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  • Camoens, Luis Vaz de (Portuguese poet)

    Luís de Camões, Portugal’s great national poet, author of the epic poem Os Lusíadas (1572; The Lusiads), which describes Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India. Camões had a permanent and unparalleled impact on Portuguese and Brazilian literature alike, due not only to his epic but

  • Camoëns, Luis Vaz de (Portuguese poet)

    Luís de Camões, Portugal’s great national poet, author of the epic poem Os Lusíadas (1572; The Lusiads), which describes Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India. Camões had a permanent and unparalleled impact on Portuguese and Brazilian literature alike, due not only to his epic but

  • Camões Prize (literary award)

    Rachel de Queiroz: …1993 she was awarded the Camões Prize, the most prestigious and remunerative award given for Portuguese-language literature. In 1977 de Queiroz became the first woman to be elected to the Brazilian Academy of Letters. She was a member of the Federal Council of Culture from 1967 to 1985 and in…

  • Camões, Luís de (Portuguese poet)

    Luís de Camões, Portugal’s great national poet, author of the epic poem Os Lusíadas (1572; The Lusiads), which describes Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India. Camões had a permanent and unparalleled impact on Portuguese and Brazilian literature alike, due not only to his epic but

  • Camões, Luís Vaz de (Portuguese poet)

    Luís de Camões, Portugal’s great national poet, author of the epic poem Os Lusíadas (1572; The Lusiads), which describes Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India. Camões had a permanent and unparalleled impact on Portuguese and Brazilian literature alike, due not only to his epic but

  • camogie (sport)

    Hurling, outdoor stick-and-ball game somewhat akin to field hockey and lacrosse and long recognized as the national pastime of Ireland. There is considerable reference to hurling (iomáin in Gaelic) in the oldest Irish manuscripts describing the game as far back as the 13th century bc; many heroes

  • camomile (plant)

    Chamomile, any of various daisylike plants of the aster family (Asteraceae). Chamomile tea, used as a tonic and an antiseptic and in many herbal remedies, is made from English, or Roman, chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) or German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla). Several species are cultivated as

  • Camonica, Val (valley, Italy)

    Alps: Settlement: …and in the Aosta and Camonica Valleys in Italy. The latter valley is noted for some 20,000 rock engravings that leave an invaluable picture of more than 2,000 years of habitation.

  • Camorra (Italian secret society)

    Camorra, Italian secret society of criminals that grew to power in Naples during the 19th century. Its origins are uncertain, but it may have existed in Spain as early as the 15th century and been transported thence to Italy. As the Camorra grew in influence and power, its operations included

  • Camorta (island, India)

    Nicobar Islands: …islands of Car Nicobar (north), Camorta (Kamorta) and Nancowry (central group), and Great Nicobar (south).

  • camouflage (biology)

    Concealing coloration, in animals, the use of biological coloration to mask location, identity, and movement, providing concealment from prey and protection from predators. Background matching is a type of concealment in which an organism avoids recognition by resembling its background in

  • camouflage (military tactic)

    Camouflage, in military science, the art and practice of concealment and visual deception in war. It is the means of defeating enemy observation by concealing or disguising installations, personnel, equipment, and activities. Conventional camouflage is restricted to passive defensive measures. The

  • cAMP (chemical compound)

    aging: Aging of neural and endocrine systems: A normal chemical in cells, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), is thought to be a transmitter of hormonal information across cell membranes. It may be possible to identify the specific sites in the membrane or the cell interior at which communication breaks down.

  • camp (military)

    Camp, in military service, an area for temporary or semipermanent sheltering of troops. In most usage the word camp signifies an installation more elaborate and durable than a bivouac but less so than a fort or billet. Historically, the camps of the Roman legions are especially noteworthy. However

  • CAMP (materials science)

    materials science: Photoresist films: …solution is to use the chemically amplified photoresist, or CAMP. The sensitivity of a photoresist is measured by its quantum efficiency, or the number of chemical events that occur when a photon is absorbed by the material. In CAMP material, the number of events is dramatically increased by subsequent chemical…

  • Camp Beauregard (military base, Mayfield, Kentucky, United States)

    Mayfield: …monument marks the site of Camp Beauregard (1861), a Confederate base during the American Civil War evacuated (1862) and then captured by Union forces after an epidemic killed more than 1,000 Confederate troops. Inc. 1823. Pop. (2000) 10,349; (2010) 10,024.

  • camp bed (furniture)

    furniture: Bed: …a campaign, however, collapsible iron camp beds were more practical. Napoleon owned several and died in one on St. Helena in 1821. As a furniture form, the iron bed was a neutral framework built to support bedclothes and equipped with stanchions (upright supports) for curtains; it was light, transportable, and…

  • Camp Concentration (novel by Disch)

    Michael Moorcock: Atrocity Exhibition (1970); Thomas Disch’s Camp Concentration (1968), about an American military camp where political prisoners are subjected to experiments to increase their intelligence; and Brian Aldiss’s Barefoot in the Head (1969), about the aftermath of a war in which Europe had been bombarded with psychedelic drugs.

  • Camp David (presidential retreat, Maryland, United States)

    Camp David, rural retreat of U.S. presidents in Catoctin Mountain Park, a unit of the National Park Service on a spur of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Frederick county, northern Maryland, U.S. Camp David lies just west of Thurmont and 64 miles (103 km) northwest of Washington, D.C. The retreat, which

  • Camp David Accords (Egyptian-Israeli history)

    Camp David Accords, agreements between Israel and Egypt signed on September 17, 1978, that led in the following year to a peace treaty between those two countries, the first such treaty between Israel and any of its Arab neighbours. Brokered by U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter between Israeli Prime Minister

  • Camp de la mort lente, Le (work by Bernard)

    Jean-Jacques Bernard: Bernard’s nondramatic writings include Le Camp de la mort lente (1944; The Camp of Slow Death), a description of the German concentration camp at Compiègne, in which he, as a Jew, was interned, and Mon ami le théâtre (1958; “My Friend the Theatre”).

  • Camp de Thiaroye (film by Sembène)

    Ousmane Sembène: Camp de Thiaroye (1987; “The Camp at Thiaroye”) depicts an event in 1944 in which French troops slaughtered a camp of rebellious African war veterans. Guelwaar (1993), a commentary on the fractious religious life of Senegal, tells of the confusion that arises when the bodies…

  • camp fever (pathology)

    typhus: Epidemic typhus: Epidemic typhus has also been called camp fever, jail fever, and war fever, names that suggest overcrowding, underwashing, and lowered standards of living. It is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and is conveyed from person to person by the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus.…

  • Camp Fire Boys and Girls (youth organization)

    camping: Youth camping: …Great Britain in 1910), the Camp Fire Boys and Girls (U.S., 1910), and the Girl Scouts (U.S., 1912; patterned after the Girl Guides). Most other organizations concerned with young people, such as the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), and many others, also undertook camp…

  • Camp Fire, Inc. (youth organization)

    camping: Youth camping: …Great Britain in 1910), the Camp Fire Boys and Girls (U.S., 1910), and the Girl Scouts (U.S., 1912; patterned after the Girl Guides). Most other organizations concerned with young people, such as the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), and many others, also undertook camp…

  • camp meeting (religion)

    Camp meeting, type of outdoor revival meeting that was held on the American frontier during the 19th century by various Protestant denominations. Camp meetings filled an ecclesiastical and spiritual need in the unchurched settlements as the population moved west. Their origin is obscure, but

  • Camp of Slow Death, The (work by Bernard)

    Jean-Jacques Bernard: Bernard’s nondramatic writings include Le Camp de la mort lente (1944; The Camp of Slow Death), a description of the German concentration camp at Compiègne, in which he, as a Jew, was interned, and Mon ami le théâtre (1958; “My Friend the Theatre”).

  • Camp Sumter (historic site, Andersonville, Georgia, United States)

    Andersonville National Historic Site, Confederate military prison for captured Union soldiers during the American Civil War, located in Andersonville, southwest-central Georgia, U.S. It was established as a national historic site in 1970 to honour all U.S. prisoners of war. The site preserves the

  • cAMP system (biochemistry)

    nervous system: Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators: Another system is the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) system. In this chain reaction, receptor proteins activate linking proteins, which then activate the enzymes that synthesize cAMP. The cAMP molecules activate other enzymes that, in turn, activate ion channels.

  • Camp X (military training school, Ontario, Canada)

    Camp X, training school for covert agents and radio communications centre in Canada that operated close to Whitby, Ontario, during World War II. It was the first such purpose-built facility constructed in North America. Known officially as STS (Special Training School) 103, Camp X was one of

  • Camp, Madeleine L’Engle (American author)

    Madeleine L’Engle, American author of imaginative juvenile literature that is often concerned with such themes as the conflict of good and evil, the nature of God, individual responsibility, and family life. L’Engle attended boarding schools in Europe and the United States and graduated with

  • Camp, Marie-Thérèse de (British actress)

    Maria Theresa Kemble, English singer, dancer, and actress who married the actor and theatrical manager Charles Kemble. The daughter of a French family of musicians, Maria Theresa was taken to England as a small child. In 1786 she found an acting part at the Drury Lane Theatre. She continued to play

  • Camp, Maxime du (French writer and photographer)

    Maxime Du Camp, French writer and photographer who is chiefly known for his vivid accounts of 19th-century French life. He was a close friend of the novelist Gustave Flaubert. An outgoing, adventurous man, Du Camp also pioneered in photography and published works in virtually every literary genre.

  • Camp, Walter (American sportsman)

    Walter Camp, sports authority best known for having selected the earliest All-America teams in American college gridiron football. More important, Camp played a leading role in developing the American game as distinct from rugby football. As an undergraduate and then as a medical student at Yale

  • Camp, Walter Chauncey (American sportsman)

    Walter Camp, sports authority best known for having selected the earliest All-America teams in American college gridiron football. More important, Camp played a leading role in developing the American game as distinct from rugby football. As an undergraduate and then as a medical student at Yale

  • Campa (ancient city, India)

    Champa, city of ancient India, the capital of the kingdom of Anga (a region corresponding with the eastern part of present-day Bihar state). It is identified with two villages of that name on the south bank of the Ganges (Ganga) River east of Munger. Champa is often mentioned in early Buddhist

  • Campa Arawak (people)

    Arawak: These Campa Arawak, however, remained isolated from influences of the Andean civilizations.

  • Campagna di Roma (plain, Italy)

    Campagna di Roma, lowland plain surrounding the city of Rome in Lazio (Latium) regione, central Italy. Occupying an area of about 800 square miles (2,100 square km), it is bounded on the northwest by the Tolfa and Sabatini mountains, on the northeast by the Sabini Mountains, on the southeast by

  • Campagna vase

    pottery: Porcelain: …Campaña vases (more properly spelled Campagna), distantly derived from Italianate copies of the Greek krater, were often decorated with landscapes by the brothers Robert and John Brewer and others. The Brewers were pupils of the topographical painter Paul Sandby.

  • campagne (equestrian training)

    dressage: …divided into elementary training (campagne) and the much more advanced haute école. Elementary training consists of teaching the young horse obedience, balance, and relaxation. Starting with the horse on a longe line, or training rope, and then under the saddle, the horse is taught basic and natural movements, especially…

  • Campagnola, Domenico (Italian artist)

    Domenico Campagnola, Italian painter and printmaker and one of the first professional draftsmen. A pupil of the Paduan engraver Giulio Campagnola, Domenico did not follow Giulio’s stipple technique in his own work, preferring a looser touch and picturesque effect. Early in his career, he is known

  • Campagnola, Giulio (Italian artist)

    Giulio Campagnola, Italian painter and engraver who anticipated by over two centuries the development of stipple engraving. Much of his significance derives from this technique: a system of delicate flicks and dots with the engraving tool, by which he achieved subtle nuances in his modeling. His

  • campaign (politics)

    interest group: Common characteristics and the importance of interest groups: …of financial support for election campaigns. In the United States the development of political action committees (PACs) after World War II was geared to providing money to candidates running for public office. In western Europe, campaign funding is provided by many interest groups, particularly trade unions for social democratic parties…

  • Campaign ’08 (United States government)

    On November 4, 2008, after a campaign that lasted nearly two years, Americans elected Illinois senator Barack Obama their 44th president. The result was historic, as Obama, a first-term U.S. senator, became, when he was inaugurated on January 20, 2009, the country’s first African American

  • Campaign ’12 (United States government)

    American voters went to the polls on November 6, 2012, to determine—for the 57th time—their country’s president for the next four years. Incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama’s reelection bid was, from the outset, expected to be closely contested as the United States faced a number of

  • Campaign 2008 (United States government)

    On November 4, 2008, after a campaign that lasted nearly two years, Americans elected Illinois senator Barack Obama their 44th president. The result was historic, as Obama, a first-term U.S. senator, became, when he was inaugurated on January 20, 2009, the country’s first African American

  • Campaign 2012 (United States government)

    American voters went to the polls on November 6, 2012, to determine—for the 57th time—their country’s president for the next four years. Incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama’s reelection bid was, from the outset, expected to be closely contested as the United States faced a number of

  • campaign commercial (politics)

    Television in the United States: The political commercial: Some optimists in the early 1950s saw television as a potentially powerful force in achieving the Jeffersonian ideal of an informed electorate. The medium held the possibility of educating the entire voting population on the candidates’ stance on the issues of the day. Citizens…

  • campaign finance (politics)

    Campaign finance, raising and spending of money intended to influence a political vote, such as the election of a candidate or a referendum. Political parties and candidates require money to publicize their electoral platforms and to pursue effective campaigns. Attempts to regulate campaign finance

  • campaign finance reform (American politics)

    John McCain: Political career: …McCain became a champion of campaign finance reform; he collaborated with the liberal Democratic senator Russ Feingold of Wisconsin, and, after a seven-year battle, the pair saw the McCain-Feingold Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act signed into law in 2002. The legislation, which restricted the political parties’ use of funds not subject…

  • campaign furniture (furniture)

    Campaign furniture, in Europe, variety of portable furniture made for travel. Most of the surviving examples date from the 19th century and were made for Napoleon’s campaigns; they include such items as small chests, folding seats, and washstands in three tiers resting on metal supports that could

  • Campaign of France, 1814 (work by Meissonier)

    Ernest Meissonier: …III at Solferino (1863) and 1814 (1864), both of which celebrate heroic military campaigns, but he also captured the horrors of conflict in works such as Remembrance of Civil War (1848–49), which depicts the moment when the Parisian insurgents of 1848 were slaughtered on barracades by the Republican Guard.

  • Campaign Reform Act (United States [2002])

    Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), U.S. legislation that was the first major amendment of the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (FECA) since the extensive 1974 amendments that followed the Watergate scandal. The primary purpose of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) was to

  • Campaign Talk: Why Elections Are Good for Us (work by Hart)

    Roderick P. Hart: In Campaign Talk, Hart employed his DICTION program to analyze the political voices of presidential candidates, journalists, and citizens as they appeared in campaign discourse (speeches, debates, television advertisements, television and print news coverage, and letters to the editor in local newspapers) over the course of…

  • Campaign, The (work by Fuentes)

    Latin American literature: Post-boom writers: …instance, published La campaña (1990; The Campaign), an excellent novel about the independence period in Latin America, and Vargas Llosa wrote La fiesta del chivo (2000; The Feast of the Goat), dealing with Rafael Trujillo’s dictatorship in the Dominican Republic. Both are remarkable not only because of their literary quality…

  • Campaign, The (film by Roach [2012])

    Will Ferrell: …Mexican telenovelas; the political satire The Campaign (2012); and Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues (2013). The production company was also behind Funny or Die (funnyordie.com), a Web site that first garnered notice with a short video of Ferrell being intimidated by his landlady, a beer-swigging potty-mouthed toddler.

  • Campaign, The (poem by Addison)

    Joseph Addison: Government service: The Campaign, addressed to Marlborough, was published on December 14 (though dated 1705). By its rejection of conventional classical imagery and its effective portrayal of Marlborough’s military genius, it was an immediate success that perfectly expressed the nation’s great hour of victory.

  • campaign-finance law, United States

    United States campaign-finance laws, in the United States, laws that regulate the amounts of money political candidates or parties may receive from individuals or organizations and the cumulative amounts that individuals or organizations can donate. Such laws also define who is eligible to make

  • Campaigne, Philippe de (French painter)

    Western painting: France: But Philippe de Campaigne evolved a grave and sober Baroque style that had its roots in the paintings of Rubens and Van Dyck rather than in Italy. Clear lighting and cool colours with an austere naturalism provided an alternative to the intellectual and archaeological classicism of…

  • Campaldino, Battle of (Italian history)

    Battle of Campaldino, (June 11, 1289), in Italian history, a battle between Florence and Arezzo, an episode in the struggles among rival Tuscan towns and in the contest between the Guelfs and Ghibellines (pro-papal and pro-imperial parties in Italy). The battle marked the beginning of the hegemony

  • Campan, Jeanne-Louise-Henriette Genest (French educator)

    Jeanne-Louise-Henriette Genest Campan, preeminent educator of Napoleonic France and champion of a broader curriculum for women students. Madame Campan served as lady-in-waiting to Marie-Antoinette from 1774 to 1792. But it was her friendship with Napoleon and especially her reputation as a teacher

  • campana (musical instrument)

    Bell, hollow vessel usually of metal, but sometimes of horn, wood, glass, or clay, struck near the rim by an interior clapper or exterior hammer or mallet to produce a ringing sound. Bells may be categorized as idiophones, instruments sounding by the vibration of resonant solid material, and more

  • Campana vase

    pottery: Porcelain: …Campaña vases (more properly spelled Campagna), distantly derived from Italianate copies of the Greek krater, were often decorated with landscapes by the brothers Robert and John Brewer and others. The Brewers were pupils of the topographical painter Paul Sandby.

  • Campana, Dino (Italian poet)

    Dino Campana, innovative Italian lyric poet who is almost as well known for his tragic, flamboyant personality as for his controversial writings. Campana began to show signs of mental instability in his early teens. He studied chemistry intermittently at the University of Bologna but failed to

  • campaña, La (work by Fuentes)

    Latin American literature: Post-boom writers: …instance, published La campaña (1990; The Campaign), an excellent novel about the independence period in Latin America, and Vargas Llosa wrote La fiesta del chivo (2000; The Feast of the Goat), dealing with Rafael Trujillo’s dictatorship in the Dominican Republic. Both are remarkable not only because of their literary quality…

  • Campaña, Pedro (Flemish painter)

    Pieter de Kempeneer, Flemish religious painter and designer of tapestries, chiefly active in Sevilla, Spain, where he was called Pedro Campaña. By 1537 he had settled in Sevilla and apparently remained there until shortly before 1563, when he was appointed director of the tapestry factory in

  • Campanella’s City of the Sun (work by Campanella)

    Tommaso Campanella: …wrote his celebrated utopian work, La città del sole. His ideal commonwealth was to be governed by men enlightened by reason, with every man’s work designed to contribute to the good of the community. Private property, undue wealth, and poverty would be nonexistent, for no man would be permitted more…

  • Campanella, Campy (American athlete)

    Roy Campanella, American baseball player, a professional National League catcher for the Brooklyn Dodgers, whose career was cut short as a result of an automobile accident. Campanella began playing semiprofessional baseball on the Philadelphia sandlots when he was 13, and at 15 he was signed to

  • Campanella, Giovanni Domenico (Italian philosopher and poet)

    Tommaso Campanella, Italian philosopher and writer who sought to reconcile Renaissance humanism with Roman Catholic theology. He is best remembered for his socialistic work La città del sole (1602; “The City of the Sun”), written while he was a prisoner of the Spanish crown (1599–1626). Entering

  • Campanella, Juan José (Argentine film director)
  • campanella, La (work by Paganini)

    La campanella, (Italian: “The Little Bell”) final movement of the Violin Concerto No. 2 in B Minor, Op. 7, by Italian composer and violinist Niccolò Paganini, renowned for its intricate and technically demanding solo passages and for the bell-like effects featured in both the solo and orchestral

  • Campanella, Roy (American athlete)

    Roy Campanella, American baseball player, a professional National League catcher for the Brooklyn Dodgers, whose career was cut short as a result of an automobile accident. Campanella began playing semiprofessional baseball on the Philadelphia sandlots when he was 13, and at 15 he was signed to

  • Campanella, Tommaso (Italian philosopher and poet)

    Tommaso Campanella, Italian philosopher and writer who sought to reconcile Renaissance humanism with Roman Catholic theology. He is best remembered for his socialistic work La città del sole (1602; “The City of the Sun”), written while he was a prisoner of the Spanish crown (1599–1626). Entering

  • Campanelli, Pauline Eblé (American painter)

    Pauline Eblé Campanelli, American artist (born Jan. 25, 1943, Bronx, N.Y.—died Nov. 29, 2001, Pohatcong township, N.J.), painted superrealist still lifes that, while never of much interest to prestigious, expensive galleries and art museums, sold by the thousands through catalogs, furniture s

  • Campani, Alessandro (American baseball executive)

    Al Campanis, Greek-born American baseball executive whose 44-year career with the Dodgers (in both Brooklyn, N.Y., and Los Angeles), which included the 1981 World Series championship, was ended in 1987 by televised comments in which he opined that blacks did not have managerial ability (b. Nov. 2,

  • Campani, Giuseppe (Italian inventor)

    Giuseppe Campani, Italian optical-instrument maker who invented a lens-grinding lathe. Of peasant origin, Campani as a young man studied in Rome. There he learned to grind lenses and, with his two brothers, invented a silent night clock that, when presented to Pope Alexander VII, brought him fame.

  • Campania (region, Italy)

    Campania, regione, southern Italy, on the Tyrrhenian Sea between the Garigliano (Lower Liri) River (north) and the Gulf of Policastro (south). The region comprises the provinces of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta, Napoli, and Salerno. Campania is mountainous and hilly, the Neapolitan Apennines in the

  • Campanian Apennines (mountain range, Italy)

    Apennine Range: Physiography: …feet at Mount Corno; the Campanian Apennines, 7,352 feet at Mount Meta; the Lucanian Apennines, 7,438 feet at Mount Pollino; the Calabrian Apennines, 6,414 feet at Mount Alto; and, finally, the Sicilian Range, 10,902 feet at Mount Etna. The ranges in Puglia (the “boot heel” of the peninsula)

  • Campanian Stage (geology)

    Campanian Stage, fifth of six main divisions (in ascending order) in the Upper Cretaceous Series, representing rocks deposited worldwide during the Campanian Age, which occurred 83.6 million to 72.1 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period. Rocks of the Campanian Stage overlie those of the

  • campaniform organ (insect anatomy)

    insect: Touch: …organs in the cuticle called campaniform organs detect bending strains in the integument. Such organs exist in the wings and enable the insect to control flight movements. Campaniform organs, well developed in small clublike halteres (the modified hind wings of dipterans), serve as strain gauges and enable the fly to…

  • campanile (architecture)

    Campanile, bell tower, usually built beside or attached to a church; the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. The earliest campaniles, variously dated from the 6th to the 10th century, were plain round towers with a few small, round-arched openings grouped near the top.

  • Campanile (tower, Venice, Italy)

    San Marco Basilica: The Campanile, separated from the church, was originally begun under the doge Pietro Tribuno (died 912). It was adapted into its present familiar form early in the 16th century. In 1902 it collapsed, but by 1912 it had been rebuilt on its original site.

  • campanilismo (sociology)

    Italy: Characteristics of the period: …down the overwhelming spirit of campanilismo (local patriotism; the spirit of “our campanile is taller than yours”) during the 14th and 15th centuries. Only a minority of people living at that time could ever have heard the word “Italia,” and loyalties were predominantly provincial. It is true that among certain…

  • Campanini, Barberina (dancer)

    Western dance: Early virtuosos of the dance: …surpassed by the Italian dancer Barberina Campanini (1721–99), whose fame is less adequately recorded in dance history. By 1739, she had taken Paris by storm, demonstrating jumps and turns executed with a speed and brilliance hitherto unknown. She offered ample proof that the Italian school of dance teaching had by…

  • Campanis, Al (American baseball executive)

    Al Campanis, Greek-born American baseball executive whose 44-year career with the Dodgers (in both Brooklyn, N.Y., and Los Angeles), which included the 1981 World Series championship, was ended in 1987 by televised comments in which he opined that blacks did not have managerial ability (b. Nov. 2,

  • Campanis, Alexander Sebastian (American baseball executive)

    Al Campanis, Greek-born American baseball executive whose 44-year career with the Dodgers (in both Brooklyn, N.Y., and Los Angeles), which included the 1981 World Series championship, was ended in 1987 by televised comments in which he opined that blacks did not have managerial ability (b. Nov. 2,

  • campanology (English music)

    Change ringing, traditional English art of ringing a set of tower bells in an intricate series of changes, or mathematical permutations (different orderings in the ringing sequence), by pulling ropes attached to bell wheels. On five, six, or seven bells, a peal is the maximum number of permutations

  • Campantar (Hindu poet)

    South Asian arts: Bhakti poetry: …important Nāyaṉārs were Appar and Campantar, in the 7th century, and Cuntarar, in the 8th. Appar, a self-mortifying Jain ascetic before he became a Śaiva saint, sings of his conversion to a religion of love, surprised by the Lord stealing into his heart. After him, the term tēvāram (“private worship”)…

  • Campanula (plant)

    Bellflower, (genus Campanula), any of around 420 annual, perennial, and biennial herbs that compose the genus Campanula (family Campanulaceae). Bellflowers have characteristically bell-shaped, usually blue flowers, and many are cultivated as garden ornamentals. They are native mainly to northern

  • Campanula americana (plant)

    bellflower: Tall bellflower, or American bellflower (Campanula americana, formerly Campanulastrum americanum), is found in the moist woodlands of North America and has flowering spikes that may reach 2 m (6 feet) high with saucer-shaped flowers bearing long curved styles. Tussock bellflower, or Carpathian harebell (C. carpatica),…

  • Campanula carpatica (plant)

    bellflower: Tussock bellflower, or Carpathian harebell (C. carpatica), has lavender to white bowl-shaped, long-stalked flowers and forms clumps in eastern European meadows and woodlands. Fairy thimbles (C. cochleariifolia), named for its deep nodding blue to white bells, forms loosely open mats on alpine screes. Bethlehem stars…

  • Campanula cochleariifolia (herb)

    bellflower: Fairy thimbles (C. cochleariifolia), named for its deep nodding blue to white bells, forms loosely open mats on alpine screes. Bethlehem stars (C. isophylla), a trailing Italian species often grown as a pot plant, bears sprays of star-shaped violet, blue, or white flowers. Canterbury bell…

  • Campanula isophylla (plant)

    bellflower: Bethlehem stars (C. isophylla), a trailing Italian species often grown as a pot plant, bears sprays of star-shaped violet, blue, or white flowers. Canterbury bell (C. medium), a southern European biennial, has large pink, blue, or white spikes of cup-shaped flowers. Peach-leaved bellflower (C. persicifolia),…

  • Campanula medium (plant)

    bellflower: Canterbury bell (C. medium), a southern European biennial, has large pink, blue, or white spikes of cup-shaped flowers. Peach-leaved bellflower (C. persicifolia), found in Eurasian woodlands and meadows, produces slender-stemmed spikes, 30 to 90 cm (12 to 35 inches) tall, of long-stalked outward-facing bells. Rampion…

  • Campanula persicifolia (plant)

    bellflower: Peach-leaved bellflower (C. persicifolia), found in Eurasian woodlands and meadows, produces slender-stemmed spikes, 30 to 90 cm (12 to 35 inches) tall, of long-stalked outward-facing bells. Rampion (C. rapunculus) is a Eurasian and North African biennial grown for its turniplike roots and leaves, which are…

  • Campanula rapunculoides (plant)

    bellflower: Rover, or creeping, bellflower (C. rapunculoides) is a European plant that has become naturalized in North America and is named for its spreading rhizomes. Throatwort, or bats-in-the-belfry (C. trachelium), a coarse, erect, hairy Eurasian plant also naturalized in North America, bears clusters of lilac-coloured funnel-shaped…

  • Campanula rapunculus (plant species)

    bellflower: Rampion (C. rapunculus) is a Eurasian and North African biennial grown for its turniplike roots and leaves, which are eaten in salads for their biting flavour. It produces ascending clusters of long-stalked lilac bells and has basal, broadly oval leaves that form a rosette around…

  • Campanula rotundifolia (plant)

    Harebell, (Campanula rotundifolia), widespread, slender-stemmed perennial of the family Campanulaceae. The harebell bears nodding blue bell-like flowers. It is native to woods, meadows, and cliffsides of northern Eurasia and North America and of mountains farther south. There are more than 30 named

  • Campanula trachelium (plant)

    bellflower: Throatwort, or bats-in-the-belfry (C. trachelium), a coarse, erect, hairy Eurasian plant also naturalized in North America, bears clusters of lilac-coloured funnel-shaped flowers. Other cultivated Campanula species from Europe include Adria bellflower (C. garganica, sometimes classified as a variety of C. elatines); clustered bellflower (C. glomerata);…

  • Campanulaceae (plant family)

    Campanulaceae, the bellflower family, containing 84 genera and about 2,400 species of mostly herbaceous (nonwoody) plants, many with showy, blue, bell-like flowers. The plants are mainly important as garden ornamentals. They are mostly native to cool, temperate areas but also occur on mountains in

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