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  • Crocethia alba (bird)

    Sanderling, (Calidris alba; sometimes Crocethia alba), abundant shorebird, a worldwide species of sandpiper belonging to the family Scolopacidae (order Charadriiformes). Sanderlings nest on barrens near the sea around the North Pole, and they winter on sandy beaches virtually everywhere. About 20

  • Crocetti, Dino Paul (American singer and actor)

    Dean Martin, American singer and actor who was a member, with Jerry Lewis, of one of the most popular comedy teams on stage and television and in motion pictures for 10 years. Martin then moved on to a successful solo career as a singer, an actor, and a television variety show host. During his

  • crochet (zoology)

    lepidopteran: The larva, or caterpillar: The crochets on the prolegs allow the larva to hold onto surfaces. Body fluids forced into the proleg cause it to expand, extending the hooklets. After the proleg has been placed on the substrate, the fluids are retracted into the body and the elasticity of the…

  • crochet (craft)

    Crochet, craft that developed in the 19th century out of a form of chain-stitch embroidery done with a hook instead of a needle. In crochet work the hook is used, without a foundation material, to make a texture of looped and interlinked chains of thread. In the late 1840s crochet was introduced

  • Crochey (Pakistan)

    Karāchi, city and capital of Sindh province, southern Pakistan. It is the country’s largest city and principal seaport and is a major commercial and industrial centre. Karāchi is located on the coast of the Arabian Sea immediately northwest of the Indus River Delta. The city has been variously

  • Crochon, Jean-Pierre (French actor)

    Jean-Pierre Cassel, French motion-picture actor and comedian. Cassel was a bit player in movies, television, and on the stage when the American actor and dancer Gene Kelly discovered him for The Happy Road (1956). Later Cassel, a tall man with an expressive, mobile face, achieved fame as the comic

  • crocidolite (mineral)

    Crocidolite, a gray-blue to leek-green, fibrous form of the amphibole mineral riebeckite. It has a greater tensile strength than chrysotile asbestos but is much less heat-resistant, fusing to black glass at relatively low temperatures. The major commercial source is South Africa, where it occurs i

  • crocidolite cat’s-eye (gem)

    Tigereye, semiprecious quartz gem displaying chatoyancy, a vertical luminescent band like that of a cat’s eye. Veins of parallel, blue asbestos (crocidolite) fibres are first altered to iron oxides and then replaced by silica. The gem has a rich yellow to yellow-brown or brown colour and, when

  • Crocidura (mammal genus)

    White-toothed shrew, (genus Crocidura), any of 164 species of mouse-sized African and Eurasian insectivores making up nearly half of the more than 325 species of true shrews (family Soricidae). No other genus of mammals contains as many species. Seven were named during the last decade of the 20th

  • Crocidura levicula (mammal)

    white-toothed shrew: …of the smallest is the Sulawesi tiny shrew (C. levicula), which weighs about 4 grams and has a body 6 cm long and a 3- to 4-cm tail. The colour of the short, soft, and velvety fur ranges from gray to dark brown and blackish.

  • Crocidura Oliveri (mammal)

    white-toothed shrew: Among the largest is Olivier’s shrew (C. olivieri) of sub-Saharan Africa, which weighs 37 to 78 grams (1.3 to 2.8 ounces) and has a body 11 to 15 cm (4.3 to 5.9 inches) long and a tail of 8 to 10 cm. One of the smallest is the Sulawesi…

  • Crock of Gold, The (novel by Stephens)

    James Stephens: It was his next book, The Crock of Gold (1912), with its rich Celtic theme, that established his fame. Like many of his contemporaries, Stephens was greatly affected by the Easter Rising (1916), a rebellion of Irish republicans against the British, and his book The Insurrection in Dublin (1916) remains…

  • Crocker, Charles (American businessman)

    Charles Crocker, American businessman and banker, chief contractor in the building of the Central Pacific (later the Southern Pacific) Railroad. Crocker was forced to quit school at an early age to help support his family. After his family moved to Indiana, he did various jobs—farming, working in a

  • Crocker, Frankie (American disc jockey)

    Frankie Crocker: Frankie Crocker was the flamboyant kingpin of disco radio, though he had never singled out dance music as a specialty. He played rhythm and blues and jazz on the radio in his hometown of Buffalo, New York; in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and in Los Angeles before…

  • Crocker, Lucretia (American educator)

    Lucretia Crocker, American educator who worked zealously and effectively to give women an official role in educational decision making and to improve the quality of science education in Boston schools. Crocker graduated from the State Normal School in West Newton, Massachusetts, in 1850 and

  • Crocker, Thomas (American economist)

    environmental economics: Permit markets: …John Dales and American economist Thomas Crocker in the 1960s. Through this method, pollution permits are issued to firms in an industry where a reduction in emissions is desired. The permits give each firm the right to produce emissions according to the number of permits it holds. However, the total…

  • crocket (architecture)

    Crocket, in architecture, a small, independent, sharply projecting medieval ornament, usually occurring in rows, and decorated with foliage. In the late 12th century, when it first appeared, the crocket had the form of a ball-like bud, with a spiral outline, similar to an uncurling fern frond; but

  • Crockett, David (American frontiersman and politician)

    Davy Crockett, American frontiersman and politician who became a legendary figure. His father, having little means, hired him out to more prosperous backwoods farmers, and Davy’s schooling amounted to 100 days of tutoring with a neighbour. Successive moves west to middle Tennessee brought him close

  • Crockett, Davy (American frontiersman and politician)

    Davy Crockett, American frontiersman and politician who became a legendary figure. His father, having little means, hired him out to more prosperous backwoods farmers, and Davy’s schooling amounted to 100 days of tutoring with a neighbour. Successive moves west to middle Tennessee brought him close

  • Crockett, Samuel (Scottish writer)

    Samuel Rutherford Crockett, Scottish novelist and a leader of the Kailyard (kitchen garden) school (q.v.) of writers who depicted Scottish rural life in a sentimental fashion. After graduating from Edinburgh University in 1879 and studying for the ministry at New Colly, Edinburgh, in 1886 he became

  • Crockett, Samuel Rutherford (Scottish writer)

    Samuel Rutherford Crockett, Scottish novelist and a leader of the Kailyard (kitchen garden) school (q.v.) of writers who depicted Scottish rural life in a sentimental fashion. After graduating from Edinburgh University in 1879 and studying for the ministry at New Colly, Edinburgh, in 1886 he became

  • Crockford’s Club (English night club)

    William Crockford: Crockford’s Club, as it was called, quickly became the rage; almost every English celebrity from the Duke of Wellington on down hastened to become a member, as did many ambassadors and other distinguished foreigners. Hazard was the favourite game played at the club, and very…

  • Crockford, William (English businessman)

    William Crockford, founder and proprietor of a famous English gambling establishment. Crocker was the son of a fishmonger, and he himself practiced the trade in his youth. After winning a large sum of money (£100,000, according to one story) either at cards or by running a gambling establishment,

  • crocodile (reptile order, Crocodylia)

    Crocodile, (order Crocodylia, or Crocodilia), any of 23 species of generally large, ponderous, amphibious animals of lizard-like appearance and carnivorous habit belonging to the reptile order Crocodylia. Crocodiles have powerful jaws with many conical teeth and short legs with clawed webbed toes.

  • crocodile bird (bird)

    Crocodile bird, (Pluvianus aegyptius), shorebird belonging to the family Glareolidae (order Charadriiformes). The crocodile bird is a courser that derives its name from its frequent association with the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that crocodiles

  • Crocodile Dundee (film by Faiman [1986])

    Australia: Film: In 1986 the light comedy Crocodile Dundee, starring popular comedian Paul Hogan as a bushranger displaced to New York City, also became a major worldwide hit. As Australian cinema continued to mature, it produced such notable films as Proof (1991), Muriel’s Wedding (1994), Priscilla, Queen of the Desert (1994), Shine…

  • Crocodile Hunter, The (documentary)

    Steve Irwin: …result was a 10-hour program, The Crocodile Hunter, which first aired in Australia in 1992. Its immediate success led to additional documentaries and eventually to a regular series, which featured Irwin in new adventures both inside and outside Australia. In 1996 the program was picked up by the Discovery Channel…

  • crocodile icefish (fish)

    Icefish, any of several different fishes, among them certain members of the family Channichthyidae, or Chaenichthyidae (order Perciformes), sometimes called crocodile icefish because of the shape of the snout. They are also called white-blooded fish, because they lack red blood cells and

  • Crocodile River (river, Africa)

    Limpopo River: …Africa that rises as the Krokodil (Crocodile) River in the Witwatersrand, South Africa, and flows on a semicircular course first northeast and then east for about 1,100 miles (1,800 km) to the Indian Ocean. From its source the river flows northward to the Magaliesberg, cutting the Hartbeespoort Gap, which is…

  • Crocodile, The (work by Eri)

    Oceanic literature: The influence of oral traditions: …Eri in his first novel, The Crocodile (1970), tried to give a sense of the spiritual world of the precontact society of Papua New Guinea, and he used traditional myths, legends, and tales of magic to express the life of a village where the sacred and secular coexist.

  • Crocodile, The (French tennis player)

    René Lacoste, French tennis player who was a leading competitor in the late 1920s. As one of the powerful Four Musketeers (the others were Jean Borotra, Henri Cochet, and Jacques Brugnon), he helped France win its first Davis Cup in 1927, starting its six-year domination of the cup. Later on he was

  • Crocodilia (reptile order, Crocodylia)

    Crocodile, (order Crocodylia, or Crocodilia), any of 23 species of generally large, ponderous, amphibious animals of lizard-like appearance and carnivorous habit belonging to the reptile order Crocodylia. Crocodiles have powerful jaws with many conical teeth and short legs with clawed webbed toes.

  • crocodilian (reptile order, Crocodylia)

    Crocodile, (order Crocodylia, or Crocodilia), any of 23 species of generally large, ponderous, amphibious animals of lizard-like appearance and carnivorous habit belonging to the reptile order Crocodylia. Crocodiles have powerful jaws with many conical teeth and short legs with clawed webbed toes.

  • Crocodilidae (reptile family)

    crocodile: Annotated classification: Family Crocodylidae (true crocodiles) 3 genera and 14 species; teeth of upper and lower jaws form one interdigitating row when mouth is closed. Family Gavialidae (gavial) 1 genus and 1 species; extremely long snout, more than 22 teeth in each jaw; nasal bones separated from

  • Crocodilopolis (archaeological site, Egypt)

    Al-Fayyūm: …has many ancient sites, including Shedet (later Crocodilopolis), chief centre for worship of the crocodile-god Sebek, near which Al-Fayyūm town now lies. In the time of the Ptolemies, Setje was named Arsinoe after the wife of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Since pharaonic times Al-Fayyūm’s irrigation waters, its lifeline, have been controlled…

  • Crocodilus acutus (reptile)

    crocodile: Ecology: porosus) and the American crocodile (C. acutus) are capable of living in marine waters and may swim miles out to sea, although both species normally occupy brackish and freshwater habitats. Glands in the tongue allow the excretion of excess salt. The smooth-fronted caiman (Paleosuchus trigonatus) of South America…

  • Crocodilus niloticus (reptile)

    crocodile: Size range and diversity of structure: The largest representatives, the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) of Africa and the estuarine (or saltwater) crocodile (C. porosus) of Australia, attain lengths of up to 6 metres (20 feet) and weigh over 1,000 kg (about 2,200 pounds). Some fossil forms (such as Deinosuchus and Sarcosuchus) may have been between…

  • Crocodilus porosus (reptile)

    crocodile: Size range and diversity of structure: …niloticus) of Africa and the estuarine (or saltwater) crocodile (C. porosus) of Australia, attain lengths of up to 6 metres (20 feet) and weigh over 1,000 kg (about 2,200 pounds). Some fossil forms (such as Deinosuchus and Sarcosuchus) may have been between 10 and 12 metres (33 and 40 feet)…

  • Crocodylia (reptile order, Crocodylia)

    Crocodile, (order Crocodylia, or Crocodilia), any of 23 species of generally large, ponderous, amphibious animals of lizard-like appearance and carnivorous habit belonging to the reptile order Crocodylia. Crocodiles have powerful jaws with many conical teeth and short legs with clawed webbed toes.

  • Crocodylidae (reptile family)

    crocodile: Annotated classification: Family Crocodylidae (true crocodiles) 3 genera and 14 species; teeth of upper and lower jaws form one interdigitating row when mouth is closed. Family Gavialidae (gavial) 1 genus and 1 species; extremely long snout, more than 22 teeth in each jaw; nasal bones separated from

  • crocodylotarsan (reptile clade)

    Crurotarsan, any member of clade Crurotarsi, the group of archosaurs, or “ruling reptiles,” more closely related to modern crocodiles than modern birds. Although the group flourished during the Triassic Period (251 million to 200 million years ago) and most lineages have become extinct, some

  • Crocodylus acutus (reptile)

    crocodile: Ecology: porosus) and the American crocodile (C. acutus) are capable of living in marine waters and may swim miles out to sea, although both species normally occupy brackish and freshwater habitats. Glands in the tongue allow the excretion of excess salt. The smooth-fronted caiman (Paleosuchus trigonatus) of South America…

  • Crocodylus porosus (reptile)

    crocodile: Size range and diversity of structure: …niloticus) of Africa and the estuarine (or saltwater) crocodile (C. porosus) of Australia, attain lengths of up to 6 metres (20 feet) and weigh over 1,000 kg (about 2,200 pounds). Some fossil forms (such as Deinosuchus and Sarcosuchus) may have been between 10 and 12 metres (33 and 40 feet)…

  • crocoite (mineral)

    Crocoite, mineral consisting of lead chromate, PbCrO4, that is identical in composition to chrome yellow, the artificial product used in paint. The element chromium was discovered in this mineral in 1797. Crocoite occurs as long, well-developed, prismatic crystals; the most beautiful specimens are

  • Crocus (plant genus)

    Crocus, genus of about 75 low-growing cormose species of plants of the iris family (Iridaceae). Crocuses are native to the Alps, southern Europe, and the Mediterranean area and are widely grown for their cuplike blooms in early spring or fall. Spring-flowering plants have a long floral tube that

  • Crocus biflorus (plant)

    Crocus: …popular spring species, as is C. biflorus, tinged purple and with yellow throat, sometimes striped, from the Mediterranean.

  • Crocus Field, Battle of the (ancient Greek history)

    ancient Greek civilization: Macedonian supremacy in Greece: …however, completely reversed at the Battle of the Crocus Field. Philip, who had already perhaps been officially recognized as ruler of Thessaly before the Crocus Field, now took over Thessaly in the full sense, acquiring its ports and its revenues. A further asset was the Thessalian cavalry, which was used…

  • Crocus flavus (plant)

    Crocus: Dutch yellow crocus (C. flavus), from stony slopes in southeastern Europe, is another popular spring species, as is C. biflorus, tinged purple and with yellow throat, sometimes striped, from the Mediterranean.

  • Crocus sativus (plant)

    Crocus: …white, autumn-flowering saffron crocus (Crocus sativus) of western Asia. The alpine species, C. vernus, is the chief ancestor of the common garden crocus. Dutch yellow crocus (C. flavus), from stony slopes in southeastern Europe, is another popular spring species, as is C. biflorus, tinged purple and with yellow throat,…

  • Crocus vernus (plant)

    Crocus: The alpine species, C. vernus, is the chief ancestor of the common garden crocus. Dutch yellow crocus (C. flavus), from stony slopes in southeastern Europe, is another popular spring species, as is C. biflorus, tinged purple and with yellow throat, sometimes striped, from the Mediterranean.

  • Crocuta crocuta (mammal)

    Laughing hyena, African species of hyena

  • Croesus (king of Lydia)

    Croesus, last king of Lydia (reigned c. 560–546), who was renowned for his great wealth. He conquered the Greeks of mainland Ionia (on the west coast of Anatolia) and was in turn subjugated by the Persians. A member of the Mermnad dynasty, Croesus succeeded to the throne of his father, Alyattes,

  • croft (agriculture)

    Highland: …of the Highland council area, crofting (small-scale farming, largely for subsistence) and fishing dominated the traditional economy. However, during the Highland Clearances, landlords forcibly evicted thousands of crofters to create large estates devoted to extensive sheep farming. This was the beginning of rural depopulation, a trend that continues in much…

  • Croft, David (British television writer and producer)

    David Croft, (David John Sharland), British television writer and producer (born Sept. 7, 1922, Sandbanks, Dorset, Eng.—died Sept. 27, 2011, Tavira, Port.), created and co-wrote scores of episodes for some of Britain’s most beloved television sitcoms, including Dad’s Army (1968–77), It Ain’t Half

  • Croft, Sir Herbert (British writer)

    dictionary: From 1604 to 1828: …was the projected dictionary of Herbert Croft, in a manuscript of 200 quarto volumes, that was to be called The Oxford English Dictionary. Croft was, however, unable to get it into print.

  • Croft, William (English musician)

    William Croft, English organist and composer of church music in the Baroque style. Educated under John Blow, he was organist of St. Anne’s, Soho (1700–12), of the Chapel Royal from 1707, and of Westminster Abbey from 1708. In 1700 he collaborated with Blow, Jeremiah Clarke, Francis Piggott, and

  • Crofters’ War (British history)

    Scotland: The Highlands: …beginning in 1882 (the “Crofters’ War”), secured an act of 1886 that gave the crofters security of tenure and empowered a Crofters’ Commission to fix fair rents, though it did little to make more land available to crofters. (Further legislation in 1911 and 1919 helped to alleviate this problem.)…

  • crofting (agriculture)

    Highland: …of the Highland council area, crofting (small-scale farming, largely for subsistence) and fishing dominated the traditional economy. However, during the Highland Clearances, landlords forcibly evicted thousands of crofters to create large estates devoted to extensive sheep farming. This was the beginning of rural depopulation, a trend that continues in much…

  • Crofton, Sir John Wenman (British clinician)

    Sir John Wenman Crofton, British clinician (born March 27, 1912, Dublin, Ire.—died Nov. 3, 2009, Edinburgh, Scot.), became the first tuberculosis researcher to use a three-drug approach to the disease, which initially had proved resistant to drug treatment. His method remained the template not only

  • Crofton, Sir Walter (Irish penologist)

    prison: Emergence of the penitentiary: …in the mid-19th century by Sir Walter Crofton, the director of Irish prisons. In his program, known as the Irish system, prisoners progressed through three stages of confinement before they were returned to civilian life. The first portion of the sentence was served in isolation. After that, prisoners were assigned…

  • Crofts, Freeman Wills (British writer)

    Freeman Wills Crofts, internationally popular Irish author of detective novels whose tight plots and exact and scrupulous attention to detail set new standards in detective-fiction plotting. Educated in Belfast, Crofts was a railroad engineer in Northern Ireland (1899–1929). During a long

  • Crofts, James (English noble)

    James Scott, duke of Monmouth, claimant to the English throne who led an unsuccessful rebellion against King James II in 1685. Although the strikingly handsome Monmouth had the outward bearing of an ideal monarch, he lacked the intelligence and resolution needed for a determined struggle for power.

  • Croghan, George (American trader)

    George Croghan, American colonial trader who won the confidence of Indian tribes and negotiated numerous treaties of friendship with them in behalf of the British government. He served as deputy superintendent of northern Indian affairs for 16 years (1756–72). Migrating from Ireland in 1741,

  • Crohn disease (pathology)

    Crohn disease, chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, usually occurring in the terminal portion of the ileum, the region of the small intestine farthest from the stomach. Crohn disease was first described in 1904 by Polish surgeon Antoni Leśniowski. It was later named for American

  • Crohn’s disease (pathology)

    Crohn disease, chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, usually occurring in the terminal portion of the ileum, the region of the small intestine farthest from the stomach. Crohn disease was first described in 1904 by Polish surgeon Antoni Leśniowski. It was later named for American

  • Croisées des couleurs croisées (work by Pousseur)

    Henri Pousseur: …Croisées des couleurs croisées (1970; Crosses of Crossed Colours), for female voice, pianos, tape recorders, and two radio receivers; Invitation à l’Utopie (1971); Liège à Paris (1977; “Paris Cork”); Le Seconde Apothéose de Rameau (1981; “The Second Deification of Rameau”), for chamber orchestra; and Traverser la forêt (1987; “Crossing the…

  • Croissy, Charles Colbert, marquis de (French statesman)

    Charles Colbert, marquis de Croissy, secretary of state for foreign affairs from 1679 to 1696 who helped King Louis XIV develop the annexationist policy that involved France in the War of the Grand Alliance (1689–97) against the other major European powers. Colbert de Croissy was the younger

  • Croix (France)

    Croix, town, southwestern suburb of Roubaix, Nord département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France, on the Roubaix Canal and Marque River. The lordship and village of Croix existed before the 12th century and was mentioned in early archives. The Château de la Fontaine (17th century) was a fief

  • Croix de Castries, Christian Marie Ferdinand de la (French military officer)

    Christian de Castries, French army officer who commanded during World War II and later in the Indochina War. Castries was born into a distinguished military family and enlisted in the army at the age of 19. He was sent to the Saumur Cavalry School and in 1926 was commissioned an officer, but he

  • Croix de Feu (French political movement)

    Croix de Feu, (French: “Cross of Fire”) French political movement (1927–36). Originally an organization of World War I veterans, it espoused ultranationalistic views with vaguely fascist overtones. Under François de La Rocque (1885–1946), it organized popular demonstrations in reaction to the

  • Croix de Guerre (French military award)

    Croix de Guerre, (French: “War Cross”), French military decoration created in 1915 and 1939 to reward feats of bravery, either by individuals or groups, in the course of the two World Wars. This medal may be conferred on any member of the armed forces, on French citizens and foreigners who have

  • Croix, Charles Joseph de, Count von Clerfayt (Austrian field marshal)

    Charles de Croix, count von Clerfayt, Austrian field marshal who was one of the more successful of the Allied generals campaigning against Revolutionary France in the early 1790s. Clerfayt entered the Austrian army in 1753, distinguished himself during the Seven Years’ War (1756–63), and also took

  • Croizat, Leon (Venezuelan phytogeographer)

    biogeographic region: Dispersalist and vicariance biogeography: …’60s the maverick Venezuelan phytogeographer Leon Croizat strongly objected to this dispersalist explanation of species distribution, which he interpreted as ad hoc events used to explain the geographic distribution of living organisms. He maintained that the regularity in biogeographic relationships was too great to be explained by the chance crossings…

  • Croke Park Agreement (Irish history)

    Ireland: Labour and taxation: …a negotiation known as the Croke Park Agreement, which largely saved union jobs in favour of agreed-to wage and benefit cuts. Public-sector unions in Ireland are powerful, but, because of the social compact with the government, major public demonstrations and work stoppages were avoided even in the face of increasing…

  • Croker Island (island, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Croker Island, island in Northern Territory, Australia, lying 2 miles (3 km) across Bowen Strait in the Arafura Sea from Coburg Peninsula. Low and swampy, the island rises only to 50 feet (15 m). It is 30 miles (50 km) long by 4 miles (6 km) wide and has an area of 126 square miles (326 square km).

  • Croker, John Wilson (Irish author)

    John Wilson Croker, British politician and writer noted for his critical severity as a reviewer and for his rigid Tory principles. After graduating from Trinity College, Dublin, and studying law at Lincoln’s Inn, London, Croker was called to the Irish bar in 1802. He entered Parliament in 1807 and

  • Croker, Richard (American politician)

    Tammany Hall: Boss rule: In 1886 Richard Croker and his successor in 1902, Charles F. Murphy, carried on the facade of making liberal avowals and supporting progressive candidates for the top of the ticket but failed to curb corruption within the administrative machinery.

  • Croker, Thomas Crofton (Irish antiquary)

    Thomas Crofton Croker, Irish antiquary whose collections of songs and legends formed a storehouse for writers of the Irish literary revival. The son of an army major, Croker had little school education but did read widely while working in merchant trade. During rambles in southern Ireland from 1812

  • Croly, George (Irish writer and clergyman)

    George Croly, Irish writer and Anglican clergyman, perhaps best known as the author of several hymn lyrics, notably “Spirit of God, Descend upon My Heart.” After graduating from Trinity College, the University of Dublin (M.A., 1804; LL.D., 1831), Croly took holy orders and became a curate in the

  • Croly, Herbert David (American author and editor)

    Herbert David Croly, American author, editor, and political philosopher, founder of the magazine The New Republic. The son of widely known journalists, Croly was educated at Harvard University and spent his early adult years editing or contributing to architectural journals. In 1914 he founded the

  • Croly, Jane Cunningham (American journalist)

    Jane Cunningham Croly, English-born American journalist and clubwoman whose popular writings and socially conscious advocacy reflected, in different spheres, her belief that equal rights and economic independence for women would allow them to become fully responsible, productive citizens. Jane

  • Cromarty (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Cromarty, small burgh (town) and seaport, Highland council area, historic county of Cromartyshire, historic region of Ross and Cromarty, Scotland, on a landlocked harbour. During the 17th century Cromarty became the chief burgh of the patchwork county of Cromartyshire, comprising the amalgamated

  • Cromberger, Jacob (Spanish printer)

    typography: Type, from Gutenberg to the 18th century: In Spain, for example, Jacob Cromberger printed books in which the text was set in roman type and commentary on the text was set in Gothic.

  • Cromberger, Juan (Spanish printer)

    history of publishing: Other continental printers: In 1539 Juan Cromberger of Sevilla, whose father, Jacob, had set up a press there in 1502, secured the privilege for printing in Mexico and sent over one of his men, Juan Pablos. In that year, Pablos published the first printed book in the New World, Doctrina…

  • Crome Yellow (novel by Huxley)

    Crome Yellow, first novel by Aldous Huxley, published in 1921. The book is a social satire of the British literati in the period following World War I. Crome Yellow revolves around the hapless love affair of Denis Stone, a sensitive poet, and Anne Wimbush. Her uncle, Henry Wimbush, hosts a party at

  • Crome, John (British painter)

    John Crome, English landscape painter, founder and chief representative of the Norwich school. He is often called Old Crome, to distinguish him from his son, the painter and teacher John Bernay Crome (1794–1842). During his apprenticeship to a housepainter, Crome devoted what leisure time he had to

  • Crome, John Bernay (British painter)

    John Crome: …son, the painter and teacher John Bernay Crome (1794–1842).

  • Cromer, Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of (British diplomat)

    Evelyn Baring, 1st earl of Cromer, British administrator and diplomat whose 24-year rule in Egypt as British agent and consul general (1883–1907) profoundly influenced Egypt’s development as a modern state. Born of a family distinguished in politics and banking, Evelyn Baring received his training

  • Cromer, Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of, Viscount Errington of Hexham, Viscount Cromer, Baron Cromer of Cromer (British diplomat)

    Evelyn Baring, 1st earl of Cromer, British administrator and diplomat whose 24-year rule in Egypt as British agent and consul general (1883–1907) profoundly influenced Egypt’s development as a modern state. Born of a family distinguished in politics and banking, Evelyn Baring received his training

  • Cromerian Complex Interglacial Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Cromerian Interglacial Stage, major division of Pleistocene time and deposits in northern Europe (the Pleistocene Epoch dates from about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). The Cromerian Interglacial follows the Menapian Glacial Stage and precedes the Elster Glacial Stage; it is equated with the

  • Cromerian Interglacial Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Cromerian Interglacial Stage, major division of Pleistocene time and deposits in northern Europe (the Pleistocene Epoch dates from about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). The Cromerian Interglacial follows the Menapian Glacial Stage and precedes the Elster Glacial Stage; it is equated with the

  • cromlech (archaeology)

    Down: There a cromlech, or circle of stones, stands enclosed by a broad rampart; and near Newcastle there is a well-preserved souterrain, or underground chamber. At Saul, St. Patrick began his mission in Ireland (ad 432), and a monastic school flourished at Bangor from the 6th century. The…

  • Crommelynck, Fernand (Belgian dramatist)

    Fernand Crommelynck, Belgian playwright known for farces in which commonplace weaknesses are developed into monumental obsessions. Crommelynck, who was the child of a French mother and a Belgian father, came from a family connected with the theatre and was himself trained as an actor. After some

  • Crommyonian sow (Greek mythology)

    Theseus: After that Theseus dispatched the Crommyonian sow (or boar). Then from a cliff he flung the wicked Sciron, who had kicked his guests into the sea while they were washing his feet. Later he slew Procrustes, who fitted all comers to his iron bed by hacking or racking them to…

  • Crompton, Rookes Evelyn Bell (British inventor)

    Rookes Evelyn Bell Crompton, British inventor and pioneer in electrical development. After military service in India, where he had introduced steam-driven road transport, Crompton in 1875 became a partner in an engineering firm at Chelmsford, Essex, and soon broadened its activity to the

  • Crompton, Samuel (British inventor)

    Samuel Crompton, British inventor of the spinning mule, which permitted large-scale manufacture of high-quality thread and yarn. As a youth Crompton spun cotton on a spinning jenny for his family; its defects inspired him to try to invent a better device. In 1779, after devoting all his spare time

  • Crompton, William (British-American inventor)

    textile: Power-driven looms: William Crompton, an English machinist working in the machine shop attached to a cotton factory in Massachusetts, undertook the development of a loom that could weave fancy goods, patented in both the United States and England in 1837. The loom was later much improved by…

  • Cromwell (work by Hugo)

    Victor Hugo: Early years (1802–30): …1827 of his verse drama Cromwell. The subject of this play, with its near-contemporary overtones, is that of a national leader risen from the people who seeks to be crowned king. But the play’s reputation rested largely on the long, elaborate preface, in which Hugo proposed a doctrine of Romanticism…

  • Cromwell tank

    Cromwell tank, British medium tank that was used in the later stages of World War II. The Cromwell was designed to replace the Crusader tank (a lightweight cruiser, or cavalry, tank that had seen extensive use in North Africa) and was driven by a 600-horsepower Rolls-Royce Meteor engine. The

  • Cromwell VI

    Cromwell tank, British medium tank that was used in the later stages of World War II. The Cromwell was designed to replace the Crusader tank (a lightweight cruiser, or cavalry, tank that had seen extensive use in North Africa) and was driven by a 600-horsepower Rolls-Royce Meteor engine. The

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