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  • common bile duct (anatomy)

    human digestive system: Anatomy: The resulting common bile duct progresses downward through the head of the pancreas. There it is usually joined by the main pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung) at a slightly dilated area called the hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater), which lies in the wall of the inner curve…

  • common birch (tree)

    Fagales: Betulaceae: pendula (silver birches) and B. nana (dwarf birches) are circumboreal (i.e., extending to the northern limit of the tree line); the two species very nearly coincide in their ranges, with the dwarf birches extending farther into the Arctic. They now occupy most areas that were glaciated…

  • common black hawk (bird)

    hawk: …Mexico to Argentina; the smaller common, or Mexican, black hawk (B. anthracinus) has some white markings and ranges from northern South America into the southwestern United States. Both species feed on frogs, fish, and other aquatic creatures.

  • common bladderwrack (brown algae)
  • common blue violet (plant)

    Viola: …North American species are the common blue, or meadow, violet (V. papilionacea) and the bird’s-foot violet (V. pedata). The common blue violet grows up to 20 cm (8 inches) tall and has heart-shaped leaves with finely toothed margins. The flowers range in colour from light to deep violet, or they…

  • common bottlenose dolphin (mammal)

    dolphin: …species are the common and bottlenose dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Tursiops truncatus, respectively). The bottlenose, characterized by a “built-in smile” formed by the curvature of its mouth, has become a familiar performer in oceanariums. It has also become the subject of scientific studies because of its intelligence and ability to…

  • common box (tree)

    boxwood: …the widely grown boxwood: the common, or American, box (B. sempervirens), the Japanese box (B. microphylla), and the Korean box (B. sinica). See also boxwood.

  • common box turtle (reptile)

    box turtle: The eastern box turtle (T. carolina carolina) lays a maximum of eight eggs in a clutch, although clutches of three or four eggs are more typical.

  • common brush-tailed possum (marsupial)

    marsupial: Paleontology and recent history: In Australia the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is an example of a marsupial that has readily adapted to changing conditions brought about by people and is even plentiful in some urban centres. Its adaptability to different locales is attributed to its tolerance for a variety of food, including…

  • common buckthorn (plant)

    buckthorn: The common, or European, buckthorn (R. cathartica), about 3.5 m (12 feet) high, native to Eurasia, is widely naturalized. It has dark bark, often bears spines, and has dark green, oval leaves. The bark yields a yellow dye, and the small black fruits provide a purgative.…

  • common buckwheat (plant)

    Buckwheat, (Fagopyrum esculentum), herbaceous plant of the family Polygonaceae and its edible seeds. Buckwheat is a staple pseudograin crop in some parts of eastern Europe, where the hulled kernels, or groats, are prepared as kasha, cooked and served much like rice. While buckwheat flour is

  • common bugleweed (plant)

    bugleweed: Carpet, or common, bugleweed (Ajuga reptans) forms colonies of rosettes of dark green oval leaves in damp meadows or woodlands. It produces short spikes of blue, or occasionally pink or white, flowers on stems up to 30 cm (12 inches) long and uses stolons (runners)…

  • common burdock (plant)

    burdock: Common, or lesser, burdock (Arctium minus) is a weed in North American pastures and hayfields and can be grown as a vegetable. The plant forms a low rosette during its first year and develops a tall branched stem during its second year. The leaves have a wavy…

  • common bushtit (bird)

    Bushtit, (Psaltriparus minimus), gray bird of western North America, belonging to the songbird family Aegithalidae (order Passeriformes). The common bushtit is 11 cm (4.5 inches) long and ranges from British Columbia to Guatemala. This tiny, drab bird is common in oak scrub, chaparral, piñon, and

  • Common Business-Oriented Language (computer language)

    COBOL, High-level computer programming language, one of the first widely used languages and for many years the most popular language in the business community. It developed from the 1959 Conference on Data Systems Languages, a joint initiative between the U.S. government and the private sector.

  • common but differentiated responsibilities (international environmental law)

    Common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), principle of international environmental law establishing that all states are responsible for addressing global environmental destruction yet not equally responsible. The principle balances, on the one hand, the need for all states to take

  • common button quail (bird)

    button quail: In the barred, or common, button quail (T. suscitator) of India and eastward, females are black-throated in breeding season. The northernmost species, ranging from India to Manchuria, is T. tanki, called yellow-legged, Indian, or Chinese button quail.

  • common buttonbush (plant)

    buttonbush: In North America the common buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) is the best-known member of the genus and can reach up to 6 metres (20 feet) high in marshes and swamps.

  • common buzzard (bird)

    buzzard: The best-known species, the common buzzard (Buteo buteo), is found from Scandinavia south to the Mediterranean. Other species range over much of North America, Eurasia, and northern Africa. See also hawk.

  • common caracara (bird)

    caracara: …crested caracara (Caracara plancus or Polyborus plancus) occurs from Florida, Texas, Arizona, Cuba, and the Isle of Pines south to the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego. Some authorities classify the entire population of caracaras within this range as crested caracaras, dividing them into several subspecies, while others define only…

  • common carotid artery (anatomy)

    carotid artery: Of the two common carotid arteries, which extend headward on each side of the neck, the left originates in the arch of the aorta over the heart; the right originates in the brachiocephalic trunk, the largest branch from the arch of the aorta. Each common carotid artery divides…

  • common carp (fish species)

    Carp, (usually Cyprinus carpio), hardy greenish brown fish of the family Cyprinidae. It is native to Asia but has been introduced into Europe and North America and elsewhere. A large-scaled fish with two barbels on each side of its upper jaw, the carp lives alone or in small schools in quiet,

  • common carrier (law)

    carriage of goods: Common-law common carrier: In English and American law, common carriers are distinguished from other carriers. A common carrier is one who holds himself out as being ready to carry goods for the public at large for hire or reward. In England carriers of goods by land…

  • common cassowary (bird)

    cassowary: The common, or southern, cassowary, Casuarius casuarius, which inhabits New Guinea, nearby islands, and Australia, is the largest—almost 1.5 metres (5 feet) tall—and has two long red wattles on the throat. The dwarf cassowary (C. bennetti) is native to higher elevations of New Guinea and can…

  • common catalpa (tree)
  • common cattail (plant)

    cattail: …long flat leaves of the common cattail (Typha latifolia) are used especially for making mats and chair seats. The starchy rhizomes are eaten in some places.

  • Common Celtic

    Celtic languages: Common Celtic: The reconstruction of Common Celtic (or Proto-Celtic)—the parent language that yielded the various tongues of Continental Celtic and Insular Celtic—is of necessity very tentative. Whereas Continental Celtic offers plenty of evidence for phonology (the sound system), its records are too scanty to help…

  • common channel interoffice signaling (communications)

    telephone: Out-of-band signaling: …AT&T and became known as common channel interoffice signaling, CCIS. CCIS was first installed in the Bell System in 1976.

  • common channel signaling (telephones)

    telephone: Out-of-band signaling: …of interoffice signaling, known as common channel signaling (CCS), was developed. In CCS an “out-of-band” circuit (that is, a separate circuit from that used to establish the voice connection) is dedicated to serve as a data link, carrying address information and certain other information signals between the microprocessors employed in…

  • common chemical sense (biology)

    chemoreception: Single-celled organisms: …implies that microorganisms have a chemical sense, but, because they are so small, they are unable to detect chemical gradients by simultaneous comparison of the chemical concentration at two parts of the body. Instead, microorganisms exhibit differential responses to temporal differences in concentration, implying that they have the capacity to…

  • common chickweed (plant)

    chickweed: The common chickweed, or stitchwort (Stellaria media), is native to Europe but is widely naturalized. It usually grows to 45 cm (18 inches) but becomes a low-growing and spreading annual weed in mowed lawns. It is useful as a food for canaries.

  • common chimpanzee (primate)

    chimpanzee: Taxonomy: troglodytes are recognized: the tschego, or Central African chimpanzee (P. troglodytes troglodytes), also known as the common chimpanzee in continental Europe; the West African, or masked, chimpanzee (P. troglodytes verus), known as the common chimpanzee in Great Britain; the East African, or long-haired, chimpanzee (P. troglodytes schweinfurthii); and the…

  • common chimpanzee (primate)

    chimpanzee: Taxonomy: …Europe; the West African, or masked, chimpanzee (P. troglodytes verus), known as the common chimpanzee in Great Britain; the East African, or long-haired, chimpanzee (P. troglodytes schweinfurthii); and the Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzee (P. troglodytes ellioti, which was formerly classified as P. troglodytes vellerosus).

  • common chough (bird)

    chough: …Corvidae (order Passeriformes) are the common chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), of sea cliffs and rocky uplands from the British Isles to China, and the alpine chough (P. graculus), of high mountains from Morocco and Spain to the Himalayas. Both are about 38 cm (15 inches) long and glossy blue-black; the former…

  • common clown fish

    Common clown fish, (Amphiprion ocellaris), species of anemone fish best known for its striking orange and white coloration and its mutualism with certain species of sea anemones. The common clown fish is found on coral reefs in the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans from northwestern Australia,

  • common cockchafer (insect)

    Cockchafer, (Melolontha melolontha), a large European beetle that is destructive to foliage, flowers, and fruit as an adult and to plant roots as a larva. In the British Isles, the name “cockchafer” refers more broadly to any of the beetles in the subfamily Melolonthinae (family Scarabaeidae),

  • common cold (viral infection)

    Common cold, acute viral infection that starts in the upper respiratory tract, sometimes spreads to the lower respiratory structures, and may cause secondary infections in the eyes or middle ears. More than 200 agents can cause symptoms of the common cold, including parainfluenza, influenza,

  • common coleus (plant)

    coleus: Varieties of common coleus, or painted nettle (Plectranthus scutellarioides, formerly Coleus blumei), from Java, are well-known house and garden plants up to one metre (three feet) tall. They have square stems and small, blue, two-lipped flowers borne in spikes. The leaves are often variegated with colourful patterns…

  • common collared lizard (reptile)

    collared lizard: The common collared lizard, C. collaris, reaches 35 cm (14 inches) long, and the tail alone accounts for two-thirds of the animal’s total length. Males are larger than females. In the eastern part of its range, the collared lizard is often referred to as “the mountain…

  • common comfrey (plant)

    comfrey: …family Boraginaceae, especially the medicinal common comfrey (S. officinale), used to treat wounds and a source of a gum for treatment of wool. The coiled sprays of comfrey blooms, which are bell-like, deeply parted, five-lobed, and hanging, are usually pollinated by bees.

  • Common Core State Standards Initiative

    The groundswell of support by the U.S. states for the Common Core State Standards Initiative diminished significantly in 2014. The National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State Schools released the initiative in 2010, and a little over a year later, it had been endorsed by 45

  • common cormorant (bird)

    cormorant: …the common, or great, cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo; white-cheeked, and up to 100 cm (40 inches) long, it breeds from eastern Canada to Iceland, across Eurasia to Australia and New Zealand, and in parts of Africa. It and the slightly smaller Japanese cormorant, P. capillatus, are the species trained for fishing.…

  • common coucal (bird)

    coucal: sinensis), called crow pheasant in India, is 48 to 56 cm (19 to 22 inches) long. It is black with brown mantle and wings. Its range is from India to southern China and Malaysia.

  • common cow parsnip (plant)

    cow parsnip: Common cow parsnip (H. lanatum or H. maximum) is a weedy plant native to North America. It grows to more than 2 metres (7 feet) in height and produces white flower clusters that are nearly 20 cm (8 inches) in diameter.

  • common crab (crustacean)

    crab: Economic importance: …important and valuable are the edible crab of the British and European coasts (Cancer pagurus) and, in North America, the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) of the Atlantic coast and the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) of the Pacific coast. In the Indo-Pacific region the swimming crabs, Scylla and Portunus, related to…

  • common cuckoo (bird)

    cuckoo: …modifiers, refers to the most common local form, elsewhere called the common, or European, cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Many cuckoos have specialized names, such as ani, coua, coucal, guira, and roadrunner. Members of the subfamily Neomorphinae are called ground cuckoos.

  • common curlew (bird)

    curlew: The common, or Eurasian, curlew (N. arquata), almost 60 cm (24 inches) long including the bill, is the largest European shorebird. This species breeds from Britain to Central Asia.

  • common curly mesquite (plant)

    curly mesquite: …species are important range grasses; common curly mesquite (Hilaria belangeri) and James’s galleta (H. jamesii) are particularly palatable to livestock when fresh and green.

  • common currant (shrub)

    Ribes: …and common, or garden or red, currant (R. rubrum). Species of ornamental value include the alpine currant (R. alpinum); buffalo currant; fuchsia-flowered gooseberry (R. speciosum); golden, or clove, currant (R. aureum), bearing spicy-fragrant yellow flowers; and R. viburnifolium, a sprawling evergreen. Because all Ribes species

  • common custard apple (plant)

    Annonaceae: The custard apple (A. reticulata), a small tropical American tree, gives the family one of its common names. Also known as bullock’s-heart for its globose shape, it has fruits with creamy white, sweetish, custardlike flesh. Cherimoya (A. cherimola), soursop (A. muricata), and sweetsop (A. squamosa) are…

  • common cypress pine (plant)

    cypress pine: …of southeastern Australia; and the common cypress pine (C. preissii) of southern Australia, often shrubby near the seacoast, with one subspecies called slender pine and another known as turpentine pine. Most of these timber trees are about 25 metres (about 80 feet) tall, but the Port Macquarie pine, also planted…

  • common cystitis (pathology)

    cystitis: Acute, or common, cystitis is caused by bacterial infection, frequently as part of a general urinary tract infection (UTI). The mucous membrane of the bladder becomes swollen and red and bleeds. Small ulcers can develop, the surface layer can shred, and small, clear cysts (sacs…

  • common daffodil (plant)

    Daffodil, (Narcissus pseudonarcissus), bulb-forming plant in the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), widely cultivated for its trumpetlike flowers. Daffodils are native to northern Europe and are grown in temperate climates around the world. The daffodil’s popularity has resulted in the production

  • common desilverized lead (alloy)

    lead processing: The metal and its alloys: Common lead is fully refined and desilvered lead, with low copper content; it is widely used wherever high corrosion resistance is not necessary. Acid lead, made by adding copper to fully refined lead, differs from chemical lead primarily in its higher bismuth content.

  • common dittany (plant)

    dittany: (gas plant; Dictamnus albus), American dittany (common dittany; Cunila origanoides), and dittany of Crete (Cretan dittany, or hop marjoram; Origanum dictamnus). European dittany is in the rue family (Rutaceae), while the other two species are in the mint family (Lamiaceae). All three species are bushy perennials cultivated for their…

  • common diving petrel (bird)

    diving petrel: …and most widespread is the common diving petrel (Pelecanoides urinatrix), about 16 cm (6.5 inches) long; the largest is the Peruvian diving petrel (P. garnotii), about 25 cm long, restricted to the west coast of South America from about 6° to 37° S.

  • common dog’s tooth violet (plant)

    Erythronium: The common dog’s tooth violet, or adder’s tongue, of North America is E. americanum. It has yellow flowers and brown-mottled leaves. Several species of Erythronium are grown as rock-garden ornamentals.

  • common dolphin (mammal)

    dolphin: …widely recognized species are the common and bottlenose dolphins (Delphinus delphis and Tursiops truncatus, respectively). The bottlenose, characterized by a “built-in smile” formed by the curvature of its mouth, has become a familiar performer in oceanariums. It has also become the subject of scientific studies because of its intelligence and…

  • common dolphin (fish)

    dolphin: …and game fish called the common dolphin (C. hippuras) is known in Hawaiian as mahimahi and sometimes in Spanish as the dorado. Reaching a length of about 1.5 metres (5 feet) and a weight of about 30 kg (66 pounds), the common dolphin has a blunt head, a tapered body,…

  • common donkey orchid (plant)

    donkey orchid: The common donkey orchid (Diuris longifolia) bears three to five purplish flowers about 4 cm (1.5 inches) long. Other well-known species are cat’s face (D. filifolia) and nanny-goat orchid (D. laevis).

  • common dwarf mistletoe (plant)

    dwarf mistletoe: The common dwarf mistletoe, A. minutissimum, is one of the smallest plants having specialized water-conducting tissues. Its flowering stems extend less than 3 mm (about 18 inch) from its host plant. The fruits of most Arceuthobium species are about 4 mm long, and each contains a…

  • common eelgrass (plant)

    eelgrass: Historically, common eelgrass (Zostera marina) was an important tidewater plant whose dried leaves were used for packing glass articles and for stuffing cushions.

  • common egret (bird)

    egret: The great white egret, Egretta (sometimes Casmerodius) alba, of both hemispheres, is about 90 cm (35 inches) long and bears plumes only on the back. The American populations of this bird are sometimes called American, or common, egrets.

  • common eider (bird)

    eider: In the common eider (Somateria mollissima), with four or five races, differing mainly in length and colour of bill, the drake is mostly white above with black crown, belly, and tail. Like all eiders, this species is at home in the far north. It breeds along icy…

  • common eland (mammal)

    eland: The common, or Cape, eland (T. oryx) ranges over the woodlands, plains, mountains, and subdeserts of eastern and southern Africa. The eland is the largest of all antelopes.

  • common elderberry (plant)

    Dipsacales: Adoxaceae: European, or black, elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is commonly used in herbal medicine.

  • common emu (bird)

    Emu, flightless bird of Australia and second largest living bird: the emu is more than 1.5 metres (5 feet) tall and may weigh more than 45 kg (100 pounds). The emu is the sole living member of the family Dromaiidae (or Dromiceiidae) of the order Casuariiformes, which also includes the cassowaries.

  • Common Era (chronology)

    history of Europe: Chronology: …the modern notion of the Common Era. The new method superseded older traditions, which included dating by four-year Olympiads, by the number of years since the founding of Rome in 753 bce, by the years of Roman consuls, by the regnal years of emperors, and by the 15-year tax assessment…

  • common European brittle star (echinoderm)

    brittle star: …Massachusetts to Brazil, and the common European brittle star (Ophiothrix fragilis). Brittle stars typically hide under rocks or in crevices during the day and emerge at night to feed.

  • common European plum (plant)

    plum: The European plum (P. domestica) and the Japanese plum (P. salicina) are grown commercially for their fruits, and a number of species, including the purple-leaf plum (P. cerasifera), are used as ornamental plants for their attractive flowers and leaves.

  • common European shrimp (crustacean)

    shrimp: The common European shrimp, or sand shrimp, Crangon vulgaris (Crago septemspinosus), occurs in coastal waters on both sides of the North Atlantic and grows to about 8 cm (3 inches); it is gray or dark brown with brown or reddish spots. The shrimp Peneus setiferus feeds on small plants and…

  • common factors perspective (psychotherapy)

    mental disorder: The psychotherapies: …view is called the “common factors” perspective on psychotherapy.

  • common fantail warbler (bird)

    cisticola: …most widespread example is the zitting cisticola, or common fantail warbler (C. juncidis), a reddish brown, streaky bird, 11 cm (4.5 inches) long, found from Europe and Africa to Japan and Australia. Like most cisticolas it makes a domed nest. The most common species from India to the Philippines and…

  • common fate (Gestalt psychology)

    perception: Gestalt principles: One Gestalt principle, that of common fate, depends on movement and is quite striking when observed. According to the principle of common fate, stimulus elements are likely to be perceived as a unit if they move together. An illustration of this principle is provided by a well-camouflaged object, such as…

  • common ferret (mammal)

    ferret: Common ferret: The common ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is a domesticated form of the European polecat, which it resembles in size and habits and with which it interbreeds. The common ferret differs in having yellowish white (sometimes brown) fur and pinkish red eyes. The common…

  • common ferret badger (mammal)

    badger: …pahmi, consist of four species: Chinese (M. moschata), Burmese (M. personata), Everett’s (M. everetti), and Javan (M. orientalis). They live in grasslands and forests from northeast India to central China and Southeast Asia where they consume mostly insects, worms, small birds, rodents, and wild fruits. They are brownish to blackish…

  • common fig (plant and fruit)

    Fig, (Ficus carica), plant of the mulberry family (Moraceae) and its edible fruit. The common fig is indigenous to an area extending from Asiatic Turkey to northern India, but natural seedlings grow in most Mediterranean countries; it is cultivated in warm climates. In the Mediterranean region the

  • common fig (plant and fruit)

    fig: Types and cultivation: …Smyrna, White San Pedro, and Common. Smyrna-type figs develop only when fertile seeds are present, and these seeds account for the generally excellent quality and nutty flavour of the fruit. Figs of the White San Pedro type combine the characteristics of both the Smyrna and the Common type on one…

  • common fire-bellied toad (amphibian)

    fire-bellied toad: The common fire-bellied toad (B. bombina) is a pond dweller about 5 centimetres (2 inches) long. When disturbed it raises its forearms and arches its head and hind legs over its back. Resting on the lower part of its tautly curved abdomen, it freezes with the…

  • Common Fisheries Policy

    North Sea: Fisheries: A unique fisheries arrangement, the Common Fisheries Policy, was adopted by members of the European Community in 1983. Catch quotas are established each year for the various North Sea species beyond territorial sea limits. Allocations of the total catch are then assigned to each member state, thus creating a single…

  • common flax (plant)

    Flax, (Linum usitatissimum), plant of the family Linaceae, cultivated both for its fibre, from which linen yarn and fabric are made, and for its nutritious seeds, called flaxseed or linseed, from which linseed oil is obtained. Though flax has lost some of its value as a commercial fibre crop owing

  • common flowering quince (plant)

    flowering quince: The common flowering quince (C. speciosa), frequently used in informal hedges, bears red, pink, or white flowers and grows to about 2 metres (6.6 feet).

  • Common Foreign and Security Policy (European organization)

    European Union: Creation of the European Economic Community: …Political Cooperation (EPC; renamed the Common Foreign and Security Policy by the Maastricht Treaty), consisting of regular meetings of the foreign ministers of each country, was established to coordinate foreign policy. In 1975 the European Regional Development Fund was created to address regional economic disparities and to provide additional resources…

  • common forsythia (plant)

    forsythia: Common forsythia (F. intermedia), a hybrid between green-stem forsythia and weeping forsythia, has arching stems to 6 m and bright yellow flowers. There also are variegated, dwarf, and many-flowered varieties.

  • common fox (mammal)

    Red fox, (Vulpes vulpes), species of fox (family Canidae) found throughout Europe, temperate Asia, northern Africa, and North America. It has the largest natural distribution of any land mammal except human beings. First introduced to Australia in the 19th century, it has since established itself

  • common foxglove (plant)

    foxglove: …common, or purple, foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) is cultivated commercially as the source of the heart-stimulating drug digitalis. The drug is obtained from the dried leaves.

  • common fraction (mathematics)

    arithmetic: Rational numbers: …n/d and is called a common fraction. It may be considered as the quotient of n divided by d. The number d is called the denominator (it determines the fractional unit or denomination), and n is called the numerator (it enumerates the number of fractional units that are taken). The…

  • common freshwater turtle (turtle family)

    Emydidae, family of hard-shelled turtles native to both the Old and New Worlds, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. The emydid turtles comprise more than 25 genera and 85 living species—roughly one-half of all the genera and one-third of all the species of turtles now living. With the exception

  • common frog (amphibian)

    Common frog, (species Rana temporaria), largely terrestrial frog (family Ranidae), native to Europe, from Great Britain to central Russia. It is known in continental Europe as either grass frog or russet frog. The common frog is smooth-skinned, and adults are 7 to 10 cm (2.8 to 3.9 inches) long.

  • common frog’s-bit (plant)

    Hydrocharitaceae: The common frog’s-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), from which the family receives its common name, is an ornamental rootless water plant with round or heart-shaped floating leaves and small attractive three-petaled white flowers. The water soldier (Stratiotes aloides) bears rosettes of tough sharp-edged leaves that float in summer…

  • common fumitory (plant)

    fumitory: Common, or drug, fumitory (Fumaria officinalis) is a 90-cm- (3-foot-) tall climbing plant with lacy leaves and spikelike sprays of white or pinkish tubular flowers. The plant is native to Europe and Asia and has naturalized in parts of North America, having escaped cultivation. Once regarded as a medicinal…

  • Common Fund for Commodities (international organization)

    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: …among participating developing countries; the Common Fund for Commodities (1989), an intergovernmental financial institution that provides assistance to developing countries that are heavily dependent on commodity exports; and various agreements for debt relief. In the 1990s UNCTAD’s efforts were directed toward the challenges globalization poses to developing countries, and special…

  • common gallinule (bird)

    Moorhen, bird species also called common gallinule. See

  • common garden cosmos (plant)

    Cosmos: The common garden cosmos, from which most annual ornamental varieties have been developed, is Cosmos bipinnatus.

  • common garden iris (plant)

    Iris: …or German, group—the common garden irises. These are hybrids of pale blue Iris pallida, yellow I. variegata, purple-blue I. germanica, and perhaps other southern European species. They are hardy rhizomatous types with sturdy swordlike leaves and tall stems (to 90 cm [3 feet]) of three to many flowers. With the…

  • common garden verbena (plant)

    verbena: The common garden verbena (Glandularia × hybrida, formerly Verbena hybrida) is a square-stemmed creeping plant that bears flat heads of phloxlike flowers in a range of colours. Clump verbena, or rose verbena (Glandularia canadensis, formerly V. canadensis), is also sometimes cultivated for garden flowers.

  • common garter snake

    garter snake: …more defensive species is the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), probably North America’s most widely distributed reptile. The ribbon snake (T. sauritus), small and slender, is a strongly striped form. Garter snakes live chiefly on insects, earthworms, and amphibians; the ribbon snake is especially fond of frogs. They do not…

  • common gateway interface (computer programming)

    CGI, a standard that allows external applications located on personal computers or other devices to interact with information servers on the Internet. CGI programs are capable of sending many kinds of media, such as documents, images, and audio clips. Most Web sites with fields for input use CGI,

  • Common Germanic script

    runic alphabet: …main varieties of runic script: Early, or Common, Germanic (Teutonic), used in northern Europe before about 800 ad; Anglo-Saxon, or Anglian, used in Britain from the 5th or 6th century to about the 12th century ad; and Nordic, or Scandinavian, used from the 8th to about the 12th or 13th…

  • common ginger (plant)

    Ginger, (Zingiber officinale), herbaceous perennial plant of the family Zingiberaceae, probably native to southeastern Asia, or its aromatic, pungent rhizome (underground stem) used as a spice, flavouring, food, and medicine. Its generic name Zingiber is derived from the Greek zingiberis, which

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