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  • cryoprotectant (biochemistry)

    ectotherm: …their bloodstream and tissues with cryoprotectants—ice-inhibiting compounds, such as proteins, sugars, and sugar alcohols (e.g., sorbitol and glycerol)—or they can use other dissolved substances, such as salts, already present in the bloodstream. Such adaptations protect the animals’ cells from freezing by lowering the freezing point of water. For example, the…

  • cryopump

    vacuum technology: Cryopump: This type of pump utilizes extremely low temperatures to condense gases and thus remove them from the system. Pumping speeds of millions of cu ft per minute are possible with the cryopump over the pressure range 10-3 torr to well below 10-10 torr. This…

  • CryoSat (European Space Agency satellite)

    CryoSat, European Space Agency satellite designed to study the effect of climate change on ice in Earth’s polar regions. It launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on April 8, 2010, on a Russian Dnepr launch vehicle. CryoSat circles Earth in a polar orbit. Its primary instrument is the

  • CryoSat-2 (European Space Agency satellite)

    CryoSat, European Space Agency satellite designed to study the effect of climate change on ice in Earth’s polar regions. It launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on April 8, 2010, on a Russian Dnepr launch vehicle. CryoSat circles Earth in a polar orbit. Its primary instrument is the

  • cryoseism (seismology)

    Cryoseism, the sudden fracturing of soil or rock caused by rapid freezing of water in saturated ground. Such seismic events are sometimes mistaken for true earthquakes because they produce seismic vibrations, loud booms, jolts, and shaking at the ground surface. Cryoseisms may also occur in polar

  • cryoseismic boom (geology)

    cryoseism: …produce audible booming sounds (called cryoseismic booms) and seismic waves (which may be recorded by seismographs).

  • Cryosol (FAO soil group)

    Cryosol, one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Cryosols are characterized by frozen soil within 1 metre (39 inches) of the land surface and by waterlogging during periods of thaw. They often show disrupted soil layers, cracks, or

  • Cryosophila (plant genus)

    palm: Characteristic morphological features: In Cryosophila and Mauritia, roots along the stem are transformed into spines. Stout prop roots forming a dense or open cone are found at successive nodes along the stem of certain varieties of palms.

  • Cryosophila albida (plant species)

    palm: Ecology: in Astrocaryum mexicanum, Bactris, Cryosophila albida, Rhapidophyllum hystrix, and Socratea exorrhiza. Syrphus flies apparently pollinate Asterogyne martiana in Costa Rica, and drosophila flies are thought to pollinate the nipa palm in New Guinea. Bees pollinate several species (Sabal palmetto and Iriartea deltoidea).

  • cryostat (device)

    radiation measurement: Germanium detectors: …inside a vacuum enclosure, or cryostat, that provides thermal contact with a storage dewar of liquid nitrogen. Mechanical refrigerators are also available to cool the detector for use in remote locations where a supply of liquid nitrogen may not be available.

  • cryosurgery

    Cryosurgery, therapeutic technique in which localized freezing is used to remove or destroy diseased tissue. Rapid cooling of body tissues to a temperature of -60° C or lower causes ice crystals to form, disrupting cell structure and, ultimately, killing the cell. Freezing may also destroy tissues

  • cryothalamotomy (surgery)

    parkinsonism: Cryothalamotomy destroys the area of the brain that produces tremors by the inserting a probe into the thalamus. Restorative surgery is an experimental technique that replaces the lost dopaminergic neurons of the patient with dopamine-producing fetal brain tissue.

  • cryotherapy

    Cryotherapy, the therapeutic use of cold to control inflammation and edema, decrease pain, reduce spasticity, and facilitate movement. Tissue cooling is achieved through the application of cold through the skin. Indications for cryotherapy include acute injury or inflammation, acute or chronic pain

  • cryovegetation (biology)

    Cryoflora, algae that live in snow and ice. The well-known and widely distributed red snow (q.v.) is caused by Chlamydomonas nivalis and diatoms; brown snow by desmids, diatoms, and blue-green algae; green snow by Euglena or Chlamydomonas; and “black” snow by Scotiella nivalis and

  • Cryphonectria parasitica (fungus species)

    Ascomycota: chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), and apple scab (Venturia inequalis). Perhaps the most indispensable fungus of all is an ascomycete, the common yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), whose varieties leaven the dough in bread making and ferment grain to produce beer or mash for distillation of alcoholic liquors; the

  • crypt (architecture)

    Crypt, vault or subterranean chamber, usually under a church floor. In Latin, crypta designated any vaulted building partially or entirely below the ground level, such as sewers, the stalls for horses and chariots in a circus, farm storage cellars, or a long gallery known as a cryptoporticus, like

  • Crypta Neapolitana (grotto, Naples, Italy)

    Naples: Layout and architecture: …the Roman grotto called the Crypta Neapolitana. This poignant place also contains the Roman columbarium known as the Tomb of Virgil, and the sepulchre of the Romantic poet Giacomo Leopardi, who died at Naples in 1837.

  • Cryptacanthodidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Cryptacanthodidae (wrymouths) Pelvic fins absent, mouth oblique. Marine, northern Atlantic and Pacific. 1 genus (Cryptacanthodes), 4 species. Family Stichaeidae (pricklebacks) Includes families Chirolophidae, Lumpenidae, Xiphiodontidae, Cebidichthyidae. Eel-like; body usually scaled; dorsal fin with spines only or some soft rays at

  • cryptanalysis

    cryptology: Cryptanalysis: Cryptanalysis, as defined at the beginning of this article, is the art of deciphering or even forging communications that are secured by cryptography. History abounds with examples of the seriousness of the cryptographer’s failure and the cryptanalyst’s success. In World War II the Battle…

  • Cryptanthus (plant genus)

    Cryptanthus, genus of epiphytes (plants that are supported by other plants and have aerial roots exposed to humid atmosphere) of the pineapple family (Bromeliaceae), composed of about 10 to 20 South American species. The prickly-edged, stemless leaves grow in a rosette directly from the root. The

  • Cryptanthus acaulis (plant)

    Cryptanthus: A few species, especially C. acaulis and C. zonatus, are grown indoors for their attractive foliage. Both species have wavy-edged leaves that are silvery or whitish underneath. C. acaulis grows to about 15 centimetres (6 inches) and has several to many leaves. The strap-shaped leaves of C. zonatus are…

  • Cryptanthus zonatus (plant)

    Cryptanthus: The strap-shaped leaves of C. zonatus are greenish brown or coppery on top with bands of tan or brown; the plant is about 22 cm tall.

  • cryptarithm (mathematics)

    Cryptarithm, mathematical recreation in which the goal is to decipher an arithmetic problem in which letters have been substituted for numerical digits. The term crypt-arithmetic was introduced in 1931, when the following multiplication problem appeared in the Belgian journal Sphinx: Cryptarithm

  • Crypteroniaceae (plant family)

    Myrtales: Family distributions and abundance: Crypteroniaceae, with 3 genera and 10 species of trees, is found entirely in Southeast Asia.

  • cryptic coloration (biology)

    Concealing coloration, in animals, the use of biological coloration to mask location, identity, and movement, providing concealment from prey and protection from predators. Background matching is a type of concealment in which an organism avoids recognition by resembling its background in

  • crypto currency (digital asset)

    Venezuela: Finance: …it introduced the petro, a cryptocurrency (similar to Bitcoin) whose value was tied to the price of one barrel of Venezuelan crude oil and was backed by the country’s reserves of gas, oil, gold, and diamonds. In August, against IMF projections that inflation would top one million percent by year’s…

  • cryptobiotic soil crust

    Biological soil crust, thin layer of living material formed in the uppermost millimetres of soil where soil particles are aggregated by a community of highly specialized organisms. Biological soil crusts are found primarily in open spaces in the dry and extremely cold regions of all continents,

  • Cryptoblastus (fossil echinoderm genus)

    Cryptoblastus, extinct genus of blastoids, a primitive group of echinoderms related to the modern sea lilies, found as fossils in Early Carboniferous marine rocks (the Early Carboniferous Period occurred from 360 to 320 million years

  • Cryptoblepharus (lizard)

    Snake-eyed skink, any of about 35 species of lizards constituting two genera (Ablepharus and Cryptoblepharus) in the family Scincidae. Snake-eyed skinks lack eyelids and have transparent scales (spectacles) covering the eyes similar to those of snakes. Although the function of the spectacle remains

  • cryptobranchid (amphibian family)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: Family Cryptobranchidae (Asiatic giant salamanders and hellbenders) Very large, to about 180 cm; aquatic; no lacrimal or septomaxillary bones in skull; vomerine teeth parallel to marginal teeth; Late Paleocene (58.7 million–56 million years ago) to present; Japan, China, and eastern United States; 2 genera (Andrias and…

  • Cryptobranchidae (amphibian family)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: Family Cryptobranchidae (Asiatic giant salamanders and hellbenders) Very large, to about 180 cm; aquatic; no lacrimal or septomaxillary bones in skull; vomerine teeth parallel to marginal teeth; Late Paleocene (58.7 million–56 million years ago) to present; Japan, China, and eastern United States; 2 genera (Andrias and…

  • Cryptobranchoidea (amphibian suborder)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: Suborder Cryptobranchoidea The most primitive salamanders; external fertilization; angular bone separate from the prearticular bone in the lower jaw; 2 pairs of limbs; no external gills; aquatic, semiaquatic, and terrestrial. Family Hynobiidae (Asiatic salamanders) Generalized, medium-sized (to about 250 mm),

  • Cryptobranchus (amphibian genus)

    Caudata: Annotated classification: …States; 2 genera (Andrias and Cryptobranchus) and 5 species. Suborder Sirenoidea Mode of fertilization unknown; angular bone fused with prearticular bone in lower jaw; only anterior pair of limbs present; external gills; aquatic. Family Sirenidae (sirens and dwarf sirens)

  • Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (salamander)

    Hellbender, (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis), salamander belonging to the family Cryptobranchidae (order Caudata) found in the larger, swift-flowing streams of the Ohio River system, the Susquehanna River, and other streams in the eastern and central United States. Adults grow to be 30–74 cm (12–29

  • Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi (salamander)

    hellbender: The Ozark hellbender (C. alleganiensis bishopi) is somewhat smaller, and its spots tend to be large blotches. It is found in the Black River system of Arkansas and Missouri.

  • Cryptocarya (plant genus)

    Laurales: Distribution and abundance: …in Asia, Australasia, and America; Cryptocarya and Cinnamomum (the source of camphor and the spice cinnamon) contain about 350 species each; Persea (including the avocado plant) has about 200 species; and Beilschmiedia contains about 250 species throughout many tropical regions as well as Australia and New Zealand. Persea and Cryptocarya…

  • Cryptocerata (insect suborder)

    heteropteran: Annotated classification: Suborder Hydrocorisae (or Cryptocerata) Neither cephalic nor abdominal trichobothria; antennae 4-segmented, shorter than head, usually in grooves on underside of head; semiaquatic (Gelastocoridae, Ochteridae) or aquatic (all other families); swimming members with fringe of swimming hairs on hind legs; aquatic members lay eggs in or on…

  • Cryptocercus (insect genus)

    hymenopteran: Division of labour: The Cryptocercus ants, for example, make nests in hollow stems of plants, then bore a circular entrance that remains under constant surveillance by special guards whose heads are modified into pluglike structures that fit the entrance. Each guard is relieved after several hours and another guard…

  • Cryptocercus punctulatus (insect)

    cockroach: The brown-hooded cockroach (Cryptocercus punctulatus) digests wood with the aid of certain protozoans in its digestive tract.

  • Cryptocheilus (wasp genus)

    spider wasp: The method of Cryptocheilus is a refined process during which the wasp first stings the spider between its poison fangs and then stings it again near the junction of the cephalothorax and abdomen. This produces complete immobility. Pompilus, on the other hand, has a less refined sting. It…

  • Cryptochiton (mollusk)

    mollusk: Size range and diversity of structure: …60 centimetres; among placophores the gumshoe, or gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton), achieves a length up to 30 to 43 centimetres; and, among solenogasters, Epimenia reaches a length of 15 to 30 centimetres. Finally, gastropods of the family Entoconchidae, which are parasitic in echinoderm sea cucumbers, may reach a size of almost…

  • Cryptochiton stelleri (mollusk)

    chiton: …length of most chitons, but Cryptochiton stelleri, of the Pacific coast of North America, may grow to about 43 cm. Chitons are very flexible and can fit snugly into rock crevices or curl into a ball when detached. They can also adhere so firmly to rocks that they may be…

  • cryptococcosis (pathology)

    Cryptococcosis, a chronic fungal infection of humans caused by Cryptococcocus neoformans and C. bacillispora. The organism may be present in soil or dust and is often found in pigeon droppings, with resulting high concentrations on window ledges and around other nesting places. How humans become

  • Cryptococcus (fungus)

    cryptococcosis: The Cryptococcus fungus can also spread to and cause lesions in the skin, bones, and visceral organs. Immunocompromised patients (e.g., those infected with HIV/AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive drugs) are at particularly high risk of cryptococcosis.

  • Cryptococcus bacillispora (fungus)

    cryptococcosis: …caused by Cryptococcocus neoformans and C. bacillispora. The organism may be present in soil or dust and is often found in pigeon droppings, with resulting high concentrations on window ledges and around other nesting places. How humans become infected is not certain, but it is probably by inhalation of fungus-bearing…

  • Cryptococcus neoformans (fungus)

    cryptococcosis: …infection of humans caused by Cryptococcocus neoformans and C. bacillispora. The organism may be present in soil or dust and is often found in pigeon droppings, with resulting high concentrations on window ledges and around other nesting places. How humans become infected is not certain, but it is probably by…

  • cryptocrystalline texture (geology)

    igneous rock: Crystallinity: …described as either microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline, according to whether or not their individual constituents can be resolved under the microscope. The subaphanitic, or hyaline, rocks are referred to as glassy, or vitric, in terms of granularity.

  • cryptocurrency (digital asset)

    Venezuela: Finance: …it introduced the petro, a cryptocurrency (similar to Bitcoin) whose value was tied to the price of one barrel of Venezuelan crude oil and was backed by the country’s reserves of gas, oil, gold, and diamonds. In August, against IMF projections that inflation would top one million percent by year’s…

  • Cryptodira (suborder of turtles)

    turtle: Form and function: …vertical-necked, turtles of the suborder Cryptodira (meaning “hidden neck”). Turtles that cannot withdraw the head belong to the suborder Pleurodira (meaning “side neck”). (See also side-necked turtle; snake-necked turtle.)

  • cryptodire (suborder of turtles)

    turtle: Form and function: …vertical-necked, turtles of the suborder Cryptodira (meaning “hidden neck”). Turtles that cannot withdraw the head belong to the suborder Pleurodira (meaning “side neck”). (See also side-necked turtle; snake-necked turtle.)

  • Cryptodonta (bivalve subclass)

    bivalve: Annotated classification: Subclass Cryptodonta Hinge either weakly taxodont or edentulous; distinctive shell structure of aragonitic simple prisms and nacre internally; large posterior protobranch ctenidia; small labial palps; of primitive and ancient lineage; marine; unattached; infaunal. Order Solemyoida Shell valves equal and elongate, lacking hinge teeth, covered by a…

  • cryptoexplosion structure (geology)

    Astrobleme, (from Greek astron, blema, “star wound”), remains of an ancient meteorite-impact structure on the Earth’s surface, generally in the form of a circular scar of crushed and deformed bedrock. Because such telltale features as crater walls, fused silica glass, and meteorite fragments are

  • cryptogam (botany)

    Lower vascular plant, any of the spore-bearing vascular plants, including the ferns, club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts, horsetails, and whisk ferns. Once considered of the same evolutionary line, these plants were formerly placed in the single group Pteridophyta and were known as the ferns and

  • cryptogamic soil crust

    Biological soil crust, thin layer of living material formed in the uppermost millimetres of soil where soil particles are aggregated by a community of highly specialized organisms. Biological soil crusts are found primarily in open spaces in the dry and extremely cold regions of all continents,

  • cryptogeal germination (botany)

    bunya pine: Known as cryptogeal germination, it is thought that this adaptation may protect against wildfires and allows the young plants to emerge when conditions are suitable.

  • cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (pathology)

    respiratory disease: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is also known as cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. This is a generally fatal lung disease of unknown cause that is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the alveolar walls. The disease most commonly manifests between the ages of 50 and 70, with…

  • Cryptogram, The (work by De Mille)

    James De Mille: …adults included thrillers, such as The Cryptogram (1871); comic novels of adventure, such as The Dodge Club; or, Italy in 1859 (1869); and historical romances, such as A Tale of Rome in the First Century (1867). Writings for young readers included the “B.O.W.C.” (“Brethren of the White Cross”) series, the…

  • Cryptogramma (plant)

    cliff brake: …brake is sometimes used for rock ferns or rock brakes, about four to seven species constituting the genus Cryptogramma, native to Europe, Asia, and the Americas. They differ from Pellaea species by having fronds that die back each winter and by their fertile leaflets, which are usually narrower than the…

  • Cryptographic Communication System and Method

    RSA encryption, type of public-key cryptography widely used for data encryption of e-mail and other digital transactions over the Internet. RSA is named for its inventors, Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard M. Adleman, who created it while on the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of

  • cryptography

    Cryptography, Practice of the enciphering and deciphering of messages in secret code in order to render them unintelligible to all but the intended receiver. Cryptography may also refer to the art of cryptanalysis, by which cryptographic codes are broken. Collectively, the science of secure and

  • Cryptolithus (trilobite genus)

    Cryptolithus, genus of trilobites (extinct arthropods) found as fossils in Europe and North America in the Ordovician period (505 million to 438 million years ago). Its distinctive appearance makes the genus a useful guide fossil for Ordovician rocks and time. The head region, or cephalon, in

  • cryptology

    Cryptology, science concerned with data communication and storage in secure and usually secret form. It encompasses both cryptography and cryptanalysis. The term cryptology is derived from the Greek kryptós (“hidden”) and lógos (“word”). Security obtains from legitimate users being able to

  • Cryptomeria japonica (tree)

    Japanese cedar, (Cryptomeria japonica), a coniferous evergreen timber tree and only species of the genus Cryptomeria of the family Cupressaceae (sometimes classified in the so-called deciduous cypress family Taxodiaceae), native to eastern Asia. The tree may attain 45 metres (150 feet) or more in

  • cryptomonad (microorganism)

    Cryptomonad, (class Cryptophyceae), any of several genera of small biflagellate algae occurring in both fresh and salt water. Most cryptomonads contain pigments found elsewhere only in red algae and cyanobacteria. Some live harmlessly as zooxanthellae within other organisms. They reproduce

  • Cryptomonadida (microorganism)

    Cryptomonad, (class Cryptophyceae), any of several genera of small biflagellate algae occurring in both fresh and salt water. Most cryptomonads contain pigments found elsewhere only in red algae and cyanobacteria. Some live harmlessly as zooxanthellae within other organisms. They reproduce

  • Cryptomonas (microorganism genus)

    algae: Annotated classification: 200 described species; includes Chilomonas, Cryptomonas, Falcomonas, Plagioselmis, Rhinomonas, and Teleaulax. Division Rhodophyta (red algae) Predominantly filamentous; mostly photosynthetic, a few parasitic; photosynthetic species with chlorophyll

  • Cryptomycocolacales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Cryptomycocolacales Parasitic on insects such as bark beetles, some are mycoparasitic; sometimes fuse with host cells using a small pore in colacosome; example genera include Cryptomycocolax and Colacosiphon. Subphylum Ustilaginomycotina Parasitic on plants as dikaryotic hyphae; haploid yeast

  • Cryptomycocolacomycetes (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Cryptomycocolacomycetes Parasitic; simple septate; contains 1 order. Order Cryptomycocolacales Parasitic on insects such as bark beetles, some are mycoparasitic; sometimes fuse with host cells using a small pore in colacosome; example genera include Cryptomycocolax and Colacosiphon.

  • cryptomycota (fungal group)

    fungus: Evolution and phylogeny of fungi: …fungi (referred to as the cryptomycota), members of which average about 3 to 5 μm (1 μm is about 0.000039 inch) in length, have cell walls lacking chitin, and possess a flagellum. Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal RNA in this clade suggest that it is an ancient fungal group.

  • Cryptomys damarensis (rodent)

    eusocial species: …rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and the Damaraland mole rat (Cryptomys damarensis), are the only vertebrates that engage in truly eusocial behaviour.

  • cryptoperthite (mineral)

    perthite: …distinguishable only microscopically, and in cryptoperthite the crystals are so small that the separation can be detected only by X-ray diffraction. Perthite was originally thought to be a single mineral, described at a locality near Perth, Ontario, from which its name is derived.

  • cryptophagid beetle (insect)

    Silken fungus beetle, (family Cryptophagidae), any of approximately 800 insect species (insect order Coleoptera) in which the adult beetles are less than 5 mm (15 inch) in length, are oval, are yellow or brown, and are covered with fine, silky hairs. These beetles usually feed on fungi and decaying

  • Cryptophagidae (insect)

    Silken fungus beetle, (family Cryptophagidae), any of approximately 800 insect species (insect order Coleoptera) in which the adult beetles are less than 5 mm (15 inch) in length, are oval, are yellow or brown, and are covered with fine, silky hairs. These beetles usually feed on fungi and decaying

  • Cryptophagus (insect)

    Silken fungus beetle, (family Cryptophagidae), any of approximately 800 insect species (insect order Coleoptera) in which the adult beetles are less than 5 mm (15 inch) in length, are oval, are yellow or brown, and are covered with fine, silky hairs. These beetles usually feed on fungi and decaying

  • Cryptophyceae (microorganism)

    Cryptomonad, (class Cryptophyceae), any of several genera of small biflagellate algae occurring in both fresh and salt water. Most cryptomonads contain pigments found elsewhere only in red algae and cyanobacteria. Some live harmlessly as zooxanthellae within other organisms. They reproduce

  • Cryptophyta (protist division)

    algae: Annotated classification: Division Cryptophyta Unicellular flagellates. Class Cryptophyceae Chlorophyll a, chlorophyllide c2, and phycobiliproteins; starch stored outside of chloroplast; mitochondria with flattened cristae; tubular hairs on one or both flagella; special ejectosomes in a furrow or gullet near base of flagella; cell covered with

  • cryptoporticus (architecture)

    Cryptoporticus, a covered gallery that was a characteristic feature of the ancient Roman palazzo. It was usually designed to provide shade and a cool place for walking. Such a gallery was part of the Roman emperor Diocletian’s Palace at Spalatro (Split, Croatia) and the House of the Cryptoporticus

  • Cryptoprocta ferox (mammal species, Cryptoprocta ferox)

    Fossa, (Cryptoprocta ferox), largest carnivore native to Madagascar, a catlike forest dweller of the civet family, Viverridae. The fossa grows to a length of about 1.5 metres (5 feet), including a tail about 66 centimetres (26 inches) long, and has short legs and sharp, retractile claws. The fur is

  • cryptorchidism (pathology)

    Cryptorchidism, disorder in which one or both of the testes do not descend spontaneously to the usual position in the scrotum. (The testes normally descend around the time of the male infant’s birth.) Usually only one testis fails to descend into the scrotum; the other, descended testis suffices to

  • cryptorchism (pathology)

    Cryptorchidism, disorder in which one or both of the testes do not descend spontaneously to the usual position in the scrotum. (The testes normally descend around the time of the male infant’s birth.) Usually only one testis fails to descend into the scrotum; the other, descended testis suffices to

  • cryptospore (biology)

    bryophyte: Evolution and paleontology: …occurs as fossils of liverwort cryptospores (sporelike structures) that span several genera, was found in rocks laid down between 473 million and 471 million years ago. The cryptospores are considered to be the first known terrestrial plants, and some scientists contend that the diversity of fossil cryptospores found in the…

  • cryptosporidiosis (pathology)

    zoonotic disease: Populations at increased risk: For example, cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which is transmitted to humans following contact with calves, their manure, or manure-contaminated objects or food, can occur as a coinfection with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Normally a self-limiting disease, in those with AIDS cryptosporidiosis can cause serious illness, sometimes…

  • Cryptosporidium (protozoan)

    protozoan: Protozoans and disease: The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of humans and other mammals that was discovered in the 1970s. It has a one-host life cycle and lives inside the cells lining the intestines and sometimes the lungs. Cryptosporidium carries out all the asexual reproductive stages typical of an…

  • Cryptostomata (fossil bryozoan order)

    Cryptostomata, order of bryozoans (small colonial animals) found as fossils in rocks of Ordovician to Permian age (between 488 million and 251 million years old). Many holes are exhibited, which probably contained individual animals of the colony. Cryptostome colonies consist of groups of short,

  • cryptostome (fossil bryozoan order)

    Cryptostomata, order of bryozoans (small colonial animals) found as fossils in rocks of Ordovician to Permian age (between 488 million and 251 million years old). Many holes are exhibited, which probably contained individual animals of the colony. Cryptostome colonies consist of groups of short,

  • Cryptostylis (orchid genus)

    orchid: Natural history: Australian orchids of the genus Cryptostylis are pollinated by ichneumon wasps of the genus Lissopimpla. The wasp, after backing into the stigma, attempts to copulate with the flower by bending its body into an arch, with the base of the lip of the flower held by the claspers of the…

  • cryptosystem (cryptology)

    Cipher, any method of transforming a message to conceal its meaning. The term is also used synonymously with ciphertext or cryptogram in reference to the encrypted form of the message. A brief treatment of ciphers follows. For full treatment, see cryptology. All ciphers involve either transposition

  • Cryptothallus (plant genus)

    bryophyte: General features: …the gametophyte of the liverwort Cryptothallus have chlorophyll. Many have other pigments, especially in the cellulosic cell walls but sometimes within the cytoplasm of the cells.

  • Cryptozoic Eon (geochronology)

    Cambrian Period: Types and distribution: …sometimes referred to as the Cryptozoic Eon), began with Earth’s formation some 4.6 billion years ago. The Precambrian also includes the first appearance of life on Earth, which is represented by rocks with mainly bacteria, algae, and similar primitive organisms. The younger, approximately half-billion-year-old Phanerozoic Eon, which began with the…

  • Crypturellus cinereus (bird)

    tinamou: Vocalizations: …the monosyllabic call of the cinereous tinamou (C. cinereus). The calls of the male and female are similar but discernibly different to the human ear. Other species sing a series of notes that ascend or descend in pitch. The female solitary tinamou (Tinamus solitarius) has a special call given during…

  • Crypturellus noctivagus (bird)

    tinamou: General features: …several species, such as the yellow-legged tinamou (Crypturellus noctivagus zabele).

  • Crypturellus obsoletus (bird)

    tinamou: Vocalizations: …astonishingly songlike sequence of the brown tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus)—astonishing because most relatives of the tinamous do not produce elaborate vocalizations—to the monosyllabic call of the cinereous tinamou (C. cinereus). The calls of the male and female are similar but discernibly different to the human ear. Other species sing a series…

  • Crypturellus variegatus (bird)

    tinamou: Reproduction: …four to one in the variegated tinamou (Crypturellus variegatus), but is about one to one in the ornate tinamou.

  • Crysler’s Farm, Battle of (United States history)

    Battle of Crysler’s Farm, (Nov. 11, 1813), British victory in the War of 1812 that helped to prevent the capture of Montreal by U.S. forces; it was fought between approximately 1,600 U.S. troops under General John Boyd and 600 British troops under Colonel J.W. Morrison. In October 1813 a U.S. force

  • crystal (physics)

    Crystal, any solid material in which the component atoms are arranged in a definite pattern and whose surface regularity reflects its internal symmetry. The definition of a solid appears obvious; a solid is generally thought of as being hard and firm. Upon inspection, however, the definition

  • crystal (glass)

    Flint glass, heavy and durable glass characterized by its brilliance, clarity, and highly refractive quality. Developed by George Ravenscroft (q.v.) in 1675, it ushered in a new style in glassmaking and eventually made England the leading glass producer of the world. Ravenscroft’s experimentation

  • crystal band-pass filter (electronics)

    band-pass filter: …the device is called a crystal band-pass filter or a monolithic filter.

  • Crystal Bridge Tropical Conservatory (conservatory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States)

    Oklahoma City: The contemporary city: …an amphitheatre, and the seven-story Crystal Bridge Tropical Conservatory. Other attractions include the Oklahoma City Zoo; the Harn Homestead, preserving an 1889 claim; the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame; and the Oklahoma City Museum of Art. Omniplex, northeast of downtown, contains museums of science, aerospace, Native American culture, and photography,…

  • crystal cameo (glass)

    Crystallo ceramie, cut crystal glass in which a decorative ceramic object is embedded. A Bohemian invention of the 18th century, cameo incrustation was taken up in Paris but had no vogue until Apsley Pellatt, an English glassmaker, developed a technique that resulted in specimens of genuine

  • Crystal Cathedral (building, Garden Grove, California, United States)

    Garden Grove: …most prominent features is the Crystal Cathedral (1980; designed by Philip Johnson and John Burgee), which has more than 10,000 panes of tempered silver glass. The Stanley Ranch Museum, centred on a home built in 1892, contains a park and several buildings of historical significance to the region. Inc. 1956.…

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