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  • curtall (musical instrument)

    Curtal, Renaissance-era musical instrument and predecessor of the bassoon, with a double-back bore cut from a single piece of wood and built in sizes from treble to double bass (sometimes called the double curtal in England and the Choristfagott in Germany). The curtal was developed in the 16th c

  • Curtea de Argeş (Romania)

    Curtea de Argeş, town, Argeş judeƫ (county), south-central Romania. It is on the Argeş River, at an elevation of 1,378 ft (420 m), on the southern slopes of the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians), about 80 mi (130 km) northwest of Bucharest. Curtea de Argeş succeeded Câmpulung as capital of

  • Curteen, Sir William (English merchant)

    Sir William Courteen, English merchant and shipowner noted especially for his enterprises in the West Indies and the East Indies. The son of a Protestant refugee who had come to London in 1568, Courteen from an early age acted as the agent in Haarlem, Neth., for his father’s silk and linen

  • curtesy (law)

    inheritance: Limits on freedom of testation: …the widower was entitled to curtesy, a life rent in his wife’s heritage (i.e., immovable) property, and the widow had the right of terce—i.e., a life rent out of one-third of her husband’s inheritable estate. In England, freedom of testation, while unlimited by law, was kept within narrow limits by…

  • Curtin, John (prime minister of Australia)

    John Curtin, statesman, prime minister of Australia during most of World War II, and leader of the Australian Labor Party (1934–45). After involving himself in trade union and anticonscription activity in Melbourne (1911–15), Curtin became editor of a Perth newspaper, the Westralian Worker. In 1928

  • Curtin, John Joseph (prime minister of Australia)

    John Curtin, statesman, prime minister of Australia during most of World War II, and leader of the Australian Labor Party (1934–45). After involving himself in trade union and anticonscription activity in Melbourne (1911–15), Curtin became editor of a Perth newspaper, the Westralian Worker. In 1928

  • Curtis (island, New Zealand)

    Kermadec Islands: Curtis and Macauley were discovered (1788) by the crew of the British ship “Lady Penrhyn.” The others were found (1793) by the French navigator Joseph d’Entrecasteaux, who named the entire group after one of his ships. The first Europeans who settled there (1837) sold garden…

  • curtis (dwelling)

    Villa, country estate, complete with house, grounds, and subsidiary buildings. The term villa particularly applies to the suburban summer residences of the ancient Romans and their later Italian imitators. In Great Britain the word has come to mean a small detached or semidetached suburban home. In

  • Curtis Cuneo, Ann Elizabeth (American swimmer)

    Ann Elizabeth Curtis , (Ann Elizabeth Curtis Cuneo), American swimmer (born March 6, 1926, San Francisco, Calif.—died June 26, 2012, San Rafael, Calif.), dominated her sport during the 1940s, with three Olympic medals and five world records, as well as 34 national titles and 56 American records.

  • Curtis Cup (golf trophy)

    Curtis Cup, golf trophy awarded since 1932 to the winner of a biennial amateur women’s match played between teams from Great Britain and the United States. The cup was donated by Harriot and Margaret Curtis, both winners of the U.S. women’s amateur championship in the early 1900s. Teams consist of

  • Curtis Institute of Music (school, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Curtis Institute of Music, private, coeducational conservatory of music in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. The institute awards bachelor’s and master’s degrees. The curriculum covers composition, conducting, accompanying, music theory and history, and studies in voice and in keyboard and

  • Curtis Publishing Company (American publishing company)

    Cyrus Hermann Kotzschmar Curtis: In 1890 Curtis organized the Curtis Publishing Company. Later acquisitions included The Saturday Evening Post (1897); The Country Gentleman (1911); the Philadelphia Public Ledger (1913), which he expanded to include the Evening Ledger (1914); the Philadelphia Press and The North American, morning newspapers that he merged with the Curtis papers…

  • Curtis, Ann (American swimmer)

    Ann Elizabeth Curtis , (Ann Elizabeth Curtis Cuneo), American swimmer (born March 6, 1926, San Francisco, Calif.—died June 26, 2012, San Rafael, Calif.), dominated her sport during the 1940s, with three Olympic medals and five world records, as well as 34 national titles and 56 American records.

  • Curtis, Ben (American golfer)

    British Open: History: …1999, David Duval in 2001, Ben Curtis in 2003, and Padraig Harrington in 2007.

  • Curtis, Benjamin R. (United States jurist)

    Benjamin R. Curtis, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1851–57). Curtis graduated from Harvard College, studied at the Harvard Law School, and took over the practice of a country attorney in Northfield, Massachusetts, in 1831. He quickly gained a reputation at the Boston bar for

  • Curtis, Benjamin Robbins (United States jurist)

    Benjamin R. Curtis, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1851–57). Curtis graduated from Harvard College, studied at the Harvard Law School, and took over the practice of a country attorney in Northfield, Massachusetts, in 1831. He quickly gained a reputation at the Boston bar for

  • Curtis, Charles (vice president of United States)

    Charles Curtis, 31st vice president of the United States (1929–33) in the Republican administration of Pres. Herbert Hoover. The son of Orren Arms Curtis, a soldier, and Ellen Gonville Pappan, who was one-quarter Kansa Indian, Curtis spent his early youth with the Kaw Indian tribe. After being

  • Curtis, Charles Gordon (American inventor)

    Charles Gordon Curtis, U.S. inventor who devised a steam turbine widely used in electric power plants and in marine propulsion. He was a patent lawyer for eight years. The Curtis steam turbine was patented in 1896, and its principles are still used in large ocean liners and other naval vessels. The

  • Curtis, Christopher Paul (American author)

    Christopher Paul Curtis, American author of young people’s literature who received the 2000 Newbery Medal, awarded annually by the American Library Association (ALA) to the author of the most distinguished American work of children’s literature published in the previous year. Many of his books were

  • Curtis, Cyrus Hermann Kotzschmar (American publisher)

    Cyrus Hermann Kotzschmar Curtis, publisher who established a journalistic empire in Philadelphia. As early as 1863 Curtis began publishing in Portland a local weekly called Young America. When fire destroyed his plant, he moved to Boston, where he worked as a messenger, an advertising solicitor,

  • Curtis, Edward S. (American photographer)

    Edward S. Curtis, American photographer and chronicler of Native American peoples whose work perpetuated an influential image of Indians as a “vanishing race.” The monumental The North American Indian (1907–30), published under his name, constitutes a major compendium of photographic and

  • Curtis, Ellen Louise (American businesswoman)

    Ellen Louise Curtis Demorest, American businesswoman, widely credited with the invention of the mass-produced paper pattern for clothing. Ellen Curtis graduated from Schuylerville Academy at age 18 and then opened a millinery shop. In 1858 she married William J. Demorest in New York City. During a

  • Curtis, Frank (American entrepreneur)

    automobile: The age of steam: Another American, Frank Curtis of Newburyport, Massachusetts, is remembered for building a personal steam carriage to the order of a Boston man who failed to meet the payment schedule, whereupon Curtis made the first recorded repossession of a motor vehicle.

  • Curtis, George William (American writer)

    George William Curtis, U.S. author, editor, and leader in civil service reform. Early in life Curtis spent two years at the Brook Farm community and school, subsequently remaining near Concord, Mass., for a time, to continue his association with Emerson. Later he travelled in Europe, Egypt, and

  • Curtis, Heber D. (American astronomer)

    universe: Shapley’s contributions: …was arranged between Shapley and Heber D. Curtis to discuss this issue before the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C.

  • Curtis, Ian (British singer)

    Joy Division/New Order: The principal members were Ian Curtis (b. July 15, 1956, Macclesfield, Cheshire, England—d. May 18, 1980, Macclesfield), Bernard Albrecht (later Bernard Sumner; b. January 4, 1956, Salford, Manchester), Peter Hook (b. February 13, 1956, Manchester), Stephen Morris (b. October 28, 1957, Macclesfield), and Gillian Gilbert (b. January 27, 1961,…

  • Curtis, Jamie Lee (American actress)

    Tony Curtis: (One of their two daughters, Jamie Lee Curtis, became a successful actress.) Tony Curtis had recurring roles in the British television series The Persuaders! (1971–72) and in the American TV series Vega$ (1978–81). He continued to perform onstage and in films into the 21st century.

  • Curtis, Jean-Louis (French author)

    Jean-Louis Curtis, (LOUIS LAFFITTE), French novelist, translator, and member of the French Academy who won the Prix Goncourt in 1947 for his novel Les Forêts de la nuit (b. May 22, 1917--d. Nov. 11,

  • Curtis, John (American author)

    origins of agriculture: Beginnings of pest control: …in a scientific way was John Curtis’s Farm Insects, published in 1860. Though farmers were well aware that insects caused losses, Curtis was the first writer to call attention to their significant economic impact. The successful battle for control of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) of the western United…

  • Curtis, King (American musician)

    the Coasters: …and tenor saxophone solos by King Curtis, who played a crucial role in creating Atlantic’s rhythm-and-blues sound. With further personnel changes they continued performing in “oldies” shows into the 1990s. The Coasters were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1987.

  • Curtis, Lionel George (British official)

    Lionel George Curtis, British public administrator and author, advocate of British imperial federalism and of a world state, who had considerable influence on the development of the Commonwealth of Nations. After being educated at Haileybury College and at New College, Oxford, Curtis entered the

  • Curtis, Philip C. (American artist)

    Philip C. Curtis, American arts administrator and Surrealist artist whose paintings are characterized by dreamlike images, spaces, and juxtapositions. Curtis received a bachelor’s degree from Albion College in Albion, Michigan, in 1930. After attending law school at the University of Michigan,

  • Curtis, Philip Campbell (American artist)

    Philip C. Curtis, American arts administrator and Surrealist artist whose paintings are characterized by dreamlike images, spaces, and juxtapositions. Curtis received a bachelor’s degree from Albion College in Albion, Michigan, in 1930. After attending law school at the University of Michigan,

  • Curtis, Samuel (United States military officer)

    Battle of Pea Ridge: …11,000 Union troops under General Samuel Curtis defeated 16,000 attacking Confederate troops led by Generals Earl Van Dorn, Sterling Price, and Ben McCulloch. Following a fierce opening assault from the rear that almost overwhelmed Curtis’s forces, the outnumbered Union troops rallied. After a desperate struggle with severe losses on both…

  • Curtis, Tony (American actor)

    Tony Curtis, American actor whose handsome looks first propelled him to fame in the 1950s. He won critical plaudits as well as broad popularity in both dramatic roles and comic performances. Schwartz grew up in the Bronx, where he experienced a troubled home life and became a member of a notorious

  • Curtisia (plant genus)

    Cornales: Other families: Curtisia has a single species of southern African tree that is useful as a timber source (assagai wood) for furniture and other small construction.

  • Curtisiaceae (plant family)

    Cornales: Other families: …single genus, are Grubbiaceae and Curtisiaceae. Grubbia (three species) is the single genus of Grubbiaceae and features heathlike shrubs in southern South Africa. Curtisia has a single species of southern African tree that is useful as a timber source (assagai wood) for furniture and other small construction.

  • Curtiss JN-4 (airplane)

    Glenn Hammond Curtiss: The Curtiss JN-4 (“Jenny”) was the standard training and general-purpose aircraft in American military service during the years prior to the U.S. entry into World War I. The NC-4, a multiengine Curtiss flying boat, made the first flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1919, opening the…

  • Curtiss Model E flying boat (airplane)

    Curtiss Model E flying boat, aircraft designed and built by American aeronautics pioneer Glenn Hammond Curtiss and first flown in 1912. Although the French aviation pioneer Henri Farman had flown off the water in 1910, the Curtiss Model E of 1912 was the first truly successful flying boat. (See

  • Curtiss NC-4 (airplane)

    David Watson Taylor: Navy, including the NC-4, first plane to fly the Atlantic (1919). He made many other contributions to aeronautics in 15 years of service on the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  • Curtiss, Glenn Hammond (American engineer)

    Glenn Hammond Curtiss, pioneer aviator and leading American manufacturer of aircraft by the time of the United States’s entry into World War I. Curtiss began his career in the bicycle business, earning fame as one of the leading cycle racers in western New York state. Fascinated by speed, he began

  • Curtius, Ernst (German archaeologist)

    Ernst Curtius, German archaeologist and historian who directed the excavation of Olympia, the most opulent and sacred religious shrine of ancient Greece and site of the original Olympic Games. In addition to revealing the layout of this vast sanctuary, the excavation also unearthed the only major

  • Curtius, Georg (German scholar)

    Georg Curtius, German classicist and Indo-European language scholar, whose writings were fundamental to the study of the Greek language. He was the brother of the archaeologist Ernst Curtius. In 1845 Georg Curtius became a Privatdozent (student-paid lecturer) at Berlin and in that year published

  • Curtius, Julius (German statesman)

    Julius Curtius, German statesman, foreign minister of the Weimar Republic (1929–31). Following the completion of his legal studies at Berlin, Curtius became a lawyer at Duisburg in 1905 but moved to Heidelberg in 1911. After distinguishing himself in World War I, he served until 1921 as city

  • Curtius, Marcus (Roman hero)

    Marcus Curtius, a legendary hero of ancient Rome. According to legend, in 362 bc a deep chasm opened in the Roman Forum. The seers declared that the pit would never close until Rome’s most valuable possession was thrown into it. Claiming that nothing was more precious than a brave citizen, Curtius

  • Curtius, Quintus (Roman historian)

    ancient Iran: The nobles and the nomads: The Roman historian Quintus Curtius recounts Alexander’s meeting with a delegation of Scythians who gave him a warning. They told him,

  • Curtiz, Michael (Hungarian-American director, actor, and writer)

    Michael Curtiz, Hungarian-born American motion-picture director whose prolific output as a contract director for Warner Brothers was composed of many solid but run-of-the-mill genre films along with a string of motion picture classics that included Angels with Dirty Faces (1938), Casablanca (1942),

  • Curtmantle, Henry (king of England)

    Henry II, duke of Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou (from 1151), duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of England (from 1154), who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with

  • curuba (plant)

    Musk cucumber, (Sicana odorifera), perennial vine of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), native to the New World tropics and grown for its sweet-smelling edible fruit. The fruit can be eaten raw and is commonly used in jams and preserves; immature fruits are sometimes cooked as a vegetable. In

  • curule aedile (Roman official)

    aedile: In 366 two curule (“higher”) aediles were created. These were at first patricians; but those of the next year were plebeians and so on year by year alternately until, in the 2nd century bc, the system of alternation between classes ceased. They were elected in the assembly of…

  • curule chair

    Curule chair, a style of chair reserved in ancient Rome for the use of the highest government dignitaries and usually made like a campstool with curved legs. Ordinarily made of ivory, with or without arms, it probably derived its name from the chariot (currus) in which a magistrate was conveyed t

  • curvature (geometry)

    Curvature, in mathematics, the rate of change of direction of a curve with respect to distance along the curve. At every point on a circle, the curvature is the reciprocal of the radius; for other curves (and straight lines, which can be regarded as circles of infinite radius), the curvature is the

  • curvature of field (optics)

    aberration: Curvature of field and distortion refer to the location of image points with respect to one another. Even though the former three aberrations may be corrected for in the design of a lens, these two aberrations could remain. In curvature of field, the image of…

  • curvature tensor (mathematics)

    tensor analysis: …the metrical tensor and the curvature tensor, are of particular interest. The metrical tensor is used, for example, in converting vector components into magnitudes of vectors. For simplicity, consider the two-dimensional case with simple perpendicular coordinates. Let vector V have the components V1, V2. Then by the Pythagorean theorem applied…

  • curvature vector (mathematics)

    relativistic mechanics: Relativistic space-time: …the tangent vector and the curvature vector of the world line (see Figure 2). If the particle moves slower than light, the tangent, or velocity, vector at each event on the world line points inside the light cone of that event, and the acceleration, or curvature, vector points outside the…

  • curve (mathematics)

    Curve, In mathematics, an abstract term used to describe the path of a continuously moving point (see continuity). Such a path is usually generated by an equation. The word can also apply to a straight line or to a series of line segments linked end to end. A closed curve is a path that repeats

  • curveball (baseball)

    baseball: The pitching repertoire: The fundamental, or regulation, curve is a swerving pitch that breaks away from the straight line, to the left (the catcher’s right) if thrown by a right-handed pitcher, to the right if by a left-hander. Some pitchers also employ a curving ball that breaks in the opposite way from…

  • curvet (horsemanship)

    horsemanship: Dressage: …its forelegs drawn in; the courvet, which is a jump forward in the levade position; and the croupade, ballotade, and capriole, a variety of spectacular airs in which the horse jumps and lands again in the same spot.

  • curvilinear style (art)

    Curvilinear style, in visual arts, two-dimensional surface ornamentation that dominates the art of the Gulf of Papua region in southeastern Papua New Guinea. The style is characterized by a curving line used to form abstract patterns, such as spirals, circles, swirls, and S-shapes, as well as to

  • curvilinear writing (writing system)

    numerals and numeral systems: Cuneiform numerals: …or the circular end (hence curvilinear writing) of the stylus, and for numbers up to 60 these symbols were used in the same way as the hieroglyphs, except that a subtractive symbol was also used. The figure shows the number 258,458 in cuneiform.

  • Curwen, John (British educator)

    John Curwen, British music educator and founder of the tonic sol-fa system of musical notation, which concentrates the student’s attention on the relating of sounds to notation in a systematic way. The son of a Congregational minister, he was himself a minister from 1838 until 1864, when he began

  • Curwen, John Spencer (British music publisher)

    John Curwen: His son, John Spencer Curwen (1847–1916), succeeded him as director of the publishing firm and founded in England the competition festival movement for amateur musicians. His system, or variants of it, has remained continuously in use in music schools of Europe and the United States.

  • Curzola (island, Croatia)

    Korčula, island in the Adriatic Sea, off the Dalmatian coast, in Croatia. With an area of 107 square miles (276 square km), it has a hilly interior rising to 1,863 feet (568 metres). The Greeks colonized it in the 4th century bce. Korčula was subsequently occupied by the Romans, Goths, Slavs,

  • Curzon Line (international boundary, Europe)

    Curzon Line, demarcation line between Poland and Soviet Russia that was proposed during the Russo-Polish War of 1919–20 as a possible armistice line and became (with a few alterations) the Soviet-Polish border after World War II. After World War I the Allied Supreme Council, which was determining

  • Curzon of Kedleston, Baroness (American vicereine of India)

    Mary Victoria Leiter Curzon, American-born vicereine of India who, by virtue of her marriage, long held the highest political rank gained by an American woman. Mary Leiter was the daughter of Levi Z. Leiter, merchant and early partner in Marshall Field & Co. From 1881 she grew up in Washington,

  • Curzon of Kedleston, George Nathaniel Curzon, Marquess (British foreign secretary)

    Lord Curzon, British statesman, viceroy of India (1898–1905), and foreign secretary (1919–24) who during his terms in office played a major role in British policy making. Curzon was the eldest son of the 4th Baron Scarsdale, rector of Kedleston, Derbyshire. His early development was strongly

  • Curzon, Lord (British foreign secretary)

    Lord Curzon, British statesman, viceroy of India (1898–1905), and foreign secretary (1919–24) who during his terms in office played a major role in British policy making. Curzon was the eldest son of the 4th Baron Scarsdale, rector of Kedleston, Derbyshire. His early development was strongly

  • Curzon, Mary Victoria Leiter (American vicereine of India)

    Mary Victoria Leiter Curzon, American-born vicereine of India who, by virtue of her marriage, long held the highest political rank gained by an American woman. Mary Leiter was the daughter of Levi Z. Leiter, merchant and early partner in Marshall Field & Co. From 1881 she grew up in Washington,

  • Cusack, Cyril (Irish actor)

    Cyril James Cusack, Irish actor (born Nov. 26, 1910, Durban, South Africa—died Oct. 7, 1993, London, England), was considered the finest Irish actor of his generation; he had a subtle, economical, and finely controlled style and a brooding, melancholic air that mesmerized audiences. He was e

  • Cusack, John (American actor)

    Charlie Kaufman: The surreal black comedy features John Cusack as a nebbishy puppeteer who stumbles across a portal in the building where he works (on floor 7 1 2 ) that leads into the brain of actor John Malkovich. Kaufman’s screenplay was nominated for an Academy Award, and it won several other…

  • Cusanus, Nicolaus (Christian scholar)

    Nicholas Of Cusa, cardinal, mathematician, scholar, experimental scientist, and influential philosopher who stressed the incomplete nature of man’s knowledge of God and of the universe. At the Council of Basel in 1432, he gained recognition for his opposition to the candidate put forward by Pope E

  • Cuscatlán (historical region, El Salvador)

    El Salvador: The colonial period: …to the Pipil capital of Cuscatlán. Alvarado soon returned to Guatemala, but a second expedition, in 1525, founded a Spanish town called San Salvador near the site of Cuscatlán. Pipil warriors forced the Spanish settlers to withdraw, however, and the community would be resettled several times before it was permanently…

  • Cusco (Peru)

    Cuzco, city and Inca región, south-central Peru. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the Western Hemisphere. Formerly the capital of the extensive Inca empire, it retains much of its highly crafted early stone architecture, which is typically preserved in the foundations and

  • Cuscomys (rodent)

    chinchilla rat: …are large and curved in Cuscomys; the second digits of both genera are hollowed out underneath. Stiff hairs, possibly used as grooming combs, project over the middle three toes. Abrocoma species are medium-sized rodents weighing up to 350 grams (12.3 ounces) with a body 17 to 23 cm (6.7 to…

  • Cuscomys ashaninka (rodent)

    chinchilla rat: The other species, C. ashaninka (named for the Ashaninka people of the region), appears to be arboreal, and little is known of its habits. It was first described in 1999 from a single specimen obtained at 3,370 metres in the cloud forest of southern Peru, about 200 km…

  • Cuscomys oblativa (rodent)

    chinchilla rat: Of the two Cuscomys species, C. oblativa is represented only by remains from an Inca burial site at Machu Picchu, although there is speculation that the species may still live nearby. The other species, C. ashaninka (named for the Ashaninka people of the region), appears to be arboreal, and little…

  • cuscus (marsupial)

    Cuscus, any of the seven species of Australasian marsupial mammals of the genus Phalanger. These are the marsupial “monkeys.” The head and body are 30 to 65 cm (12 to 25 inches) long, the tail 25 to 60 cm (10 to 24 inches). The big eyes are yellow-rimmed, and the nose is yellowish; the ears are

  • Cuscuta (plant)

    Dodder, (genus Cuscuta), genus of about 145 species of leafless, twining, parasitic plants in the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae). They are widely distributed throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the world, and many species have been introduced with their host plants into new

  • Cuscuta salina (plant)

    angiosperm: Distribution and abundance: , the dodder [Cuscuta species; Convolvulaceae]).

  • Cuscutaceae (plant family)

    Solanales: Convolvulaceae: …placed in its own family Cuscutaceae, is now nearly cosmopolitan after its range was expanded by introduction with seeds of other plants.

  • Cush (region and kingdoms of ancient Nubia, Africa)

    Kush, the southern portion of the ancient region known as

  • cush-cush (plant)

    Dioscoreaceae: bulbifera); and yampee, or cush-cush (D. trifida).

  • Cushing (Oklahoma, United States)

    Cushing, city, Payne county, north-central Oklahoma, U.S., near the Cimarron River. A portion of the Sac and Fox Indian Reservation, the area now known as Cushing, was opened to homesteaders in 1891 and settled as a farming community. It was named for Marshall Cushing, private secretary of John

  • Cushing disease (pathology)

    adrenal gland: Diseases of the adrenal glands: …the pituitary gland (known as Cushing disease), production of corticotropin by a nonendocrine tumour, or a benign or malignant adrenal tumour. All these disorders are treated most effectively by surgical removal of the tumour. Androgen excess in women is characterized by excessive hair growth on the face and other regions…

  • Cushing syndrome (medical disorder)

    Cushing syndrome, disorder caused by overactivity of the adrenal cortex. If caused by a tumour of the pituitary gland, it is called Cushing disease. In 1932 American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing described the clinical findings that provided the link between specific physical characteristics (e.g.,

  • Cushing, Caleb (United States statesman)

    Caleb Cushing, American lawyer, Cabinet member, and diplomat around the period of the American Civil War (1861–65). After serving in the state legislature and the U.S. Congress (1835–43), Cushing was appointed U.S. commissioner to China. There he negotiated the Treaty of Wanghia (1844) establishing

  • Cushing, Frank Hamilton (American ethnographer)

    Frank Hamilton Cushing, early American ethnographer of the Zuni people. Cushing studied the Zuni culture while making a five-year stay with the tribe, during which he was initiated into the Bow Priest Society. Many of his findings are summarized in Zuñi Folk Tales (1901), Zuñi Creation Myths

  • Cushing, Harvey Williams (American neurosurgeon)

    Harvey Williams Cushing, American surgeon who was the leading neurosurgeon of the early 20th century. Cushing graduated from Harvard Medical School in 1895 and then studied for four years at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, under William Stewart Halsted. He was a surgeon at Johns Hopkins from

  • Cushing, Peter (British actor)

    Peter Wilton Cushing, British actor (born May 26, 1913, Kenley, Surrey, England—died Aug. 11, 1994, Canterbury, Kent, England), raised the horror film to an art form with his many portrayals of Baron Frankenstein, Dr. Van Helsing, and similar characters in such classics of the genre as The R

  • Cushing, William (United States jurist)

    William Cushing, American jurist who was the first appointee to the U.S. Supreme Court. Cushing graduated from Harvard in 1751, began studying law, and was admitted to the bar in 1755. After working as a county official, he succeeded his father in 1772 as judge of the superior court of

  • Cushing, William Barker (United States naval officer)

    William Barker Cushing, U.S. naval officer who won acclaim for his daring exploits for the Union during the American Civil War (1861–65). Appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., in 1857, Cushing was obliged to resign four years later because of his irreverent attitude and practical

  • cushion capital (architecture)

    capital: Cubiform, or cushion, capitals, square on top and rounded at the bottom, served as transitional forms between the angular springing of the arches and the round columns supporting them. Grotesque animals, birds, and other figurative motifs characterize capitals of the Romanesque period. At the beginning of the…

  • cushion cut (gem cutting)

    Step cut, method of faceting coloured gemstones in which the stone produced is rather flat with steps, or rows, of four-sided facets parallel to the girdle (the stone’s widest part). Because the facets are parallel to the girdle, they are usually long and narrow, except at the corners of the

  • cushion moss (plant)

    Cushion moss, any of the plants of the genus Leucobryum (subclass Bryidae), which form tufts resembling giant grayish white pincushions in moist woods or swampy areas. Three or more species are native to North America. Cushion moss grows in dense clumps ranging from a few centimetres to a metre (1

  • cushion spurge (plant)

    spurge: …yellow heads on bluish foliage; cushion spurge (E. epithymoides), from Europe, a 30.5-cm globe of gold to chartreuse that blooms in spring; E. characias, a 0.9- to 1.2-metre-tall European plant with sulfur-yellow bracts in summer; and E. griffithii, from the Himalayas, the fireglow variety of which has fire-orange heads in…

  • cushion star (sea star)

    sea star: Cushion stars, of the circumboreal genus Pteraster, are plump five-rayed forms with raised tufts of spines and webbed, short, blunt arms.

  • cushion stitch (embroidery)

    bargello work: …the flamelike gradation of colour, flame stitch; its 17th-century name was Hungarian stitch.

  • cushion work

    Cross-stitch embroidery, type of embroidery carried out on canvas or an evenly woven fabric in which the strands of the weave can be counted. Canvas work was executed at least as early as the Middle Ages, when it was known as opus pulvinarium, or cushion work. As its name implies, cross-stitch is a

  • Cushite (people)

    eastern Africa: The interior before the colonial era: …peoples who were probably southern Cushites from Ethiopia. Some traces of these interlopers remain among, for example, the Iraqw of Tanzania, and it may be that the age-old systems of irrigation found throughout this region owe their origins to this period as well. Agriculture preceded the smelting of iron in…

  • Cushite dynasty (ancient Egyptian history)

    Kassala: …control of the 25th, or Kushite, Egyptian dynasty. The Kushites were later conquered by the kingdom of Aksum (Axum), and the people were largely Christianized. There were Muslim raids into the region during the Mamlūk dynasty of Egypt (reigned 1250–1517). The people were converted to Islam in the early 16th…

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