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  • Coltrane, Alice (American musician)

    Alice Coltrane, (Alice McLeod; Turiya Sagittinanda), American jazz keyboard artist (born Aug. 27, 1937 , Detroit, Mich.—died Jan. 12, 2007, Los Angeles, Calif.), played bop piano with Detroit musicians and with Terry Gibbs (1962–63), and impressionist piano with John Coltrane’s combos (1965–67).

  • Coltrane, John (American musician)

    John Coltrane, American jazz saxophonist, bandleader, and composer, an iconic figure of 20th-century jazz. Coltrane’s first musical influence was his father, a tailor and part-time musician. John studied clarinet and alto saxophone as a youth and then moved to Philadelphia in 1943 and continued his

  • Coltrane, John William (American musician)

    John Coltrane, American jazz saxophonist, bandleader, and composer, an iconic figure of 20th-century jazz. Coltrane’s first musical influence was his father, a tailor and part-time musician. John studied clarinet and alto saxophone as a youth and then moved to Philadelphia in 1943 and continued his

  • Colts (American baseball team)

    Chicago Cubs, American professional baseball team that plays its home games at Chicago’s Wrigley Field. Despite limited success, the Cubs have one of the most loyal fan bases and are among the most popular franchises in baseball. The Cubs play in the National League (NL) and have won three World

  • Coluber constrictor (snake)

    racer: …belong to a single species, Coluber constrictor, and several species of the genus Elaphe in Southeast Asia are called racers. Blue racers are the central and western North American subspecies of C. constrictor; they are plain bluish, greenish blue, gray, or brownish, sometimes with yellow bellies. The eastern subspecies is…

  • Coluber flagellum (snake)

    Coachwhip, (Masticophis, sometimes Coluber, flagellum), nonvenomous snake of the family Colubridae that ranges from the southern half of the United States to west central Mexico. It averages 1.2 metres (4 feet) long, but it is occasionally twice that length. It is slender, and its tail is marked

  • colubrid (snake family)

    Colubrid, any member of the most common family of snakes, Colubridae, characterized by the complete absence of hind limbs, the absence or considerable reduction of the left lung, and the lack of teeth on the premaxilla and usually having a loose facial structure, relatively few head scales, and

  • Colubridae (snake family)

    Colubrid, any member of the most common family of snakes, Colubridae, characterized by the complete absence of hind limbs, the absence or considerable reduction of the left lung, and the lack of teeth on the premaxilla and usually having a loose facial structure, relatively few head scales, and

  • colugo (mammal)

    Flying lemur, (order Dermoptera), either of the two species of primitive gliding mammals found only in Southeast Asia and on some of the Philippine Islands. Flying lemurs resemble large flying squirrels, as they are arboreal climbers and gliders that have webbed feet with claws. The form of the

  • Colum, Padraic (Irish poet)

    Padraic Colum, Irish-born American poet whose lyrics capture the traditions and folklore of rural Ireland. Influenced by the literary activity of the Celtic revival centred in Dublin at the turn of the century, Colum published the collection of poetry Wild Earth (1907). He cofounded The Irish

  • Colum, Saint (Christian missionary)

    St. Columba, ; feast day June 9), abbot and missionary traditionally credited with the main role in the conversion of Scotland to Christianity. Columba studied under Saints Finnian of Moville and Finnian of Clonard and was ordained priest about 551. He founded churches and the famous monasteries

  • Columba (constellation)

    Columba, (Latin: “Dove”) constellation in the southern sky at about 6 hours right ascension and 35° south in declination. Its brightest star is Alpha Columbae (sometimes called Phact, from the Arabic for “ring dove”), with a magnitude of 2.6. In 1612 Dutch cartographer Petrus Plancius introduced

  • Columba Altarpiece (painting by Weyden)

    Hans Memling: …of Rogier’s last masterpiece, the Columba Altarpiece (1460–64), is especially noticeable. Some scholars believe that Memling himself may have had a hand in the production of this late work while still in Rogier’s studio. He also imitated Rogier’s compositions in numerous representations of the half-length Madonna and Child, often including…

  • Columba livia (bird)

    pigeon: The rock dove is typically dull in colour—gray and white rump and two large black wing bars; this Eurasian species nests above 5,000 feet (1,525 metres) in Asia. It has been domesticated and selectively bred since 3000 bce with the production of numerous colour variants and…

  • Columba oenas (bird)

    columbiform: General habits: stock dove (C. oenas) of Europe rarely take green vegetation, do not feed in trees, and so are examples of the trend toward complete ground feeding. These doves subsist almost entirely on seeds collected from low herbage or the ground. In winter such food sources…

  • Columba palumbus (bird)

    Wood pigeon, (species Columba palumbus), bird of the subfamily Columbinae (in the pigeon family, Columbidae), found from the forested areas of Europe, North Africa, and western Asia east to the mountains of Sikkim state in India. It is about 40 cm (16 inches) long, grayish with a white collar and

  • Columba, Saint (Christian missionary)

    St. Columba, ; feast day June 9), abbot and missionary traditionally credited with the main role in the conversion of Scotland to Christianity. Columba studied under Saints Finnian of Moville and Finnian of Clonard and was ordained priest about 551. He founded churches and the famous monasteries

  • Columban, Saint (Christian missionary)

    Saint Columban, ; feast day November 23), abbot and writer, one of the greatest missionaries of the Celtic church, who initiated a revival of spirituality on the European continent. Educated in the monastery of Bangor, County Down, Columban left Ireland about 590 with 12 monks (including Saints

  • Columbanus, Saint (Christian missionary)

    Saint Columban, ; feast day November 23), abbot and writer, one of the greatest missionaries of the Celtic church, who initiated a revival of spirituality on the European continent. Educated in the monastery of Bangor, County Down, Columban left Ireland about 590 with 12 monks (including Saints

  • columbarium (funerary art)

    Columbarium, sepulchral building containing many small niches for cinerary urns. The term is derived from the Latin columba (“dove,” or “pigeon”), and it originally referred to a pigeon house or dovecote. It later acquired its more common meaning by association. Columbaria were common during the

  • Columbellidae (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: …lost the mechanisms for boring; dove shells (Columbellidae), mud snails (Nassariidae), tulip shells (Fasciolariidae), whelks (Buccinidae), and crown conchs (Galeodidae) mainly cool-water species; but dove and tulip shells have many tropical representatives. Superfamily Volutacea

  • Columbia (Ohio, United States)

    Cincinnati, city, seat of Hamilton county, southwestern Ohio, U.S. It lies along the Ohio River opposite the suburbs of Covington and Newport, Kentucky, 15 miles (24 km) east of the Indiana border and about 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Dayton. Cincinnati is Ohio’s third largest city, after

  • Columbia (Maryland, United States)

    Columbia, planned community in Howard county, central Maryland, U.S. It lies southwest of Baltimore and northeast of Washington, D.C. Designed by real-estate developer James Rouse—who had in the 1950s pioneered the enclosed shopping malls that later became a ubiquitous feature of the suburban

  • columbia (dance form)

    Latin American dance: Cuba: >columbia. Before the dance section of each form, a diana, or sung prelude, establishes the mood: romantic, erotic, or competitive. Yambú is a dance in which a single couple slowly and respectfully dances within a circle created by the conga drummers, singers, waiting dancers, and…

  • Columbia (Mississippi, United States)

    Columbia, city, seat (1819) of Marion county, southern Mississippi, U.S. It lies on a bluff along the Pearl River, about 80 miles (130 km) south-southeast of Jackson. The site was settled as a river port in the early 1800s, and for several months in 1821 it served as the state capital. It thrived

  • Columbia (Missouri, United States)

    Columbia, city, seat of Boone county, near the Missouri River, central Missouri, U.S., midway between St. Louis and Kansas City. It was originally established (1819) as Smithton, but an inadequate water supply forced its move in 1821, when it was laid out and renamed Columbia. The rerouting of

  • Columbia (county, New York, United States)

    Columbia, county, southeastern New York state, U.S., bordered by Massachusetts to the east and the Hudson River to the west. The land rises from the Hudson valley to the Taconic Range along the Massachusetts border. Forests comprise a mix of northern hardwoods. Waterways include Kinderhook,

  • Columbia (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Columbia, county, east-central Pennsylvania, U.S. It consists of a mountainous region mostly in the Appalachian Ridge and Valley physiographic province and bisected east-west by the Susquehanna River. Other waterways include Little Fishing, Fishing, Huntington, Roaring, Catawissa, and South Branch

  • Columbia (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Columbia, borough (town), Lancaster county, southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies along the Susquehanna River, 12 miles (19 km) west of Lancaster. The site was settled (1726) by John Wright, a Quaker missionary to the Native Americans, who bought land and became a ferryman and judge. Known as

  • Columbia (United States command module)

    Apollo 11: …first turning the command module, Columbia, and its attached service module around and then extracting the lunar module from its resting place above the Saturn’s third stage. On their arrival the astronauts slowed the spacecraft so that it would go into lunar orbit. Apollo 11 entered first an elliptical orbit…

  • Columbia (South Carolina, United States)

    Columbia, city, capital of South Carolina, U.S., and seat (1799) of Richland county. It lies in the centre of the state on the east bank of the Congaree River at the confluence of the Broad and Saluda rivers. Its history dates from 1786, when the legislature ordered a town laid out on the site to

  • Columbia (Tennessee, United States)

    Columbia, city, seat (1807) of Maury county, central Tennessee, U.S. It lies along the Duck River, 43 miles (69 km) southwest of Nashville. Founded as the seat of newly created Maury county in 1807, Columbia developed as an agricultural centre in a region of fertile farmland. It survived floods and

  • Columbia (space shuttle)

    Vance Brand: …1982), on which the shuttle Columbia first launched two satellites into orbit. On his third space mission, Brand was commander of the Challenger space shuttle (STS-41-B; February 3–11, 1984). Although this trip was plagued by several malfunctions and two communications satellites were misdirected, Bruce McCandless’s performance of the first space…

  • Columbia (steamship)

    lamp: Electric lamps: …May 1880 on the steamship Columbia. In 1881 a New York City factory was lighted with Edison’s system, and the commercial success of the incandescent lamp was quickly established.

  • Columbia Basin (region, United States)

    United States: The Western Intermontane Region: The third intermontane region, the Columbia Basin, is literally the last, for in some parts its rocks are still being formed. Its entire area is underlain by innumerable tabular lava flows that have flooded the basin between the Cascades and Northern Rockies to undetermined depths. The volume of lava must…

  • Columbia Broadcasting System (American company)

    CBS Corporation, major American mass-media company that operates the CBS national television network and that includes the Simon & Schuster publishing groups and the Showtime cable network, among other holdings. The company was incorporated in 1927 as United Independent Broadcasters, Inc. Its name

  • Columbia College (university, New York City, New York, United States)

    Columbia University, major private institution of higher education in New York, New York, U.S. It is one of the Ivy League schools. Founded in 1754 as King’s College, it was renamed Columbia College when it reopened in 1784 after the American Revolution. It became Columbia University in 1912.

  • Columbia Crest (summit, Mount Rainier, Washington, United States)

    Mount Rainier: …Liberty Cap, Point Success, and Columbia Crest (the latter is the summit, located on the rim of the caldera). Rainier is noted for dense stands of coniferous trees on its lower slopes, scenic subalpine and alpine meadows—with a profusion of wildflowers during the warmer months—waterfalls and lakes, and an abundance…

  • Columbia disaster (United States history [2003])

    Columbia disaster, breakup of the U.S. space shuttle orbiter Columbia on February 1, 2003, that claimed the lives of all seven astronauts on board just minutes before it was to land at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Columbia, which had made the shuttle program’s first flight into space in

  • Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, The

    Columbia Encyclopedia, highly regarded one-volume encyclopaedia, international in scope and useful for quick location of accurate information. The encyclopaedia was first published in 1935 and underwent major revisions in 1950 and 1963. The fourth edition, published in 1975 under the title The New

  • Columbia Encyclopedia

    Columbia Encyclopedia, highly regarded one-volume encyclopaedia, international in scope and useful for quick location of accurate information. The encyclopaedia was first published in 1935 and underwent major revisions in 1950 and 1963. The fourth edition, published in 1975 under the title The New

  • Columbia Glacier (glacier, Alaska, United States)

    glacier: Flow of mountain glaciers: The lower reach of Columbia Glacier in southern Alaska, for instance, flows between 20 and 30 metres (66 and 100 feet) per day, almost entirely by sliding. Such a high sliding rate occurs because the glacier, by terminating in the ocean, must have a subglacial water pressure high enough…

  • Columbia History of Music by Ear and Eye (music recording)

    music recording: Teaching: In 1930 the Columbia History of Music by Ear and Eye, a phonographic survey that became popular in music history classes, enabled many students—as well as many of their teachers—to hear for the first time such instruments as viols, lutes, virginals, clavichords, and harpsichords together with the then…

  • Columbia Icefield (icefield, Canada)

    Columbia Icefield, largest ice field in the Rocky Mountains, astride the British Columbia–Alberta border, Canada. Lying partially within Jasper National Park, it is one of the most accessible expanses of glacial ice in North America. It forms a high-elevation ice cap on a flat-lying plateau that

  • Columbia Intermontane (region, United States)

    Columbia Plateau, geographic region, northwestern United States. It forms part of the intermontane plateaus and is bordered east by the Northern Rocky Mountains and west by the Sierra Nevada–Cascade region. The plateau covers an area of about 100,000 square miles (260,000 square km) in Washington,

  • Columbia Mountains (mountain range, Canada)

    Columbia Mountains, range in southeastern British Columbia, Canada, that is bounded by the Rocky Mountain Trench (east), the Columbia River (south), the Interior Plateau (west), and the Fraser River (north). The Columbia Mountains parallel the Canadian Rockies, of which they are sometimes

  • Columbia Park (park, Kennewick, Washington, United States)

    Kennewick: ” Kennewick’s Columbia Park was the site of the discovery, in July 1996, of human remains that have been determined to be about 9,400 years old. The skull was long and narrow, suggesting European, rather than Asian, descent. This characteristic touched off a scholarly debate about the…

  • Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting Company (American company)

    CBS Corporation, major American mass-media company that operates the CBS national television network and that includes the Simon & Schuster publishing groups and the Showtime cable network, among other holdings. The company was incorporated in 1927 as United Independent Broadcasters, Inc. Its name

  • Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. (American company)

    Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc., American motion-picture studio that became a major Hollywood studio under its longtime president, Harry Cohn. Columbia originated in 1920 when Cohn, Joe Brandt, and Harry’s brother Jack Cohn founded the C.B.C. Sales Film Corporation to produce shorts and

  • Columbia Pictures Industries (American company)

    Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc., American motion-picture studio that became a major Hollywood studio under its longtime president, Harry Cohn. Columbia originated in 1920 when Cohn, Joe Brandt, and Harry’s brother Jack Cohn founded the C.B.C. Sales Film Corporation to produce shorts and

  • Columbia Pictures, Inc. (American company)

    Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc., American motion-picture studio that became a major Hollywood studio under its longtime president, Harry Cohn. Columbia originated in 1920 when Cohn, Joe Brandt, and Harry’s brother Jack Cohn founded the C.B.C. Sales Film Corporation to produce shorts and

  • Columbia Plateau (region, United States)

    Columbia Plateau, geographic region, northwestern United States. It forms part of the intermontane plateaus and is bordered east by the Northern Rocky Mountains and west by the Sierra Nevada–Cascade region. The plateau covers an area of about 100,000 square miles (260,000 square km) in Washington,

  • Columbia Records (American company)

    Columbia Records: Folk-Rock Fulcrum: Columbia was the slowest of the major labels to realize that the youth market was not going to disappear, but by the end of the 1960s it had become the most aggressive company in pursuing that audience. Having previously had no substantial rock-and-roll star (apart…

  • Columbia Records: Folk-Rock Fulcrum

    Columbia was the slowest of the major labels to realize that the youth market was not going to disappear, but by the end of the 1960s it had become the most aggressive company in pursuing that audience. Having previously had no substantial rock-and-roll star (apart from belatedly signing Dion at

  • Columbia River (river, North America)

    Columbia River, largest river flowing into the Pacific Ocean from North America. It is exceeded in discharge on the continent only by the Mississippi, St. Lawrence, and Mackenzie rivers. The Columbia is one of the world’s greatest sources of hydroelectric power and, with its tributaries, represents

  • Columbia River Bridge (bridge, Oregon, United States)

    Astoria Bridge, bridge spanning the mouth of the Columbia River between the states of Oregon and Washington, western United States. At its completion in 1966, it was the longest continuous-truss bridge in the world. The bridge, stretching from Astoria, Ore., to Point Ellice (near Megler), Wash.,

  • Columbia River Gorge (area, Oregon, United States)

    Multnomah Falls: …which are part of the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, are located near the Columbia River Highway about 9 miles (14 km) west-southwest of Bonneville. The scenic upper and lower falls plunge into the Columbia River Gorge and have a combined height of 850 feet (260 metres), with a…

  • Columbia River Gorge (gorge, Washington, United States)

    Multnomah Falls: …lower falls plunge into the Columbia River Gorge and have a combined height of 850 feet (260 metres), with a single drop of 620 feet (190 metres), making Multnomah Falls one of the highest year-round waterfalls in the United States.

  • Columbia River Treaty (United States-Canada [1961])

    Columbia River Treaty , (Jan. 17, 1961), agreement between Canada and the United States to develop and share waterpower and storage facilities on the Columbia River. The treaty called for the United States to build Libby Dam in northern Montana and for Canada to build dams at three locations in

  • Columbia Studio Music Department (American company department)
  • Columbia University (university, New York City, New York, United States)

    Columbia University, major private institution of higher education in New York, New York, U.S. It is one of the Ivy League schools. Founded in 1754 as King’s College, it was renamed Columbia College when it reopened in 1784 after the American Revolution. It became Columbia University in 1912.

  • Columbia, Cape (cape, Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada)

    Ellesmere Island: Cape Columbia, at latitude 83°07′ N, is the most northerly point of Canada, and Barbeau Peak, at an elevation of 8,583 feet (2,616 metres), is the highest point in Nunavut. Settlements, all quite small, include Eureka, Grise Ford (Aujuittuq), and Alert, a weather station and…

  • Columbia, District of (national capital, United States)

    Washington, D.C., city and capital of the United States of America. It is coextensive with the District of Columbia (the city is often referred to as simply D.C.) and is located on the northern shore of the Potomac River at the river’s navigation head—that is, the transshipment point between

  • Columbia, Mount (mountain, Alberta, Canada)

    Alberta: Relief, drainage, and soils: Mount Columbia (12,294 feet [3,747 metres]) in the Rocky Mountains is Alberta’s highest point, and numerous other peaks exceed 11,000 feet (3,350 metres). A narrow foothill zone flanks the mountains to the east. Beyond that, the interior plains fall from over 3,000 feet (900 metres)…

  • columbiad (literature)

    Columbiad, any of certain epics recounting the European settlement and growth of the United States. It may have been derived from La Colombiade, ou la foi portée au nouveau monde, a poem by the French author Marie-Anne Fiquet de Boccage. A relatively well-known example is The Columbiad (1807; an

  • Columbiad, The (work by Barlow)

    columbiad: A relatively well-known example is The Columbiad (1807; an extensive revision of The Vision of Columbus, 1787) by Joel Barlow.

  • Columbian College (university, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    The George Washington University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Washington, D.C., U.S. It consists of the Columbian College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Elliott School of International Affairs, the National Law Center, the School of Medicine and Health

  • Columbian Dictionary of the English Language, The (dictionary by Alexander)

    dictionary: From 1604 to 1828: …by Caleb Alexander, was called The Columbian Dictionary of the English Language (1800) and on the title page claimed that “many new words, peculiar to the United States,” were inserted. It received abuse from critics who were not yet ready for the inclusion of American words.

  • Columbian Exchange (ecology)

    Columbian Exchange, the largest part of a more general process of biological globalization that followed the transoceanic voyaging of the 15th and 16th centuries. Ecological provinces that had been torn apart by continental drift millions of years ago were suddenly reunited by oceanic shipping,

  • Columbian Exchange, The (book by Crosby)

    Columbian Exchange: Crosby’s 1972 book, which divided the exchange into three categories: diseases, animals, and plants.

  • Columbian Exposition (fair, Chicago, Illinois [1893])

    World’s Columbian Exposition, fair held in 1893 in Chicago, Illinois, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s voyage to America. In the United States there had been a spirited competition for this exposition among the country’s leading cities. Chicago was chosen in part because

  • Columbian Museum (museum, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Field Museum, museum in Chicago, Illinois, U.S., established in 1893 as the Columbian Museum of Chicago with a gift from Marshall Field, from whom in 1905 it derived its present name. It was established to house the anthropological and biological collections of the 1893 World’s Columbian

  • Columbidae (bird)

    Pigeon, any of several hundred species of birds constituting the family Columbidae (order Columbiformes). Smaller forms are usually called doves, larger forms pigeons. An exception is the white domestic pigeon, the symbol known as the “dove of peace.” Pigeons occur worldwide except in the coldest

  • columbiform (bird)

    Columbiform, (order Columbiformes), any member of the group of birds that contains the pigeons, doves, dodoes, and solitaires. The order Columbiformes is divided into the Raphidae, a family of extinct birds that embraces the dodo and the two species of solitaires, and the Columbidae, a family made

  • Columbiformes (bird)

    Columbiform, (order Columbiformes), any member of the group of birds that contains the pigeons, doves, dodoes, and solitaires. The order Columbiformes is divided into the Raphidae, a family of extinct birds that embraces the dodo and the two species of solitaires, and the Columbidae, a family made

  • Columbinae (bird subfamily)

    pigeon: The Columbinae, the typical, or true, pigeons, consists of about 175 species in about 30 genera. These often gregarious seed and fruit eaters are found worldwide in temperate and tropical regions. Some are ground feeders, others feed partly or wholly in trees. They are generally coloured…

  • Columbine (stock theatre character)

    Columbine, stock theatrical character that originated about 1530 in Italian commedia dell’arte as a saucy and adroit servant girl; her Italian name means “Little Dove.” Her costume included a cap and apron but seldom a commedia mask, and she usually spoke in the Tuscan dialect. In French theatre t

  • columbine (plant)

    Columbine, any of approximately 100 species of perennial herbaceous plants constituting the genus Aquilegia of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) native to Europe and North America. Several species of columbine and a number of hybrids are cultivated for their attractive flowers. Columbines are

  • Columbine High School shootings (massacre, Littleton, Colorado, United States [1999])

    Columbine High School shootings, massacre that occurred on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, leaving 15 dead, including the two students responsible for the attack. It was one of the deadliest school shooting incidents in American history. The shootings were carried

  • Columbine I (aircraft)

    Air Force One: Air Force One enters the jet age: (The Columbine I had been Dwight D. Eisenhower’s personal transport when he was in the army.) According to popular lore, the call sign Air Force One was first invoked by the pilot of the Columbine II during a flight to Florida, when he was concerned that…

  • Columbine II (aircraft)

    Air Force One: Air Force One enters the jet age: …VC-121E, it was christened the Columbine II—the columbine being the official flower of Colorado, the adopted home state of Mamie Eisenhower. (The Columbine I had been Dwight D. Eisenhower’s personal transport when he was in the army.) According to popular lore, the call sign Air Force One was first invoked…

  • columbite (mineral)

    Columbite, hard, black (often iridescent), heavy oxide mineral of iron, manganese, and niobium, (Fe, Mn)Nb2O6. Tantalum atoms replace niobium atoms in the crystal structure to form the mineral tantalite, which is similar but much more dense. These minerals are the most abundant and widespread of

  • columbium (chemical element)

    Niobium (Nb), chemical element, refractory metal of Group 5 (Vb) of the periodic table, used in alloys, tools and dies, and superconductive magnets. Niobium is closely associated with tantalum in ores and in properties. Due to the great chemical similarity of niobium and tantalum, the establishment

  • Columbo (television series)

    Peter Falk: …Columbo in the television series Columbo (1971–78) and made-for-TV movies.

  • Columbus (Mississippi, United States)

    Columbus, city, seat (1830) of Lowndes county, eastern Mississippi, U.S., on the Tombigbee River, about 90 miles (145 km) north of Meridian, near the Alabama border. Settled as a trading post (1817), it was known until 1821 as Possum Town. In 1822 or 1823 the Cotton Plant first docked in Columbus,

  • Columbus (European space laboratory)

    space station: The International Space Station: …ports for a European laboratory, Columbus, and a Japanese laboratory, Kibo. In February 2008 Columbus was mounted on Harmony’s starboard side. Columbus was Europe’s first long-duration crewed space laboratory and contained experiments in such fields as biology and fluid dynamics. In the following month an improved variant of the Ariane…

  • Columbus (Nebraska, United States)

    Columbus, city, seat (1857) of Platte county, eastern Nebraska, U.S., on the Loup River near its confluence with the Platte, about 85 miles (135 km) west of Omaha. Pawnee, Omaha, and Oto Indians were early inhabitants of the area. Columbus was founded in 1856 on the proposed railroad route by

  • Columbus (Indiana, United States)

    Columbus, city, Bartholomew county, south-central Indiana, U.S., on the East Fork White River, 43 miles (70 km) south of Indianapolis. Founded in 1821 as the county seat, it was named Tiptona for General John Tipton, who had given the land to the county, but a month later it was renamed Columbus. A

  • Columbus (Georgia, United States)

    Columbus, city (since 1971 consolidated with Muscogee county), western Georgia, U.S., at the head of navigation on the Chattahoochee River, opposite Phenix City, Alabama. Founded in 1828 and carved out of the wilderness, it had by 1840 become a leading inland cotton port with a thriving textile

  • Columbus (ISS laboratory)

    European Space Agency: With the launching of the Columbus laboratory on the International Space Station in 2008, ESA became a full partner in the operation of the station. In 2009 ESA launched Planck, a satellite that is designed to study the cosmic microwave background, and Herschel, an infrared observatory that is the largest…

  • Columbus (Ohio, United States)

    Columbus, city, Franklin, Fairfield, and Delaware counties, capital (1816) of Ohio, U.S., and seat (1824) of Franklin county. It is situated in the central part of the state on the relatively flat Ohio till plain, at the junction of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers. Columbus is at the centre of a

  • Columbus Blue Jackets (American hockey team)

    Columbus Blue Jackets, American professional ice hockey team based in Columbus, Ohio, that plays in the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). The Blue Jackets joined the NHL in 2000 alongside fellow expansion team the Minnesota Wild. The franchise’s nickname, the product of a

  • Columbus Day (American holiday)

    Columbus Day, in the United States, holiday (originally October 12; since 1971 the second Monday in October) to commemorate the landing of Christopher Columbus on October 12, 1492, in the New World. Although his explorations were financed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, Columbus was

  • Columbus Lighthouse (building, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic)

    Christopher Columbus: The fourth voyage and final years: …have been interred in the Columbus Lighthouse (Faro a Colón).

  • Columbus Platform (religion)

    Reform Judaism: …of Reform rabbis issued the Columbus (Ohio) Platform, supporting the use of traditional customs and ceremonies and the liturgical use of Hebrew. In the late 20th century the Central Conference of American Rabbis continued to debate how best to continue the spirit of the Reform movement. It issued several new…

  • Columbus Zoo and Aquarium (zoo, Powell, Ohio, United States)

    Jack Hanna: …served as director of the Columbus (Ohio) Zoo (1978–92) and became a well-known animal expert through his frequent television appearances.

  • Columbus, Bartholomew (Italian explorer)

    Bartholomew Columbus, Italian explorer, brother of Christopher Columbus, accomplished cartographer and cosmographer, and probably collaborator on his brother’s project to sail around the world. In 1484, according to tradition, he visited Henry VII of England and gave him a map of the world, showing

  • Columbus, Battle of (United States-Mexican history [1916])

    Battle of Columbus, also known as the Burning of Columbus or the Columbus Raid, (8–9 March 1916). In need of supplies during the Mexican Revolution, Pancho Villa led his men in a raid across the border into the United States, at Columbus, New Mexico. The raid quickly escalated into a full-scale

  • Columbus, Christopher (Italian explorer)

    Christopher Columbus, master navigator and admiral whose four transatlantic voyages (1492–93, 1493–96, 1498–1500, and 1502–04) opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas. He has long been called the “discoverer” of the New World, although Vikings such as

  • Columbus, Diego (Spanish explorer)

    Diego Columbus, eldest son of Christopher Columbus and viceroy of the Indies for 15 years, who spent most of his life in legal battles to secure the Columbus claims. When his father undertook the great voyage of discovery in 1492, Diego was made a page at the Spanish court. After his father’s death

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