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  • Csongor és Tünde (work by Vörösmarty)

    Mihály Vörösmarty: …produced a truly great work, Csongor és Tünde, a symbolic fairy-tale play that is reminiscent of William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. He married late, in 1843, and his wife, Laura Csajághy, inspired some beautiful poems, among which “A merengőhöz” (1843; “To a Day-Dreamer”) is outstanding. Having achieved fame, reasonable…

  • Csongrád (county, Hungary)

    Csongrád, megye (county), southeastern Hungary. It is bordered by the counties of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok to the north and Békés to the east, by Romania and Serbia to the south, and by the county of Bács-Kiskun to the west. Szeged is the county seat. In addition to Szeged, the major cities are

  • Csonka, Larry (American football player)

    Larry Csonka, American gridiron football player who won two Super Bowls (1973, 1974) playing for the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL) and was named Most Valuable Player of Super Bowl VIII. Csonka was an All-American fullback at Syracuse University, where he was noted for his

  • Csonka, Lawrence Richard (American football player)

    Larry Csonka, American gridiron football player who won two Super Bowls (1973, 1974) playing for the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League (NFL) and was named Most Valuable Player of Super Bowl VIII. Csonka was an All-American fullback at Syracuse University, where he was noted for his

  • Csontváry (film by Huszárik)

    Zoltán Huszárik: …completed his second feature film, Csontváry, a tribute to painter Tivadar Csontváry-Kosztka. Its lack of success may have fueled the self-destructive lifestyle that soon after resulted in Huszárik’s death.

  • Csontváry-Kosztka Tivadar (Hungarian artist)

    Tivadar Csontváry-Kosztka, Hungarian artist, considered by many critics to be Hungary’s greatest painter. He belonged to no specific school of art, but his works included elements similar to those of the foremost painters of Post-Impressionism. In 1880 he underwent a mystical experience that caused

  • Csontváry-Kosztka, Tivadar (Hungarian artist)

    Tivadar Csontváry-Kosztka, Hungarian artist, considered by many critics to be Hungary’s greatest painter. He belonged to no specific school of art, but his works included elements similar to those of the foremost painters of Post-Impressionism. In 1880 he underwent a mystical experience that caused

  • Csoóri, Sándor (Hungarian poet, essayist, and screenwriter)

    Sándor Csoóri, Hungarian poet, essayist, and screenwriter who became known as one of the finest poets of his generation in Hungary. Although he was born into a peasant family, Csoóri extended his education in Pápa. Following World War II, he began contributing to journals in Budapest. Initially

  • CSP (political party, India)

    Ram Manohar Lohia: …became actively involved in the Congress Socialist Party (CSP), founded that year as a left-wing group within the Indian National Congress; he served on the CSP executive committee and edited its weekly journal. A vehement opponent of Indian participation on the side of Great Britain in World War II, he…

  • CSPI (American nonprofit organization)

    Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), U.S. nonprofit organization, founded in 1971, that aims to study, advocate for, and influence legislation on environmental, health, and other science- and technology-related issues to protect consumers. The Center for Science in the Public Interest

  • CSS (missile system)

    rocket and missile system: From liquid to solid fuel: …IRBMs given the NATO designation CSS, for Chinese surface-to-surface missile. (The Chinese named the series Dong Feng, meaning “East Wind.”) The CSS-1 carried a 20-kiloton warhead to a range of 600 miles. The CSS-2, entering service in 1970, was fueled by storable liquids; it had a range of 1,500 miles…

  • CSS-N-3 SLBM (missile)

    rocket and missile system: The first SLBMs: …Chinese fielded the two-stage, solid-fueled CSS-N-3 SLBM, which had a range of 1,700 miles and carried a two-megaton warhead.

  • CST-100 (spacecraft)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …finish the development of its CST-100 spacecraft to carry crews to the ISS. Since the discontinuation of its space shuttle program in 2011, NASA has relied on Russian transports to take astronauts to the ISS.

  • CST-100 Starliner (spacecraft)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …finish the development of its CST-100 spacecraft to carry crews to the ISS. Since the discontinuation of its space shuttle program in 2011, NASA has relied on Russian transports to take astronauts to the ISS.

  • CSU (political party, Germany)

    Christian Social Union (CSU), conservative German political party that was founded in Bavaria, Germany, in 1946 by various Roman Catholic and Protestant groups and is committed to free enterprise, federalism, and a united Europe operating under Christian principles. Since December 1946, when party

  • Csurka, Istvan (Hungarian playwright, journalist, and politician)

    Istvan Csurka, Hungarian playwright, journalist, and politician (born March 27, 1934, Budapest, Hung.—died Feb. 4, 2012, Budapest), wrote a score of noteworthy plays as well as novels and stories but became better known for his far-right, xenophobic, anti-Semitic politics and the vitriolic essays

  • CSV (political party, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg: Independent Luxembourg: …government made up of his Christian Social People’s Party (Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei; CSV) and the Democratic Party that brought to an end 15 years of coalition rule by the CSV and the Socialist Workers’ Party of Luxembourg (Lëtzebuergesch Sozialistesch Arbechterpartei; LSAP). In 2000, at age 79, Grand Duke Jean formally…

  • CSX Corporation (American company)

    CSX Corporation, company formed by the merger of the Chessie System, Inc., and Seaboard Coast Line Industries, Inc., in 1980. It operates railroads in 18 states, located mainly east of the Mississippi River, and in Ontario. The Chessie System was created as a holding company for the Chesapeake and

  • CT

    Computed tomography (CT), diagnostic imaging method using a low-dose beam of X-rays that crosses the body in a single plane at many different angles. CT was conceived by William Oldendorf and developed independently by Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield and Allan MacLeod Cormack, who shared a 1979 Nobel

  • cT (meteorology)

    air mass: The continental Tropical (cT) air mass originates in arid or desert regions in the middle or lower latitudes, principally during the summer season. It is strongly heated in general, but its moisture content is so low that the intense dry convection normally fails to reach the condensation level.…

  • CT-2 system (telecommunications)

    telephone: Personal communication systems: …the second-generation cordless telephony (CT-2) system, which entered service in the United Kingdom in 1991. The CT-2 system was designed at the outset to serve as a telepoint system. In telepoint systems, a user of a portable unit might originate telephone calls (but not receive them) by dialing a…

  • CTA (public-transit agency, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago: Transportation: …the General Assembly, created the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) to take over operation of the “L” carriers; independent bus companies were absorbed in 1952.

  • CTC

    Cuba: Labour and taxation: …recognized labour organization is the Confederation of Cuban Workers, which is designed to support the government, raise the political consciousness of workers, and improve managerial performance and labour discipline.

  • CTC (railway)

    railroad: Interlocking and routing: …development is widely known as centralized traffic control (CTC). In Britain, for example, one signaling centre can cover more than 320 km (200 miles) of route with a principal city at the hub; the layout under control—used by intercity passenger, suburban passenger, and freight trains—may include 450 switch points and…

  • CTC

    tea: Rolling: The crushing, tearing, and curling (CTC) machine consists of two serrated metal rollers, placed close together and revolving at unequal speeds, which cut, tear, and twist the leaf. The Rotorvane consists of a horizontal barrel with a feed hopper at one end and a perforated plate…

  • CTD system (oceanography)

    undersea exploration: Water sampling for temperature and salinity: … (STD) and the more recent Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) systems have greatly improved on-site hydrographic sampling methods. They have enabled oceanographers to learn much about small-scale temperature and salinity distributions.

  • CTE (pathology)

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), degenerative brain disease typically associated with repetitive trauma to the head. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) originally was known as dementia pugilistica, a term introduced in the 1920s and ’30s to describe mental and motor deficits associated

  • Ctenidae (arachnid)

    Wandering spider, any member of the family Ctenidae (order Araneida), a small group of large spiders of mainly tropical and subtropical regions, commonly found on foliage and on the ground. The first two legs are armed with strong bristles on the lower side. Cupiennius salei, found in rainforests

  • Ctenidiobranchia (bivalve subclass)

    mollusk: Annotated classification: 35 m; 3 subclasses: Ctenidiobranchia (Nuculida), Palaeobranchia (Solemyida), Autobranchia (lamellibranch and septibranch bivalves); about 6,000 marine and 2,000 limnic species. Class Scaphopoda (Solenoconcha; tusk shells) Midventrally fused mantle and tubiform to barrel-shaped shell; head with tubular snout and

  • ctenidium (mollusk anatomy)

    mollusk: External features: …pair of lamellate gills (ctenidia), a thick layer of glandular epithelium called mucus tracts or hypobranchial glands, and the outlets for the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems. A loss of the ctenidia (along with the mucus tracts) is seen in scaphopods, advanced gastropods, septibranch bivalves, and solenogasters.

  • ctenizid (spider)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Ctenizidae (ctenizid trap-door spiders) 128 mostly tropical species. Chelicerae with structure (rake or rastellum) used to dig; 3 tarsal claws; eyes closely grouped; most species at least 3 cm or more in length; inhabit silk-lined tubes in ground, with entrances covered by hinged silk lids.…

  • Ctenizidae (spider)

    spider: Annotated classification: Family Ctenizidae (ctenizid trap-door spiders) 128 mostly tropical species. Chelicerae with structure (rake or rastellum) used to dig; 3 tarsal claws; eyes closely grouped; most species at least 3 cm or more in length; inhabit silk-lined tubes in ground, with entrances covered by hinged silk lids.…

  • Ctenobrycon spilurus (fish)

    tetra: The silver tetra (Ctenobrycon spilurus) is a deep-bodied fish that is flattened sidewise; it grows to 9 cm and is silvery in colour.

  • Ctenocephalides canis (insect)

    flea: Importance: …human flea (Pulex irritans), the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis), the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea), and the jigger, or chigoe, flea (Tunga penetrans). Poultry may be parasitized by the European chicken flea (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and, in the United States, by the western chicken flea (Ceratophyllus niger

  • Ctenocephalides felis (insect)

    flea: Importance: …people and livestock include the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), the so-called human flea (Pulex irritans), the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis), the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea), and the jigger, or chigoe, flea (Tunga penetrans). Poultry may be parasitized by the European chicken

  • Ctenocystoidea (fossil echinoderm class)

    echinoderm: Annotated classification: †Class Ctenocystoidea Middle Cambrian about 540,000,000 years ago; no feeding arm and no stem, but with unique feeding apparatus consisting of a grill-like array of movable plates around mouth. †Subphylum Blastozoa (blastozoans) Cambrian to Permian about 280,000,000–540,000,000 years ago. Stalked echinoderms with soft parts

  • Ctenodactylidae (rodent)

    Gundi, (family Ctenodactylidae), any of five North African species of rodents distinguished by its comblike rows of bristles on the inner two toes of each hindfoot. Gundis have a large head, blunt nose, big eyes, and short, rounded ears. The body is 16 to 24 cm (6.3 to 9.4 inches) long, and there

  • Ctenodactylus (rodent genus)

    gundi: Common gundis (Ctenodactylus gundi and C. vali) are found in parts of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, but the Mzab gundi (Massoutiera mzabi) has the largest range, extending from southeastern Algeria through southwestern Libya to northern Mali, Niger, and Chad. The Felou gundi (Felovia vae)…

  • Ctenodactylus gundi (rodent)

    gundi: Common gundis (Ctenodactylus gundi and C. vali) are found in parts of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, but the Mzab gundi (Massoutiera mzabi) has the largest range, extending from southeastern Algeria through southwestern Libya to northern Mali, Niger, and Chad. The Felou gundi (Felovia vae) is confined…

  • Ctenodactylus vali (rodent)

    gundi: gundis (Ctenodactylus gundi and C. vali) are found in parts of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, but the Mzab gundi (Massoutiera mzabi) has the largest range, extending from southeastern Algeria through southwestern Libya to northern Mali, Niger, and Chad. The Felou gundi (Felovia vae) is confined to Senegal, Mali,…

  • Ctenodiscus crispatus (sea star)

    sea star: The mud star (Ctenodiscus crispatus), about 10 cm (4 inches) across, with blunt, short arms and a broad, yellow disk, is abundant worldwide on mud bottoms of northern coasts. A number of sea star genera distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere have longer, more pointed, spine-fringed arms;…

  • Ctenodrilida (polychaete order)

    annelid: Annotated classification: Order Ctenodrilida No prostomial appendages; no parapodial lobes; setae arise directly from body wall; all setae simple; minute; examples of genera: Ctenodrilus, Zeppilina. Order Cirratulida Sedentary; prostomium pointed and without appendages; 1 or more pairs of

  • Ctenodrilus (polychaete genus)

    annelid: Annotated classification: …simple; minute; examples of genera: Ctenodrilus, Zeppilina. Order Cirratulida Sedentary; prostomium pointed and without appendages; 1 or more pairs of tentacular cirri arising from dorsal surface of anterior segments; gills, if present, long and slender, inserted above parapodia; size, minute to 20 cm; examples of genera: Cirratulus

  • ctenoid scale (anatomy)

    scale: , carp) or ctenoid scales (e.g., perch; sunfish). These are the typical overlapping fish scales. Cycloid scales are large, thin, and round or oval in shape, and they exhibit growth rings. Ctenoid scales resemble cycloid scales but have comblike teeth on their overlapping edge.

  • Ctenolophon (plant genus)

    Malpighiales: Ungrouped families: Ctenolophonaceae includes a single genus, Ctenolophon, with three species from West Africa and Malesia. They may be recognized by their opposite toothless leaves, and there are stipules between the petioles. The inflorescences are terminal, and the flower buds are rather elongated. The petals overlap regularly. The gray-drying and closely ribbed…

  • Ctenoluciidae (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Ctenoluciidae (pike-characids) Elongate, pikelike body. Large mouth, canine teeth, scales ciliated, carnivorous, food fishes. Panama and South America. To 67.5 cm (27 inches) or more. 2 genera, 7 species. Family Cynodontidae (cynodontids) Large mouth, large canine teeth, long anal fin. Carnivorous, food fishes that inhabit South

  • Ctenomys (rodent)

    Tuco-tuco, (genus Ctenomys), South American burrowing rodents similar to the North American pocket gopher in both appearance and ecology. There are 48 species, although different authorities recognize from 39 to 56. More continue to be found, reflecting the variability in size, colour, and number

  • Ctenopharyngodon idella (fish)

    Asian carp: The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), following their accidental introduction into waterways in the United States, are collectively referred to as Asian carp.

  • Ctenophora (marine invertebrate)

    Ctenophore, any of the numerous marine invertebrates constituting the phylum Ctenophora. The phylum derives its name (from the Greek ctene, or “comb,” and phora, or “bearer”) from the series of vertical ciliary combs over the surface of the animal. The body form resembles that of the cnidarian

  • ctenophore (marine invertebrate)

    Ctenophore, any of the numerous marine invertebrates constituting the phylum Ctenophora. The phylum derives its name (from the Greek ctene, or “comb,” and phora, or “bearer”) from the series of vertical ciliary combs over the surface of the animal. The body form resembles that of the cnidarian

  • Ctenopoda (crustacean)

    branchiopod: Annotated classification: Cladocera Infraorder Ctenopoda Short-bodied forms with 6 pairs of trunk limbs, of which 5 bear filters; bivalved carapace encloses trunk but not head; antennae large, used in swimming, and bearing long swimming setae; all filter feeders; no larval stages, young hatch as miniatures of adult; worldwide in…

  • Ctenostomata (bryozoan order)

    moss animal: Annotated classification: Order Ctenostomata Zooids cylindrical to flat; walls not calcified; orifice terminal or nearly so, often closed by a pleated collar; no ooecia or avicularia; Jurassic to present, but presumed older; about 20 families, 250 species. Order Cheilostomata Zooids generally shaped like a flat box, walls calcified;…

  • ctenostome (bryozoan order)

    moss animal: Annotated classification: Order Ctenostomata Zooids cylindrical to flat; walls not calcified; orifice terminal or nearly so, often closed by a pleated collar; no ooecia or avicularia; Jurassic to present, but presumed older; about 20 families, 250 species. Order Cheilostomata Zooids generally shaped like a flat box, walls calcified;…

  • ctenuchid moth (insect)

    mimicry: The selective advantage of warning: …of the families Arctiidae and Ctenuchidae are foul-tasting but would be vulnerable to nocturnal predation by bats were it not for the emission of a series of high-pitched clicks, audible to bats, made when the moths hear the bats’ own ultrasonic navigational pulses. That the moth clicks actually do serve…

  • Ctenuchinae (insect)

    mimicry: The selective advantage of warning: …of the families Arctiidae and Ctenuchidae are foul-tasting but would be vulnerable to nocturnal predation by bats were it not for the emission of a series of high-pitched clicks, audible to bats, made when the moths hear the bats’ own ultrasonic navigational pulses. That the moth clicks actually do serve…

  • Ctesias (Greek physician and historian)

    Ctesias, Greek physician and historian of Persia and India whose works were popular and influential in antiquity. In 405 bc Ctesias traveled to the Persian court, where he remained as physician under the rulers Darius II and Artaxerxes II. He claimed to have treated Artaxerxes for wounds inflicted

  • Ctesibius of Alexandria (Greek physicist and inventor)

    Ctesibius Of Alexandria, Greek physicist and inventor, the first great figure of the ancient engineering tradition of Alexandria, Egypt. Ctesibius was the son of a barber. The discovery of the elasticity of air is attributed to Ctesibius, as is the invention of several devices using compressed

  • Ctesiphon (Greek statesman)

    Aeschines: …brought suit against a certain Ctesiphon for illegally proposing the award of a crown to Demosthenes in recognition of his services to Athens. The case, tried in 330, concluded with the overwhelming defeat of Aeschines, largely, no doubt, because of Demosthenes’ brilliant speech for Ctesiphon (“On the Crown”). Aeschines left…

  • Ctesiphon (ancient city, Iraq)

    Ctesiphon, ancient city located on the left (northeast) bank of the Tigris River about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of modern Baghdad, in east-central Iraq. It served as the winter capital of the Parthian empire and later of the Sāsānian empire. The site is famous for the remains of a gigantic

  • Ctesiphon, Battle of (Roman history [363])

    Battle of Ctesiphon, (363). Julian, the young hero of Argentoratum, badly overplayed his hand a few years later when he tackled Shapur II’s Sassanid Persian forces. The Romans won on the battlefield, but then faced a Persian scorched-earth policy. The campaign ended with the Roman army exhausted

  • Cthulhu (fictional character)

    Cthulhu, fictional entity created by fantasy-horror writer H.P. Lovecraft and introduced in his story “The Call of Cthulhu,” first published in the magazine Weird Tales in 1928. The creature is described as “a monster of vaguely anthropoid outline, but with an octopus-like head whose face was a

  • Cthulhu Regio (region of Pluto)

    Pluto: The surface and interior: …its shape and later dubbed Cthulhu Regio, this region has a varied topography with plains, scarps, mountains, and craters. This region’s dark colour arises from organic compounds called tholins.

  • CTI (international partnership)

    Coral Triangle: The Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) was formally begun on May 15, 2009, during a summit at which six heads of state from the countries that border the Coral Triangle gathered in Manado, Indonesia, to formally delineate the Coral Triangle and adopt a 10-year Regional Plan of…

  • CTIO (observatory, Chile)

    Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), astronomical observatory founded in 1965 in Chile as the southern branch of the Kitt Peak National Observatory. It is located on top of two mountains, Cerro Tololo, which is 7,200 feet (2,200 metres) high, and Cerro Pachon, which is 8,900 feet (2,700

  • CTLA-4 (biology)

    immune system: Immunity against cancer: …that a molecule known as CTLA-4 plays a role in downregulating immune responses against tumours led to the development of a therapeutic human monoclonal antibody against CTLA-4. Known as ipilimumab (Yervoy), the antibody was approved in 2011 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of late-stage melanoma.…

  • CTNE (Spanish company)

    Telefónica SA, Spanish company that is one of the world’s leaders in the telecommunications industry. Headquarters are in Madrid. Telefónica is the main service provider in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking markets. The company offers a wide range of services, including fixed and mobile telephony,

  • CTP (chemical compound)

    cytosine: Cytidine triphosphate (CTP), an ester of cytidine and triphosphoric acid, is the substance utilized in the cells to introduce cytidylic acid units into ribonucleic acids. CTP also reacts with nitrogen-containing alcohols to form coenzymes that participate in the formation of phospholipids.

  • CTR (United States government program)

    Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR), plan developed by U.S. Senators Sam Nunn (Democrat, Georgia) and Richard Lugar (Republican, Indiana) to assist Russia and other former Soviet states in dismantling and disposing of their nuclear weapons during the 1990s. In August 1991 a military coup nearly

  • CTRN (military junta, Guinea)

    Guinea: Constitutional framework: …(Comité Militaire de Redressement National; CMRN). A new constitution in 1991 began a transition to civilian rule. It provided for a civilian president and a unicameral legislature, the National Assembly; both the president and the legislators were to be elected by universal suffrage for five-year terms. Political parties were legalized…

  • CTS (physiology)

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), condition of numbness, tingling, or pain in the wrist caused by repetitive flexing or stressing of the fingers or wrist over a long period of time. Possibly the most common repetitive stress injury in the workplace, CTS is frequently associated with the modern office,

  • CTSS (computer science)

    computer: Time-sharing from Project MAC to UNIX: …Corbato was working on, called Compatible Time-Sharing System, or CTSS. Still, Corbato was waiting for the appropriate technology to build that system. It was clear that electromechanical and vacuum tube technologies would not be adequate for the computational demands that time-sharing would place on the machines. Fast, transistor-based computers were…

  • Cu (chemical element)

    Copper (Cu), chemical element, a reddish, extremely ductile metal of Group 11 (Ib) of the periodic table that is an unusually good conductor of electricity and heat. Copper is found in the free metallic state in nature. This native copper was first used (c. 8000 bce) as a substitute for stone by

  • Cú Chulainn (Irish literature)

    Cú Chulainn, in medieval Irish literature, the central character of the Ulster (Ulaid) cycle. He was the greatest of the Knights of the Red Branch—i.e., the warriors loyal to Conor (Conchobar mac Nessa), who was reputedly king of the Ulaids of northeast Ireland at about the beginning of the 1st

  • Cua (people)

    Vietnam: Languages: Pacoh, Katu, Cua, Hre, Rengao, Sedang, Bahnar, Mnong, Mang (Maa), Muong, and Stieng—speak Mon-Khmer languages, connecting them with the Khmer. French missionaries and administrators provided Roman script for some of the Montagnard languages,

  • Cua, Paulus (Vietnamese scholar)

    Paulus Cua, Vietnamese scholar who contributed to the popular usage of Quoc-ngu, a romanized system of transcribing the Vietnamese language devised by mid-17th-century Portuguese missionaries and further modified by Alexandre de Rhodes, a 17th-century French missionary. Cua helped make Quoc-ngu

  • cuaderna vía (verse form)

    mester de clerecía: …common metrical form is the cuaderna vía (“fourfold way”). The mester de clerecía is characterized by its metrical regularity, diverse scholarly topics, narrative style, and didactic intent. Many works of this school are based directly on Latin sources. Among its most prominent representatives are Gonzalo de Berceo and Juan Ruiz.

  • cuaderno de Maya, El (novel by Allende)

    Isabel Allende: El cuaderno de Maya (2011; Maya’s Notebook) takes the form of a teenage girl’s diary, written in the wake of a disastrous episode of drug use and prostitution. In El juego de Ripper (2014; Ripper), Allende tells the story of a teenage girl tracking a serial killer. Her later novels…

  • Cuadra, Pablo Antonio (Nicaraguan poet)

    Pablo Antonio Cuadra, Nicaraguan poet (born Nov. 4, 1912, Managua, Nic.—died Jan. 2, 2002, Managua), was a leading exponent of the vanguardia, a literary movement that emerged in the early 1930s and sought to foster the native literary traditions of Nicaragua while at the same time incorporating t

  • cuadrilla (bullfighting)

    bullfighting: Performers: …each corrida; three matadors, whose cuadrillas (team of assistants) consist of two or three banderilleros and two picadors, alternate in the performance according to seniority in the profession (the most senior matador taking the first and the fourth bull).

  • cuadro de costumbres (literature)

    costumbrismo: …then in prose sketches called cuadros de costumbres (“scenes of customs”) that stressed detailed descriptions of typical regional characters and social conduct, often with a satirical or philosophical intent.

  • Cuadros phase (Mesoamerican history)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Early village life: …people of the Ocós and Cuadros phases raised a small-eared corn known as nal-tel, which was ground on metates and manos and cooked in globular jars. From the rich lagoons and estuaries in this area, the villagers obtained shellfish, crabs, fish, and turtles. Their villages were small, with perhaps 10…

  • Cuajiniguilapa (Guatemala)

    Cuilapa, city, southeastern Guatemala. The city lies in a bend of the southward-flowing Los Esclavos River on the southern flanks of the central highlands at an elevation of 2,916 feet (889 metres). In 1913 Cuilapa was destroyed by an earthquake; rebuilding was completed in 1920. Cuilapa is known

  • Cuan, Loch (inlet, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Strangford Lough, inlet of the Irish Sea between the Ards and North Down district and the Newry, Mourne and Down district, Northern Ireland. The lough (lake) is about 16 miles (26 km) long and 4 miles (6 km) wide and has a very narrow entrance, which cuts across the northeast-southwest trend of the

  • Cuando, Rio (river, Africa)

    Kwando River, river in southern Africa, rising in central Angola and flowing southeast, forming for nearly 140 miles (225 km) the boundary between Angola and Zambia. Near the end of its course the Kwando reaches the northern boundary of the Caprivi Strip, which juts out from Namibia, and t

  • Cuango River (river, Africa)

    African art: Lower Congo (Kongo) cultural area: The Kwango River area is the home of the Yaka, the Suku, the Mbala, and the Pende, whose masks, figures, and other carved objects show a dynamic stylization. Characterized by geometric patterns formed by the relationship of stylized body parts, Yaka figures lack the organic integration…

  • Cuanza River (river, Angola)

    Cuanza River, river in central Angola, rising about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Chitembo on the Bié Plateau at an elevation of 5,000 feet (1,500 metres). It flows northward for about 320 miles (510 km) and then curves westward to enter the Atlantic Ocean 30 miles (50 km) south of Luanda after a

  • Cuao River (river, South America)

    Orinoco River: Physiography of the Orinoco: Sipapo, Autana, and Cuao rivers from the Guiana Highlands.

  • Cuareim (river, Uruguay)

    Río de la Plata: Physiography of the Uruguay basin: The Ijuí, Ibicuí, and the Cuareim are short rivers but of considerable volume; the last forms part of the boundary between Brazil and Uruguay. At the mouth of the Cuareim, the Uruguay becomes the boundary line between Argentina and Uruguay, and the river flows almost directly south. A dam above…

  • Cuarón Orozco, Alfonso (Mexican director and screenwriter)

    Alfonso Cuarón, Mexican director and screenwriter who earned an international reputation for fluid storytelling in a versatile range of genres. Cuarón studied film at the Centro Universitario de Estudios Cinematográficos (a school within the National Autonomous University of Mexico) but was

  • Cuarón, Alfonso (Mexican director and screenwriter)

    Alfonso Cuarón, Mexican director and screenwriter who earned an international reputation for fluid storytelling in a versatile range of genres. Cuarón studied film at the Centro Universitario de Estudios Cinematográficos (a school within the National Autonomous University of Mexico) but was

  • Cuarto Reich, El (comic strip)

    comic strip: Comics in Latin America: …known for a strip titled El Cuarto Reich (begun 1977; “The Fourth Reich”) in the newspaper Uno Más Uno. It featured a tiny Wizard-of-Id-like dictator backed by U.S.-trained death squads and notable for his contempt for and exploitation of his people. This gag strip may be the only one of…

  • cuataquil (mammal)

    Olingo, (genus Bassaricyon), any of six species of small arboreal carnivores of the raccoon family, Procyonidae, found in the jungles of Central and northern South America. Olingos are slender, grayish brown animals 35–50 cm (14–20 inches) long, excluding the bushy, faintly ringed tail, which

  • cuatequil (Spanish-American history)

    Repartimiento, (Spanish: “partition,” “distribution”) in colonial Spanish America, a system by which the crown allowed certain colonists to recruit indigenous peoples for forced labour. The repartimiento system, frequently called the mita in Peru and the cuatequil (a Spanish-language corruption of

  • Cuatrecasas, Pedro (chemist)

    chromatography: Subsequent developments: …chromatography, was first described by Pedro Cuatrecasas and his coworkers in 1968. In these separations, a biomolecule such as an enzyme binds to a substrate attached to the solid phase while other components are eluted. The retained molecule can subsequently be eluted by changing the chemical conditions of the separation.

  • cuatro (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: The production of sound: …and often the Puerto Rican cuatro (a lute)—the bodies of most wooden instruments are constructed from multiple pieces of wood. The instruments are built up of many pieces of wood glued together; the shaping of curved pieces is accomplished by gouging and planing (as in the belly of the violin)…

  • Cuatro de Junio (county, Argentina)

    Lanús: … (county seat) and partido (county) of Gran (Greater) Buenos Aires, eastern Argentina. It is located directly south of the city of Buenos Aires, in Buenos Aires provincia (province). Much of the early settlement of Lanús, formerly called the county of Cuatro de Junio, was linked to the colonization and…

  • cuatro jinetes del Apocalipsis, Los (work by Blasco Ibáñez)

    Vicente Blasco Ibáñez: …cuatro jinetes del Apocalipsis (1916; The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1918), was used as the basis for two U.S. films. He was associated with the Generation of ’98 (q.v.).

  • Cuatro Puertas, Montaña de (mountain, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Telde: The nearby Montaña de Cuatro Puertas (“Mountain of Four Doors”), held sacred by the Guanches, is now the site of archaeological excavations. Telde was once a major producer of sugar, wines, and dyes, which were exported via Melenara Bay to the southeast. The trade declined in the…

  • Cuauhnáhuac (Mexico)

    Cuernavaca, city, capital of Morelos estado (state), south-central Mexico. It is located in the Valley of Morelos, some 40 miles (65 km) south of Mexico City, at an elevation of about 5,000 feet (1,500 metres). Cuernavaca, which translates as “cow horn,” is a Spanish corruption of the indigenous

  • Cuauhtémoc (Aztec emperor)

    Cuauhtémoc, 11th and last Aztec emperor, nephew and son-in-law of Montezuma II. Cuauhtémoc became emperor in 1520 on the death of Montezuma’s successor, Cuitláhuac. Hernán Cortés, with powerful Indian allies, was then marching on Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital. Cuauhtémoc’s frontier forces were

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