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  • Crystal City (Texas, United States)

    Crystal City, city, seat (1928) of Zavala county, southern Texas, U.S. It is located some 92 miles (148 km) southwest of San Antonio and 35 miles (56 km) from the Mexico border. The city site was platted by land developers Carl F. Groos and E.J. Buckingham on the 10,000-acre (4,050-hectare) Cross S

  • crystal class (crystallography)

    Point group, in crystallography, listing of the ways in which the orientation of a crystal can be changed without seeming to change the positions of its atoms. These changes of orientation must involve just the point operations of rotation about an axis, reflection in a plane, inversion about a c

  • crystal defect (crystallography)

    Crystal defect, imperfection in the regular geometrical arrangement of the atoms in a crystalline solid. These imperfections result from deformation of the solid, rapid cooling from high temperature, or high-energy radiation (X-rays or neutrons) striking the solid. Located at single points, along

  • crystal detector (instrument)

    Greenleaf Whittier Pickard: electrical engineer who invented the crystal detector (one of the first devices widely used for receiving radio broadcasts) and who was also one of the first scientists to demonstrate the wireless electromagnetic transmission of speech.

  • Crystal Express (short stories by Sterling)

    Bruce Sterling: … (1985) and the short-story collection Crystal Express (1989) examine the contrasting philosophies of the Shapers, who alter themselves genetically, and the Mechanists, who alter themselves with prosthetic devices. In Islands in the Net (1988), heroine Laura Webster is drawn into the geopolitics of a vast information network. In The Difference…

  • crystal face (crystallography)

    quasicrystal: Microscopic images of quasicrystalline structures: Its 12 faces are regular pentagons, with axes of fivefold rotational symmetry passing through them. That is to say, rotations about this axis by 72° leave the appearance of the grain unchanged. In a full 360° rotation the grain will repeat itself in appearance five times, once…

  • crystal field theory (chemistry)

    coordination compound: Crystal field theory: Considerable success in understanding certain coordination compounds also has been achieved by treating them as examples of simple ionic or electrostatic bonding. The German theoretical physicist Walther Kossel’s ionic model of 1916 was revitalized and developed by the American physicists Hans Bethe…

  • crystal gazing (divination)

    Crystal gazing, divination of distant or future events based on visions seen in a ball of rock crystal. Divination based on an analysis of reflections in water, on polished metal, or on precious stones was practiced by early humans, who probably interpreted these phenomena as a vision of the spirit

  • crystal goby (fish)

    goby: …and some, such as the crystal goby (Crystallogobius nilssoni) of Europe, are transparent. Most adult gobiids are 10 centimetres (4 inches) long or less; the Philippine Pandaka pygmaea, one of the smallest living vertebrates, grows no longer than about 13 millimetres (38 inch).

  • crystal growth (crystallography)

    crystal: Crystal growth: The earliest crystal grower was nature. Many excellent crystals of minerals formed in the geologic past are found in mines and caves throughout the world. Most precious and semiprecious stones are well-formed crystals. Early efforts to produce synthetic crystals were concentrated on making…

  • crystal habit (crystallography)

    amphibole: Physical properties: Long prismatic, acicular, or fibrous crystal habit, Mohs hardness between 5 and 6, and two directions of cleavage intersecting at approximately 56° and 124° generally suffice to identify amphiboles in hand specimens. The specific gravity values of amphiboles range from about 2.9 to 3.6. Amphiboles yield water when heated in…

  • crystal jelly (jellyfish)

    Osamu Shimomura: …occurring substance in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria that is used as a tool to make visible the actions of certain cells. The visual signal that GFP provides allows scientists to probe protein activity, such as when and where proteins are produced and how different proteins or parts of proteins move…

  • crystal lattice (crystallography)

    crystal: Structures of metals: The most common lattice structures for metals are those obtained by stacking the atomic spheres into the most compact arrangement. There are two such possible periodic arrangements. In each, the first layer has the atoms packed into a plane-triangular lattice in which every atom has six immediate neighbours.…

  • crystal meth (drug)

    Methamphetamine, potent and addictive synthetic stimulant drug that affects the central nervous system (the spinal cord and brain). Methamphetamine is prescribed for the treatment of certain medical conditions, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. In

  • crystal microphone (electroacoustic device)

    microphone: …of a piezoelectric crystal (crystal microphone). In each case, motion of the diaphragm produces a variation in the electric output. By proper design, a microphone may be given directional characteristics so that it will pick up sound primarily from a single direction (unidirectional), from two directions (bidirectional), or more…

  • Crystal Mountains (mountains, Africa)

    Cristal Mountains, chain of low mountains that runs parallel along the Atlantic coast of west-central Africa. The chain extends through the countries of Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and

  • Crystal Night (German history)

    Kristallnacht, (German: “Crystal Night”) the night of November 9–10, 1938, when German Nazis attacked Jewish persons and property. The name Kristallnacht refers ironically to the litter of broken glass left in the streets after these pogroms. The violence continued during the day of November 10,

  • Crystal Palace (building, London, United Kingdom)

    Crystal Palace, giant glass-and-iron exhibition hall in Hyde Park, London, that housed the Great Exhibition of 1851. The structure was taken down and rebuilt (1852–54) at Sydenham Hill (now in the borough of Bromley), at which site it survived until 1936. In 1849 Prince Albert, husband of Queen

  • Crystal Palace Exhibition (British history)

    Sir Henry Cole: …1848 Cole proposed an unprecedented Great Exhibition of the industry of all nations. It opened in 1851 and was a resounding triumph, featuring “art applied to industry.”

  • Crystal Palace Exposition (fair, New York City, New York, United States)

    elevator: Otis’ device, demonstrated at the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York, incorporated a clamping arrangement that gripped the guide rails on which the car moved when tension was released from the hoist rope. The first passenger elevator was put into service in the Haughwout Department Store in New York City…

  • crystal plane (crystallography)

    spectroscopy: X-ray optics: …reflected” from the crystal: each crystal plane acts as a weakly reflecting surface, but if the angle of incidence θ and crystal spacing d satisfy the Bragg condition, 2d sin θ = nλ, where λ is the wavelength of the X-ray and n is an integer called the order of…

  • crystal set (radio technology)

    radio: Radio’s early years: Among these early receivers were crystal sets, which used a tiny piece of galena (lead sulfide) called a “cat’s whisker” to detect radio signals. Although popular, inexpensive, and easy to make, crystal sets were a challenge to tune in to a station. Such experiments were scattered, and so there was…

  • crystal structure (physics)

    Crystal, any solid material in which the component atoms are arranged in a definite pattern and whose surface regularity reflects its internal symmetry. The definition of a solid appears obvious; a solid is generally thought of as being hard and firm. Upon inspection, however, the definition

  • crystal sync (cinematic process)

    motion-picture technology: Double-system recording: More convenient yet is crystal sync, whereby the speed of both cameras and recorders is controlled through the use of the oscillation of crystals installed in each piece of equipment. The most advanced system uses a time-code generator to emit numbers in “real-time” on both film and tape.

  • crystal system (crystallography)

    crystal: Structures of metals: …found in a variety of crystal packing arrangements. The most common lattice structures for metals are those obtained by stacking the atomic spheres into the most compact arrangement. There are two such possible periodic arrangements. In each, the first layer has the atoms packed into a plane-triangular lattice in which…

  • Crystal, Billy (American actor, and comedian)

    Billy Crystal, American actor, writer, director, and comedian, known for a highly expressive manner that lent itself to a wide range of comedic characters. Crystal, whose father was a jazz promoter and record label executive, spent most of his childhood in Long Beach, New York. In high school

  • crystal, scintillation

    mass spectrometry: Daly detector: …high negative potential to a scintillation crystal mounted on a photomultiplier at ground potential. The electrons generate a light signal in the scintillation crystal that is amplified by the photomultiplier. The output is then treated just as the output of an electron multiplier. The advantage of this more complicated device…

  • Crystal, William Edward (American actor, and comedian)

    Billy Crystal, American actor, writer, director, and comedian, known for a highly expressive manner that lent itself to a wide range of comedic characters. Crystal, whose father was a jazz promoter and record label executive, spent most of his childhood in Long Beach, New York. In high school

  • crystal-B phase (physics)

    liquid crystal: Symmetries of liquid crystals: Crystal-B and crystal-G have molecular positions on regular crystal lattice sites, with long axes of molecules (directors) aligned, but allow rotation of molecules about their directors. These are the so-called plastic crystals. Many interesting liquid crystal phases are not listed in this table, including the…

  • crystal-field splitting energy

    chemical bonding: Crystal field theory: …Δ and is called the crystal field splitting energy (CFSE). This energy is the parameter that is used to correlate a variety of spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and magnetic properties of complexes.

  • crystal-G phase (physics)

    liquid crystal: Symmetries of liquid crystals: Crystal-B and crystal-G have molecular positions on regular crystal lattice sites, with long axes of molecules (directors) aligned, but allow rotation of molecules about their directors. These are the so-called plastic crystals. Many interesting liquid crystal phases are not listed in this table, including the discotic phase,…

  • crystal-pulling method (chemistry)

    integrated circuit: Making a base wafer: …is now known as the Czochralski method. To create a single crystal of silicon by using the Czochralski method, electronic-grade silicon (refined to less than one part impurity in 100 billion) is heated to about 1,500 °C (2,700 °F) in a fused quartz crucible. Either an electron-donating element such as…

  • crystalline aluminum oxide (mineral)

    Corundum, naturally occurring aluminum oxide mineral (Al2O3) that is, after diamond, the hardest known natural substance. Its finer varieties are the gemstones sapphire and ruby (qq.v.), and its mixtures with iron oxides and other minerals are called emery (q.v.). Corundum in its pure state is

  • crystalline candy

    candy: Products: …into noncrystalline, or amorphous, and crystalline types. Noncrystalline candies, such as hard candies, caramels, toffees, and nougats, are chewy or hard, with homogeneous structure. Crystalline candies, such as fondant and fudge, are smooth, creamy, and easily chewed, with a definite structure of small crystals.

  • crystalline lens (eye structure)

    Lens, in anatomy, a nearly transparent biconvex structure suspended behind the iris of the eye, the sole function of which is to focus light rays onto the retina. The lens is made up of unusual elongated cells that have no blood supply but obtain nutrients from the surrounding fluids, mainly the

  • crystalline polymer (chemistry)

    plastic: Physical states and molecular morphologies: …morphologies are either amorphous or crystalline. Amorphous molecules are arranged randomly and are intertwined, whereas crystalline molecules are arranged closely and in a discernible order. Most thermosets are amorphous, while thermoplastics may be amorphous or semicrystalline. Semicrystalline materials display crystalline regions, called crystallites, within an amorphous matrix. In addition, the…

  • crystalline rock

    Crystalline rock, any rock composed entirely of crystallized minerals without glassy matter. Intrusive igneous rocks—those that congeal at depth—are virtually always crystalline, whereas extrusive igneous rocks, or volcanic rocks, may be partly to entirely glassy. Many factors influence the

  • crystalline solid (physics)

    Crystal, any solid material in which the component atoms are arranged in a definite pattern and whose surface regularity reflects its internal symmetry. The definition of a solid appears obvious; a solid is generally thought of as being hard and firm. Upon inspection, however, the definition

  • crystalline style (invertebrate anatomy)

    mollusk: The digestive system: …is a rod, called the crystalline style. The protostyle or the crystalline style are fully retained in the bivalves and gastropods that subsist on small microorganisms and detritus. The protostyle or crystalline style may vary in form among the bivalves. Digestion in primitive forms appears to have been both intracellular…

  • crystallinity (geology)

    igneous rock: Crystallinity: Among the most fundamental properties of igneous rocks are crystallinity and granularity, two terms that closely reflect differences in magma composition and the differences between volcanic and various plutonic environments of formation. Crystallinity generally is described in terms of the four categories shown in…

  • crystallite (geology)

    Crystallite, any of a type of microscopic body occurring in such glassy igneous rocks as obsidian and pitchstone. Crystallites are regarded as incipient or embryonic crystals, though they often have no recognizable crystallographic form and are too small to polarize light. They occur when magma

  • crystallization (physical process)

    separation and purification: Crystallization and precipitation: Crystallization is a technique that has long been used in the purification of substances. Often, when a solid substance (single compound) is placed in a liquid, it dissolves. Upon adding more of the solid, a point eventually is reached beyond which no…

  • crystallization remanent magnetization (physics)

    rock: Types of remanent magnetization: CRM (chemical, or crystallization, remanent magnetization) can be induced after a crystal is formed and undergoes one of a number of physicochemical changes, such as oxidation or reduction, a phase change, dehydration, recrystallization, or precipitation of natural cements. The induction, which is particularly important in some…

  • crystallized intelligence (psychology)

    human behaviour: Cognition: Crystallized intelligence, measured by tests that maximize the role of cultural knowledge, reflects the degree to which the individual has been acculturated through intentional learning. Fluid intelligence shows a steady decline from adolescence through middle age. Across the same age range, however, a steady increase…

  • crystallo ceramie (glass)

    Crystallo ceramie, cut crystal glass in which a decorative ceramic object is embedded. A Bohemian invention of the 18th century, cameo incrustation was taken up in Paris but had no vogue until Apsley Pellatt, an English glassmaker, developed a technique that resulted in specimens of genuine

  • Crystallogobius nilssoni (fish)

    goby: …and some, such as the crystal goby (Crystallogobius nilssoni) of Europe, are transparent. Most adult gobiids are 10 centimetres (4 inches) long or less; the Philippine Pandaka pygmaea, one of the smallest living vertebrates, grows no longer than about 13 millimetres (38 inch).

  • crystallographic axis (crystals)

    Axis, in crystallography, any of a set of lines used to describe the orderly arrangement of atoms in a crystal. If each atom or group of atoms is represented by a dot, or lattice point, and these points are connected, the resulting lattice may be divided into a number of identical blocks, or unit

  • crystallography

    Crystallography, branch of science that deals with discerning the arrangement and bonding of atoms in crystalline solids and with the geometric structure of crystal lattices. Classically, the optical properties of crystals were of value in mineralogy and chemistry for the identification of

  • crystalloid (chemistry)

    Thomas Graham: …divided particles into two classes—crystalloids, such as common salt, having high diffusibility; and colloids, such as gum arabic, having low diffusibility. He devised dialysis, a method for separating colloids from crystalloids, and also proved that the process of liquid diffusion causes partial decomposition of certain chemical compounds. He invented…

  • crystalloid arthritis (pathology)

    arthritis: Crystalloid arthritis: Joint inflammation, destruction, and pain can occur as a result of the precipitation of crystals in the joint space. Gout and pseudogout are the two primary types of crystalloid arthritis caused by different types of crystalloid precipitates.

  • Crystals, the (American music group)

    The Crystals, American girl group formed in 1960, whose original members were Barbara Alston(b. December 29, 1943, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.—d. February 16, 2018, Charlotte, North Carolina), Merna Girard(b. 1943, Brooklyn, New York), Delores (“Dee Dee”) Kenniebrew(b. 1945, Brooklyn), Mary Thomas(

  • Crystolon (chemical compound)

    Silicon carbide, exceedingly hard, synthetically produced crystalline compound of silicon and carbon. Its chemical formula is SiC. Since the late 19th century silicon carbide has been an important material for sandpapers, grinding wheels, and cutting tools. More recently, it has found application

  • Crytogrammoid (plant clade)

    Pteridaceae: Crytogrammoid clade: The Crytogrammoid clade contains three genera and about 23 species. The three small genera, Cryptogramma (parsley ferns), Coniogramme, and Llavea, are unusual morphologically, and their position relative to the closely related Pteridoid clade requires further study.

  • CS (psychology)

    animal behaviour: Instinctive learning: …to associate a novel (conditioned) stimulus with a familiar (unconditioned) one. For example, in his study of classical conditioning, Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov demonstrated that by consistently exposing a dog to a particular sound (novel stimulus) and simultaneously placing meat powder (familiar stimulus) in its mouth the dog…

  • Cs (chemical element)

    Cesium (Cs), chemical element of Group 1 (also called Group Ia) of the periodic table, the alkali metal group, and the first element to be discovered spectroscopically (1860), by German scientists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff, who named it for the unique blue lines of its spectrum (Latin

  • CS (tear gas)

    tear gas: or CN, and o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, or CS. CN is the principal component of the aerosol agent Mace and is widely used in riot control. It affects chiefly the eyes. CS is a stronger irritant that causes burning sensations in the respiratory tract and involuntary closing of the eyes, but its effects…

  • Cs climate (climatology)

    Mediterranean climate, major climate type of the Köppen classification characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters and located between about 30° and 45° latitude north and south of the Equator and on the western sides of the continents. In the Köppen-Geiger-Pohl system, it is divided

  • CSA (white supremacist group)

    The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord, white supremacist militia group based in Arkansas, U.S., that was active in the late 1970s and the ’80s. The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSA) was connected to a number of crimes and terrorist plots in the 1980s. It dissolved after

  • CSA (Canadian government organization)

    Canadian Space Agency (CSA), Canadian government organization founded in 1989 that coordinates spaceflight activities. Its headquarters are in Longueuil, Que. The chief executive of the CSA is the president, who is assisted by a senior vice president and the directors of four branches: Space

  • CSA (United States [1970])

    drug use: National controls: …Control Act, which introduced the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), replaced the earlier laws overseeing the use of narcotics and other dangerous drugs in the United States. The CSA was implemented to control the prescription and dispensation of psychoactive drugs and hallucinogens. Under the CSA, a classification system with five schedules…

  • Csa climate (climatology)

    Mediterranean climate: …it is divided into the Csa and Csb subtypes.

  • CSAGI

    Antarctica: The development of IGY: …to become known as the Comité Spécial de l’Année Géophysique Internationale (CSAGI) to coordinate IGY planning. Plans widened to include the scientific study of the whole Earth, and eventually 67 nations showed interest in joining. Plans were laid for simultaneous observations, at all angles, of the Sun, weather, the aurora,…

  • Csáky, István, Gróf (premier of Hungary)

    Hungary: Financial crisis: the rise of right radicalism: …dismissed Kánya for the pro-Axis István, Count Csáky, and sought to recover Hitler’s favour by introducing a more far-reaching Jewish Law (May 2, 1939). Imrédy’s enemies secured his resignation in February 1939 by unearthing documents purporting to show a Jewish strain in his own ancestry. Pál, Count Teleki, who succeeded…

  • csardas (Hungarian dance)

    Czardas, national dance of Hungary. A courting dance for couples, it begins with a slow section (lassu), followed by an exhilarating fast section (friss). The individual dancers carry themselves proudly and improvise on a simple fundamental step, their feet snapping inward and outward, the couples

  • Csárdáskirálynõ (operetta by Kálmán)

    Emmerich Kálmán: His greatest success came from Csárdáskirálynõ (1915; “The Czardas Queen”); it was performed by almost every musical theatre in the world, often enjoying runs of thousands of performances. The productions of his works Bajadér (1921; “Bayadère”), Marica grófnõ (1924; “Countess Marica”), Cirkuszhercegnõ (1926; “Princess of the Circus”), and Montmartre-i ibolya…

  • Csáth Géza (Hungarian short-story writer and music critic)

    Géza Csáth, Hungarian short-story writer and music critic. He was a leading figure in the renaissance of Hungarian fiction at the beginning of the 20th century and, as a critic, one of the first to appreciate the work of Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, and Igor Stravinsky. Csáth’s first published

  • Csáth, Géza (Hungarian short-story writer and music critic)

    Géza Csáth, Hungarian short-story writer and music critic. He was a leading figure in the renaissance of Hungarian fiction at the beginning of the 20th century and, as a critic, one of the first to appreciate the work of Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, and Igor Stravinsky. Csáth’s first published

  • Csb climate (climatology)

    Mediterranean climate: …divided into the Csa and Csb subtypes.

  • csc (mathematics)

    trigonometry: cotangent (cot), secant (sec), and cosecant (csc). These six trigonometric functions in relation to a right triangle are displayed in the figure. For example, the triangle contains an angle A, and the ratio of the side opposite to A and the side opposite to the right angle (the hypotenuse) is…

  • CSE (Indian organization)

    Anil Kumar Agarwal: …founder and director of the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), the leading environmental nongovernmental organization (NGO) in India. He also was an outspoken advocate for improving the environmental and social conditions that affected India’s impoverished citizens.

  • Csepel Free Port (port, Hungary)

    Budapest: Transportation: …from the city centre on Csepel Island, handles international freight cargo on the Danube and is equipped to handle container traffic. The head office of the international Danube Commission is in Budapest. Of the capital’s eight bridges, the oldest and best-known is the Széchenyi Chain Bridge (Széchenyi Lánchíd), built in…

  • Csepel Island (island, Hungary)

    Danube River: Physiography: …large number of islands, including Csepel Island near Budapest. In this long stretch the river takes on the waters of its major tributaries—the Drava, the Tisza, and the Sava—which create substantial changes in the river’s regime. The average runoff increases from about 83,000 cubic feet (2,400 cubic metres) per second…

  • Csermanek, János (premier of Hungary)

    János Kádár, premier of Hungary (1956–58, 1961–65) and first secretary (1956–88) of Hungary’s Communist Party who played a key role in Hungary’s transition from the 1956 anti-Soviet government of Imre Nagy to the pro-Soviet regime that followed. Kádár managed to convince the Soviet Union to

  • CSF (anatomy)

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), clear, colourless liquid that fills and surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and provides a mechanical barrier against shock. Formed primarily in the ventricles of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid supports the brain and provides lubrication between surrounding bones

  • CSF (biochemistry)

    blood: Blood cells: …(glycoproteins), referred to collectively as colony-stimulating factors (CSFs). These factors are produced throughout the body. Even in minute amounts, CSFs can stimulate the division and differentiation of precursor cells into mature blood cells and thus exert powerful regulatory influences over the production of blood cells. A master colony-stimulating factor (multi-CSF),…

  • CSG (space launch centre, Kourou, French Guiana)

    European Space Agency: ESA also operates the Guiana Space Centre (CSG), a launch base in French Guiana.

  • CSH (military hospital)

    battlefield medicine: …facility they reach is the Combat Support Hospital (CSH). The CSH staff includes specialists such as orthopedic and oral surgeons and psychiatrists. The CSH is modular in design and can be configured in sizes from 44 to 248 beds as needed. It is assembled from metal shelters and climate-controlled tents,…

  • CSI (American organization)

    Scientology: Organization of the church: …churches and organizations is the Church of Scientology International (CSI), which coordinates the activities of the movement and promotes the church internationally. The Religious Technology Center (RTC) has ultimate ecclesiastical authority for the teachings of Scientology, owns all the movement’s trademarks, and grants the churches and organizations their licenses. The…

  • CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (American television drama)

    CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, American television drama that aired on the CBS network in 2000–15 and was one of the most popular television programs in the United States. CSI: Crime Scene Investigation was created by Anthony E. Zuiker, and Jerry Bruckheimer was among the show’s executive

  • CSI: Miami (American television series)

    David Caruso: …notably on the television show CSI: Miami (2002–12).

  • CSI: NY (American television series)

    Television in the United States: Prime time in the new century: …CSI: Miami (CBS, 2002–12) and CSI: NY (CBS, 2004–13). NBC’s Law & Order, which debuted in 1990, broke into the top 10 for the first time in 2000–01 and inspired four spin-offs: Law & Order: Special Victims Unit (NBC, begun 1999), Law & Order: Criminal Intent (NBC/USA, 2001–11), Law &…

  • Csikszentkirály und Krasznahorka, Julius, Graf Andrássy von (prime minister of Hungary)

    Gyula, Count Andrássy, Hungarian prime minister and Austro-Hungarian foreign minister (1871–79), who helped create the Austro-Hungarian dualist form of government. As a firm supporter of Germany, he created, with the imperial German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the Austro-German alliance of 1879,

  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mihalyi (Hungarian-born American psychologist)

    creativity: Research on the creative process: …century the Hungarian-born American psychologist Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi studied more than 90 men and women who possessed the following characteristics: (1) they produced works that were publicly recognized as creative, and (2) they influenced or affected their culture in some important way. Contrary to earlier theories that creative people emerged from…

  • Csíkszereda (Romania)

    Miercurea-Ciuc, town, capital of Harghita județ (county), Romania. The town lies along the Olt River in the Ciuc Depression. It was an Iron Age settlement, and later Dacian and Szekler villages developed there; its history is presented in the county museum. Miercurea-Ciuc has become an important

  • CSIR (Indian research and development organization)

    Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian research and development (R&D) organization. It was established as an autonomous body by the government of India in 1942 to promote scientific knowledge and boost industrialization and economic growth and is now one of the largest

  • CSIR (South African research organization)

    Pretoria: …Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, the country’s largest research organization.

  • CSIRO (Australian organization)

    Australia: Agriculture: …main research arm is the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), which has a formidable reputation worldwide. Producers’ organizations work independently and alongside government bodies, and they constitute effective lobbying groups in the federal and state parliaments.

  • CSIS (Canadian organization)

    Canada: Police: In 1984 the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) was created to replace the security service previously provided by the RCMP. The CSIS’s purpose is to conduct security investigations within Canada related to subversion, terrorism, and foreign espionage.

  • CSLAA (United States [2004])

    space tourism: Suborbital space tourism: Commercial Space Launch Amendments Act (CSLAA) provided guidelines for regulating the safety of commercial human spaceflight in the United States under the auspices of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Under the CSLAA, FAA representatives will attend every launch, evaluate every landing, and work alongside the…

  • CSM (international organization)

    Caribbean Community: …but in January 2006 the Caricom Single Market (CSM)—which removed barriers to goods, services, trade, and several categories of labour—was implemented by all member states except The Bahamas and Haiti. A year earlier, CARICOM had officially inaugurated the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), which replaced the Judicial Committee of the…

  • CSM (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Polyethylene (PE): …in chlorinated polyethylene (CM) or chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM), a virtually noncrystalline and elastic material. In a process similar to vulcanization, cross-linking of the molecules can be effected through the chlorine or chlorosulfonyl groups, making the material into a rubbery solid. Because their main polymer chains are saturated, CM and CSM…

  • CSMA (communications)

    telecommunications network: Carrier sense multiple access: One random-access method that reduces the chance of collisions is called carrier sense multiple access (CSMA). In this method a node listens to the channel first and delays transmitting when it senses that the channel is busy. Because of delays in…

  • CSMA/CD (communications)

    computer: Local area networks: This scheme is known as carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD). It works very well until a network is moderately heavily loaded, and then it degrades as collisions become more frequent.

  • CSME (international organization)

    Caribbean Community: …Treaty of Chaguaramas, establishing the Caribbean Community and the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME), which would harmonize economic policy and create a single currency. Movement toward a single market and economy was delayed over disagreements about the division of benefits, but in January 2006 the Caricom Single Market (CSM)—which…

  • CSNET (computer science)

    computer: The Internet: …of a supplementary network, the Computer Science Network (CSNET). Built in 1980, CSNET was made available, on a subscription basis, to a wide array of academic, government, and industry research labs. As the 1980s wore on, further networks were added. In North America there were (among others): BITNET (Because It’s…

  • CSO (American orchestra)

    Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO), American symphony orchestra based in Chicago, Ill., renowned for its distinctive tone and its recordings under such conductors as Fritz Reiner and Sir Georg Solti. It was founded by Theodore Thomas in 1891 as the Chicago Orchestra and operated as the Theodore

  • CSO (American organization)

    Cesar Chavez: …organizer was provided by the Community Services Organization (CSO) in California, a creation of Saul Alinsky’s Industrial Areas Foundation. In 1958 Chavez became general director of the CSO, but he resigned four years later to cofound the NFWA. In September 1965 he began leading what became a five-year strike by…

  • Csók István (Hungarian painter)

    István Csók, Hungarian painter. In the 1880s Csók studied at the Mintarajziskola (School of Drawing) in Budapest, at the Academy in Munich, and in Paris. In 1891 the Paris Salon awarded him its gold medal for his painting Úrvacsora (‘‘Do This in Memory of Me [Holy Communion]’’), and in 1894 he won

  • Csók, István (Hungarian painter)

    István Csók, Hungarian painter. In the 1880s Csók studied at the Mintarajziskola (School of Drawing) in Budapest, at the Academy in Munich, and in Paris. In 1891 the Paris Salon awarded him its gold medal for his painting Úrvacsora (‘‘Do This in Memory of Me [Holy Communion]’’), and in 1894 he won

  • Csokonai Vitéz, Mihály (Hungarian poet)

    Mihály Csokonai Vitéz, the outstanding poet of the Hungarian Enlightenment. Csokonai’s early sympathies with the revolutionary trends of his age made life difficult for him in the wave of reaction that accompanied Napoleon’s invasion of Europe. Dismissed after a brief career as an assistant master

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