (ovoid and sometimes translucent masses of resin). The liptinites may fluoresce (i.e., luminesce because of absorption of radiation) under ultraviolet light, but with increasing rank their optical properties approach those of the…

  • cuticle (biology)

    Cuticle, the outer layer or part of an organism that comes in contact with the environment. In many invertebrates the dead, noncellular cuticle is secreted by the epidermis. This layer may, as in the arthropods, contain pigments and chitin; in humans the cuticle is the epidermis. In some higher

  • cuticular hair (physiology)

    nervous system: Arthropods: …receptors in arthropods are the cuticular hairs, many of which are mechanoreceptors, sensitive to touch, vibration, water currents, or sound waves; some hairs are chemoreceptors, which detect odours or chemicals in the water. Hairs situated near the joints are stimulated by body movements and thus provide a sense of the…

  • cutin (plant anatomy)

    cuticle: It consists of cutin, a waxy, water-repellent substance allied to suberin, which is found in the cell walls of corky tissue. Cutin is especially noticeable on many fruits—e.g., apple, nectarine, and cherry, which can be buffed to a high gloss. Carnauba wax is derived from the cuticles of…

  • cutinite (maceral)

    coal: Macerals: …typically preserved as flattened spheroids), cutinite (part of cross sections of leaves, often with crenulated surfaces), and resinite (ovoid and sometimes translucent masses of resin). The liptinites may fluoresce (i.e., luminesce because of absorption of radiation) under ultraviolet light, but with increasing rank their optical properties approach those of the…

  • cutis (anatomy)

    Dermis, the thicker, deeper layer of the skin underlying the epidermis and made up of connective tissue. It is present in varying degrees of development among various vertebrate groups, being relatively thin and simple in aquatic animals and progressively thicker and more complex in terrestrial

  • cutis anserina (physiology)

    human disease: Maintenance of health: On a cold day gooseflesh may develop, an example of a homeostatic response that is a throwback to mechanisms in lower animals. In fur-bearing ancestors of humans, cold external environments caused the individual hair shafts to rise and, in effect, produce a heavier, thicker insulation of the body against…

  • cutis laxa (pathology)

    Cutis laxa, rare disorder in which the skin hangs in loose folds. The cause of cutis laxa is unknown, but the defect appears to be an abnormality in the formation or structure of the protein elastin, the principal component of the elastic connective tissues of the skin; as a result, degenerative

  • cutlass fish (marine fish)

    Cutlass fish, any of several species of fishes in the family Trichiuridae (order Perciformes). All species are marine; representatives occur in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Cutlass fishes have a distinctive appearance with a long eel-like body and a low dorsal fin that extends the

  • cutleaf self-heal (plant)

    self-heal: grandiflora), and cutleaf self-heal (P. lacinata), were regarded in medieval times as cure-alls and are still used in herbal medicine. The dried leaves and flowers are commonly brewed for soothing sore throats. Other common names include heal-all and allheal.

  • Cutler, Ivor (British humorist, writer, and performer)

    Ivor Cutler, British humorist, writer, and performer (born Jan. 15, 1923, Glasgow, Scot.—died March 3, 2006, London, Eng.), entertained audiences of all ages with his offbeat wit and whimsical, childlike view of the world. Cutler’s eccentric humour touched his work as a poet, singer, songwriter, s

  • Cutler, John C. (American scientist)

    Guatemala syphilis experiment: Study design: …Public Health Service (USPHS) scientist John C. Cutler, who had been involved in the Terre Haute study and who later was one of the leaders of the Tuskegee syphilis study. Cutler and USPHS colleagues collaborated with local Guatemalan physicians and were granted access to public health centres, government hospitals, mental…

  • Cutler, Lloyd Norton (American lawyer and political adviser)

    Lloyd Norton Cutler, American lawyer and political adviser (born Nov. 10, 1917, New York, N.Y.—died May 8, 2005, Washington, D.C.), served as White House counsel to Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. From 1979 to 1981 he helped President Carter navigate difficult situations such as the S

  • Cutler, Manasseh (American clergyman)

    Manasseh Cutler, Congregational minister who, as a leader of the Ohio Company of Associates, was instrumental in settling what is now Ohio. After graduating from Yale University in 1765, Cutler worked as a schoolteacher, whaling merchant, and lawyer. In 1768 he began to study divinity and in 1771

  • Cutler, Mary Salome (American librarian and educator)

    Mary Salome Cutler Fairchild, American librarian, a central figure in the establishment and teaching of the field of library science in the United States. Salome Cutler graduated from Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (now Mount Holyoke College) in South Hadley, Massachusetts, in 1875 and taught there

  • Cutler, Sir Arthur Roden (Australian diplomat)

    Sir Roden Cutler, Australian diplomat and public servant (born May 14, 1916, Manly, N.S.W., Australia—died Feb. 21, 2002, Sydney, Australia), was a distinguished war hero, ambassador, and the longest-serving governor (1966–81) of New South Wales. Cutler studied economics at the University of S

  • Cutler, Sir Roden (Australian diplomat)

    Sir Roden Cutler, Australian diplomat and public servant (born May 14, 1916, Manly, N.S.W., Australia—died Feb. 21, 2002, Sydney, Australia), was a distinguished war hero, ambassador, and the longest-serving governor (1966–81) of New South Wales. Cutler studied economics at the University of S

  • cutlery

    Cutlery, cutting implements, such as knives, razors, and scissors, used for industrial, commercial, and domestic purposes. Prehistoric implements used for cutting, hunting, and defense were fashioned from stone, especially flint; from obsidian, a volcanic glass; and from bones and shells. Cutting

  • cutlery steel (metallurgy)

    cutlery: Cutlery manufacture: Cutlery steel consists of iron to which from 0.35 to 1 percent carbon has been added. Early methods involved hammering charcoal into red-hot iron bars. In the 18th century Benjamin Huntsman built new types of furnaces in Sheffield for making highly refined steel in clay…

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