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  • Collins, Dame Joan Henrietta (English actress)

    Joan Collins, English actress known for her portrayals of bombshells and sexpots, notably the scheming seductress Alexis Carrington on the soap opera Dynasty (1981–89). Collins was raised in London, the oldest of three children of a theatrical agent and a former dancer. Owing to their father’s

  • Collins, David (British settler)

    Australia: An authoritarian society: From Britain, David Collins sailed in 1803 to settle Port Phillip. His sojourn there was unhappy, and in mid-1804 he moved to the River Derwent in southern Tasmania, already settled (September 1803) by a group from Sydney under John Bowen. Collins resettled the amalgamated parties at Hobart.…

  • Collins, Eddie (American baseball player)

    Eddie Collins, American professional baseball player who was one of the most proficient hitters and base stealers in the sport’s history. Collins was raised in affluent circumstances in the suburbs outside New York City. He attended Columbia University, where he was the quarterback of the football

  • Collins, Eddie Cocky (American baseball player)

    Eddie Collins, American professional baseball player who was one of the most proficient hitters and base stealers in the sport’s history. Collins was raised in affluent circumstances in the suburbs outside New York City. He attended Columbia University, where he was the quarterback of the football

  • Collins, Edward Knight (American shipowner)

    Edward Knight Collins, shipowner who in 1847 founded the government-subsidized United States Mail Steamship Company (Collins Line), which for a time gave serious competition to the British Cunard Line. From 1850 to 1854 Collins’s paddle-wheel steamers, the “Atlantic,” “Pacific,” “Arctic,” and

  • Collins, Edward Trowbridge, Sr. (American baseball player)

    Eddie Collins, American professional baseball player who was one of the most proficient hitters and base stealers in the sport’s history. Collins was raised in affluent circumstances in the suburbs outside New York City. He attended Columbia University, where he was the quarterback of the football

  • Collins, Eileen (United States pilot and astronaut)

    Eileen Collins, American astronaut, the first woman to pilot and, later, to command a U.S. space shuttle. Collins’s love of airplanes and flying began as a child. At age 19 she saved money earned from part-time jobs and began taking flying lessons. She graduated with a bachelor’s degree in

  • Collins, Francis (American geneticist)

    Francis Collins, American geneticist who discovered genes causing genetic diseases and who was director (2009– ) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) public research consortium in the Human Genome Project (HGP). Homeschooled by his mother for much of his childhood, Collins took an early

  • Collins, Francis Sellers (American geneticist)

    Francis Collins, American geneticist who discovered genes causing genetic diseases and who was director (2009– ) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) public research consortium in the Human Genome Project (HGP). Homeschooled by his mother for much of his childhood, Collins took an early

  • Collins, Hunt (American author)

    Evan Hunter, prolific American writer of best-selling fiction, of which more than 50 books are crime stories published under the pseudonym Ed McBain. Hunter graduated from Hunter College (1950) and held various short-term jobs, including playing piano in a jazz band and teaching in vocational high

  • Collins, Jackie (British-born author)

    Jackie Collins, English author known for her provocative romantic thrillers, which were liberally salted with sex, crime, and entertainment-industry gossip. Collins’s glamorous public persona—she frequently appeared in leopard-print clothing and was adorned with expensive jewelry—echoed the lavish

  • Collins, Jacqueline Jill (British-born author)

    Jackie Collins, English author known for her provocative romantic thrillers, which were liberally salted with sex, crime, and entertainment-industry gossip. Collins’s glamorous public persona—she frequently appeared in leopard-print clothing and was adorned with expensive jewelry—echoed the lavish

  • Collins, Janet (American dancer)

    Janet Collins, American ballet dancer and choreographer, acclaimed for the beauty of her dancing on the Broadway stage. Collins was raised in Los Angeles, where she attended Los Angeles City College and the Los Angeles Art Center School (now the Art Center College of Design [Pasadena]). She studied

  • Collins, Jason (American basketball player)

    Brooklyn Nets: …the team signed free agent Jason Collins, who, by playing in Brooklyn’s game that night, became the first openly gay athlete to participate in any of the four major North American team sports. Collins was part of a reinvigorated Nets squad that was among the league’s best in the second…

  • Collins, Joan (English actress)

    Joan Collins, English actress known for her portrayals of bombshells and sexpots, notably the scheming seductress Alexis Carrington on the soap opera Dynasty (1981–89). Collins was raised in London, the oldest of three children of a theatrical agent and a former dancer. Owing to their father’s

  • Collins, Joel (American outlaw)

    Sam Bass: …where in 1874 he befriended Joel Collins. In 1876 Bass and Collins went north on a cattle drive but turned to robbing stagecoaches; in September 1877 in Big Springs, Neb., they and four others robbed a Union Pacific train of $65,000 in gold coin and other valuables. Returning to Texas,…

  • Collins, John (British librarian)

    mathematics: Institutional background: Later in the century John Collins, librarian of London’s Royal Society, performed a similar function among British mathematicians.

  • Collins, John Lawrence, Jr. (American journalist and author)

    Larry Collins, (John Lawrence Collins, Jr.), American journalist and author (born Sept. 14, 1929, West Hartford, Conn.—died June 20, 2005, Fréjus, France), had a fruitful partnership with French writer Dominique Lapierre, and the two produced a number of best-selling, scrupulously researched p

  • Collins, Judy (American singer)

    Judy Collins, American folk and pop singer-songwriter known for her soaring soprano, eclectic repertoire, and political activism. A classically trained pianist and self-taught guitarist, Collins performed in folk clubs and coffeehouses from 1959, popularizing works by such songwriters as Bob Dylan,

  • Collins, Judy Marjorie (American singer)

    Judy Collins, American folk and pop singer-songwriter known for her soaring soprano, eclectic repertoire, and political activism. A classically trained pianist and self-taught guitarist, Collins performed in folk clubs and coffeehouses from 1959, popularizing works by such songwriters as Bob Dylan,

  • Collins, Larry (American journalist and author)

    Larry Collins, (John Lawrence Collins, Jr.), American journalist and author (born Sept. 14, 1929, West Hartford, Conn.—died June 20, 2005, Fréjus, France), had a fruitful partnership with French writer Dominique Lapierre, and the two produced a number of best-selling, scrupulously researched p

  • Collins, Martha Layne (American politician)

    Kentucky: From World War II into the 21st century: …the state’s first woman governor, Martha Layne Collins, elected in 1984. Since the late 20th century many manufacturing firms have left the state for areas where labour is less expensive, particularly Mexico. However, the state simultaneously has seen an influx of Japanese manufacturers, primarily in the automobile industry.

  • Collins, Marva (American educator)

    Marva Collins, American educator who broke with a public school system she found to be failing inner-city children and established her own rigorous system and practice to cultivate her students’ independence and accomplishment. Marva Knight attended the Bethlehem Academy, a strict school that

  • Collins, Michael (American astronaut)

    Michael Collins, U.S. astronaut who was the command module pilot of Apollo 11, the first crewed lunar landing mission. A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, Collins transferred to the air force, becoming a test pilot at Edwards Air Force Base in California. He joined the

  • Collins, Michael (Irish statesman)

    Michael Collins, hero of the Irish struggle for independence, best remembered for his daring strategy in directing the campaign of guerrilla warfare during the intensification of the Anglo-Irish War (1919–21). Collins worked as a clerk in London from 1906 until he returned to Ireland in 1916. He

  • Collins, Patricia Hill (American sociologist)

    standpoint theory: American sociologist Patricia Hill Collins in her book Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (1990) proposed a form of standpoint theory that emphasized the perspective of African American women. Collins argued that the matrix of oppression—an interlocking system of race, gender, and class…

  • Collins, Phil (British musician)

    Genesis: October 2, 1950, Guildford, Surrey), Phil Collins (b. January 31, 1951, London), and Steve Hackett (b. February 12, 1950, London).

  • Collins, Ray (American actor)

    Citizen Kane: Cast:

  • Collins, Susan (United States senator)

    Susan Collins, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 1996 and began representing Maine in that body the following year. Collins was born in Caribou, Maine, to a family involved in both the lumber industry and state politics. She was president of her high-school

  • Collins, Susan Margaret (United States senator)

    Susan Collins, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 1996 and began representing Maine in that body the following year. Collins was born in Caribou, Maine, to a family involved in both the lumber industry and state politics. She was president of her high-school

  • Collins, Suzanne (American author and screenwriter)

    Suzanne Collins, American author and screenwriter, best known for the immensely popular Hunger Games trilogy of young-adult novels (2008–10). Collins was the youngest of four children. Because her father was a career officer in the U.S. Air Force, the family moved frequently, and she spent time in

  • Collins, Ted (American businessman)

    Kate Smith: …in 1930 when she met Ted Collins, an executive with Columbia Records. He became her manager and guided her career until his death in 1964. Collins helped her develop the radio show “Kate Smith Sings” (CBS, 1931–47), one of the most popular programs of the 1930s and early ’40s. On…

  • Collins, Tom (Australian author)

    Joseph Furphy, Australian author whose novels combine an acute sense of local Australian life and colour with the eclectic philosophy and literary ideas of a self-taught workingman. The son of Irish immigrants, Furphy worked as a thresher, teamster, and gold miner before settling down in 1884 at

  • Collins, Wilkie (British author)

    Wilkie Collins, English sensation novelist, early master of the mystery story, and pioneer of detective fiction. The son of William Collins (1788–1847), the landscape painter, he developed a gift for inventing tales while still a schoolboy at a private boarding school. His first published work was

  • Collins, William (American musician)

    Parliament-Funkadelic: October 29, 1979), Bootsy Collins (byname of William Collins; b. October 26, 1951, Cincinnati, Ohio), Fred Wesley (b. July 4, 1943, Columbus, Georgia), Maceo Parker (b. February 14, 1943, Kinston, North Carolina), Jerome Brailey (b. August 20, 1950, Richmond, Virginia), Garry Shider (b. July 24, 1953, Plainfield, New…

  • Collins, William (English poet)

    William Collins, pre-Romantic English poet whose lyrical odes adhered to Neoclassical forms but were Romantic in theme and feeling. Though his literary career was brief and his output slender, he is considered one of the finest English lyric poets of the 18th century. He was educated at Winchester

  • Collins, William James (American poet)

    Billy Collins, American poet whose uncommonly accessible verse—characterized by plain language, gentle humour, and an alert appreciation for the mundane—made him one of the most popular poets in the United States. Collins grew up mainly in Queens, New York. He wrote his first poem at age 12 and

  • Collins, William Wilkie (British author)

    Wilkie Collins, English sensation novelist, early master of the mystery story, and pioneer of detective fiction. The son of William Collins (1788–1847), the landscape painter, he developed a gift for inventing tales while still a schoolboy at a private boarding school. His first published work was

  • Collinson, Peter (British director)

    The Italian Job: Production notes and credits:

  • Collinson, Richard (British naval officer)

    Arctic: 19th-century attempts at the passage: …same time, in 1850, Captain Richard Collinson was to enter from the west and meet Austin in a pincer movement. His two ships became separated in the Pacific, however, and operated independently. Commander Robert (later Sir Robert) McClure in the Investigator discovered Prince of Wales Strait, rounded Banks Island by…

  • Collinsville (Illinois, United States)

    Collinsville, city, Madison and St. Clair counties, southwestern Illinois, U.S. It lies a few miles east of the Mississippi River, opposite St. Louis, Missouri. First settled in 1810 by John Cook of Virginia, the community was laid out in 1837 on bluffs above the river’s floodplain. The village was

  • collision (mechanics)

    Collision, in physics, the sudden, forceful coming together in direct contact of two bodies, such as, for example, two billiard balls, a golf club and a ball, a hammer and a nail head, two railroad cars when being coupled together, or a falling object and a floor. Apart from the properties of the

  • collision avoidance (navigation)

    navigation: …traffic expanded along established routes, collision avoidance became a concern. Emphasis shifted from finding the way to maintaining safe distances between craft moving in various directions at different speeds. Larger ships are easier to see but require more time to change speed or direction. When many ships are in a…

  • collision frequency (physics)

    gas: Mean-free path and collision rate: …to estimate the number of collisions such a typical diffusing molecule experienced (N) and the average distance traveled between collisions (l), called the mean free path. The product of N and l must equal the total distance traveled—i.e., Nl = 5 × 108 cm. This distance can be thought of…

  • collision insurance

    motor vehicle insurance: …insured is judged legally liable; collision insurance pays for damage to the insured car if it collides with another vehicle or object; comprehensive insurance pays for damage to the insured car resulting from fire or theft or many other causes; medical-payment insurance covers medical treatment for the policyholder and his…

  • collision liability (legal term)

    maritime law: Collision liability: Under maritime law responsibility for collision damage is based upon the fault principle: a colliding vessel will not be held responsible for damage to another ship or to a fixed object such as a bridge, wharf, or jetty unless the collision is caused…

  • collision theory (astronomy)

    solar nebula: …most astronomers preferred the so-called collision theory, in which the planets were considered to have been formed as a result of a close approach to the Sun by some other star. Objections to the collision theory more convincing than those against the nebular hypothesis were raised, however, especially as the…

  • collision theory (chemistry)

    Collision theory, theory used to predict the rates of chemical reactions, particularly for gases. The collision theory is based on the assumption that for a reaction to occur it is necessary for the reacting species (atoms or molecules) to come together or collide with one another. Not all

  • collision volume (physics)

    gas: Molecular sizes: …molecules present in this so-called collision volume. If molecules are located by their centres and each molecule has a diameter d, then the collision volume will be a long cylinder of cross-sectional area πd2. The cylinder must be sufficiently long to include enough molecules so that good statistics on the…

  • collision-coalescence (meteorology)

    atmosphere: Liquid droplets: …growth is referred to as collision-coalescence. Warm-cloud rain results when the droplets attain a sufficient size to fall to the ground. Such a raindrop (perhaps about 1 mm [0.04 inch] in radius) contains perhaps one million 10-micrometre cloud droplets. The typical radii of raindrops resulting from this type of precipitation…

  • collisionally excited line (physics)

    Forbidden lines, in astronomical spectroscopy, bright emission lines in the spectra of certain nebulae (H II regions), not observed in the laboratory spectra of the same gases, because on Earth the gases cannot be rarefied sufficiently. The term forbidden is misleading; a more accurate description

  • Collitz, Hermann (American linguist)

    Hermann Collitz, German-born U.S. linguist noted for his work on the Indo-European languages; he contributed to the study of Sanskrit consonants, sound changes in the Germanic languages, and Greek dialectology. His doctoral dissertation at the University of Göttingen (1878) dealt with the origin of

  • Collo Kabylie (mountains, Algeria)

    Kabylie: …Bejaïa (Bougie); and (3) the Collo Kabylie (Kabylie de Collo) forming the hinterland of Cape Bougarʿoun. The Kabylie is joined to the Tell Atlas on the west by the Bou Zegza Mountains.

  • Collo Massif (region, Tunisia)

    Atlas Mountains: Resources: …of Algeria, notably on the Collo Massif.

  • colloblast (zoology)

    ctenophore: Form and function.: …supplied with adhesive cells called colloblasts, which are found only among ctenophores. These cells produce a sticky secretion, to which prey organisms adhere on contact.

  • Collocalia (bird)

    Swiftlet, (genus Collocalia), any of numerous species of cave-dwelling birds belonging to the swift family, Apodidae, found from southeastern Asia (India and Sri Lanka) and the Malay Peninsula through the Philippines, and eastward to the islands of the South Pacific. The taxonomy of the 15 to 20

  • Collocalia fuciphaga (bird)

    apodiform: Importance to humans: …nest of one species, the edible-nest swiftlet (C. fuciphaga), is composed almost entirely of concentric layers of this salivary cement. These nests and, to a lesser extent, those of some other swiftlets are gathered commercially in the East Indies and form the base for the famous bird’s-nest soup of the…

  • Collocalia troglodytes (bird)

    apodiform: Size range and diversity of structure: …such tiny species as the pigmy swiftlet (Collocalia troglodytes) of the Philippines weighs only 5 grams (0.2 ounce), whereas some of the large and powerful members of the Old World genus Apus are 30 times heavier. Beyond the size differences, the most obvious morphological variation among swifts is in the…

  • Collodi, C. (Italian author)

    C. Collodi, Italian author and journalist, best known as the creator of Pinocchio, the childlike puppet whose adventures delight children around the world. As a young man Collodi joined the seminary. The cause of Italian national unification usurped his calling, however, as he took to journalism as

  • collodion (chemical compound)

    nitrocellulose: Chronology of development and use: …composition eventually found use as collodion, employed through the 19th century as a photographic carrier and antiseptic wound sealant.

  • collodion process (photography)

    Wet-collodion process, early photographic technique invented by Englishman Frederick Scott Archer in 1851. The process involved adding a soluble iodide to a solution of collodion (cellulose nitrate) and coating a glass plate with the mixture. In the darkroom the plate was immersed in a solution of

  • collodion wet-plate process (photography)

    Wet-collodion process, early photographic technique invented by Englishman Frederick Scott Archer in 1851. The process involved adding a soluble iodide to a solution of collodion (cellulose nitrate) and coating a glass plate with the mixture. In the darkroom the plate was immersed in a solution of

  • colloform texture (mineralogy)

    mineral: Crystal habit and crystal aggregation: …resembling a bunch of grapes; colloform, spherical forms composed of radiating individuals without regard to size (this includes botryoidal, reniform, and mammillary forms); stalactitic, pendant cylinders or cones resembling icicles; concentric, roughly spherical layers arranged about a common centre, as in agate and in geodes; geode, a partially filled rock…

  • colloid (physics)

    Colloid, any substance consisting of particles substantially larger than atoms or ordinary molecules but too small to be visible to the unaided eye; more broadly, any substance, including thin films and fibres, having at least one dimension in this general size range, which encompasses about 10−7

  • colloid goitre (medical disorder)

    goitre: …common type of goitre is endemic goitre, caused by iodine deficiency. Iodine is an essential nutrient that is required for the production of thyroid hormone. When iodine intake is low, thyroid hormone production is low, and in response the pituitary gland secretes greater quantities of the hormone thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone,…

  • colloid process (photography)

    technology of photography: Colloid and photopolymer processes: A comparatively early non-silver process depended on organic colloid (gum or gelatin) treated with a bichromate. Exposure to light hardened the gelatin, rendering it insoluble, while unexposed portions could be washed away with warm water, leaving a relief image.

  • collophane (mineral)

    Collophane, massive cryptocrystalline apatite, composing the bulk of fossil bone and phosphate rock, commonly carbonate-containing fluorapatite or fluorian hydroxylapatite. Hornlike concretions having a grayish-white, yellowish, or brown colour are common. For detailed physical properties, see

  • colloqui, i (poetry by Gozzano)

    Guido Gozzano: …lifetime was I colloqui (1911; The Colloquies), which addresses the themes of youth, death, creative repression, nostalgia, regret, and contentment. It includes the poems “La signorina Felicita, ovvero, La Felicità” (“Miss Felicita, or, Felicity”), reminiscences of the poet’s visits with a simple middle-class girl, and “Totò Merùmeni,” a self-portrait of…

  • Colloquia (work by Erasmus)

    Erasmus: The Protestant challenge: …his views indirectly through the Colloquia, which had started as schoolboy dialogues but now became a vehicle for commentary. For example, in the colloquy Inquisitio de fide (1522) a Catholic finds to his surprise that Lutherans accept all the dogmas of the faith, that is, the articles of the Apostles’…

  • Colloquies, The (poetry by Gozzano)

    Guido Gozzano: …lifetime was I colloqui (1911; The Colloquies), which addresses the themes of youth, death, creative repression, nostalgia, regret, and contentment. It includes the poems “La signorina Felicita, ovvero, La Felicità” (“Miss Felicita, or, Felicity”), reminiscences of the poet’s visits with a simple middle-class girl, and “Totò Merùmeni,” a self-portrait of…

  • Colloquy (work by Aelfric)

    English literature: Late 10th- and 11th-century prose: His Latin Colloquy, supplied with an Old English version by an anonymous glossarist, gives a fascinating glimpse into the Anglo-Saxon monastic classroom. Aelfric wrote with lucidity and astonishing beauty, using the rhetorical devices of Latin literature frequently but without ostentation; his later alliterative prose, which loosely imitates…

  • Colloquy in Black Rock (poem by Lowell)

    Robert Lowell, Jr.: …during World War II, and “Colloquy in Black Rock,” celebrating the feast of Corpus Christi. In 1947 Lowell was named poetry consultant to the Library of Congress (now poet laureate consultant in poetry), a position he held for one year.

  • Colloquy of the Ancients (Irish literature)

    The Interrogation of the Old Men, in Irish literature, the preeminent tale of the Old Irish Fenian cycle of heroic tales. The “old men” are the Fenian poets Oisín (Ossian) and Caoilte, who, having survived the destruction of their comrades at the Battle of Gabhra, return to Ireland from the

  • Collor de Mello, Fernando (president of Brazil)

    Fernando Collor de Mello, Brazilian politician who served as president of Brazil (1990–92). Born into wealth, Collor de Mello became governor of the small state of Alagoas in 1987. Promising to promote economic growth and combat corruption and inefficiency, Collor de Mello defeated the leftist

  • Collor de Mello, Fernando Affonso (president of Brazil)

    Fernando Collor de Mello, Brazilian politician who served as president of Brazil (1990–92). Born into wealth, Collor de Mello became governor of the small state of Alagoas in 1987. Promising to promote economic growth and combat corruption and inefficiency, Collor de Mello defeated the leftist

  • Collot d’Herbois, Jean-Marie (French radical)

    Jean-Marie Collot d’Herbois, radical democrat and member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled revolutionary France during the period of the Jacobin dictatorship (1793–94). The son of a Parisian goldsmith, Collot d’Herbois became a professional actor and a writer of comedies. In 1787 he was

  • collotype (printing process)

    Collotype, photomechanical printing process that gives accurate reproduction because no halftone screen is employed to break the images into dots. In the process, a plate (aluminum, glass, cellophane, etc.) is coated with a light-sensitive gelatin solution and exposed to light through a p

  • collusion (economics)

    Collusion, secret agreement and cooperation between interested parties for a purpose that is fraudulent, deceitful, or illegal. An example of illegal collusion is a secret agreement between firms to fix prices. Such agreements may be reached in a completely informal fashion. Indeed, enforcing

  • collusive agreement (economics)

    Collusion, secret agreement and cooperation between interested parties for a purpose that is fraudulent, deceitful, or illegal. An example of illegal collusion is a secret agreement between firms to fix prices. Such agreements may be reached in a completely informal fashion. Indeed, enforcing

  • Colluthus of Lycopolis (Greek poet)

    Colluthus of Lycopolis, Greek epic poet now represented by only one extant poem, The Rape of Helen (which was discovered in Calabria, Italy). The short poem (394 verses) is in imitation of Homer and Nonnus and tells the story of Paris and Helen from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis down to Helen’s

  • colluvium (geology)

    Colluvium, soil and debris that accumulate at the base of a slope by mass wasting or sheet erosion. It generally includes angular fragments, not sorted according to size, and may contain slabs of bedrock that dip back toward the slope, indicating both their place of origin and that slumping was

  • Collyn Clout (poem by Skelton)

    John Skelton: …satires, Speke Parrot (written 1521), Collyn Clout (1522), and Why come ye nat to courte (1522), were all directed against the mounting power of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, both in church and in state, and the dangers—as Skelton saw them—of the new learning of the Humanists. Wolsey proved too strong an…

  • Colman of Lindisfarne, Saint (Irish saint)

    Saint Colman of Lindisfarne, ; feast day, Scottish diocese of Argyll and the Isles February 18, elsewhere August 8), important prelate of the early Irish church and monastic founder who led the Celtic party at the crucial Synod of Whitby (663/664), held by the church of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of

  • Colman, George (Canadian author)

    John Glassco, Canadian author whose poetry, short stories, novels, memoirs, and translations are notable for their versatility and sophistication. Glassco abandoned his studies at McGill University, Montreal, to join the expatriate community in Paris, an experience he chronicled in the celebrated

  • Colman, George, the Elder (English dramatist)

    George Colman the Elder, a leading English comic dramatist of his day and an important theatre manager who sought to revive the vigour of Elizabethan drama with adaptations of plays by Beaumont and Fletcher and Ben Jonson. He was the son of Francis Colman, envoy to the grand duke of Tuscany. After

  • Colman, George, the Younger (English playwright)

    George Colman, the Younger, English playwright, writer of scurrilous satiric verse, and theatre manager whose comic operas, farces, melodramas, and sentimental comedies were box-office successes in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Dr. Pangloss, the elderly pedant in The Heir at Law (first

  • Colman, Norman Jay (United States official)

    Norman Jay Colman, farm journalist who, as U.S. commissioner of agriculture, so enlarged the scope and activities of his bureau that it was elevated to the level of a cabinet post. After a short law career, Colman in 1852 moved to St. Louis, where he became editor-publisher of The Valley Farmer

  • Colman, Ronald (British-American actor)

    Ronald Colman, Hollywood film actor whose screen image embodied the archetypal English gentleman. His elegant accent and polished demeanour gave voice to characters who were sophisticated yet graciously heroic, which contrasted with the rugged, action-oriented screen images of American-bred leading

  • Colman, Ronald Charles (British-American actor)

    Ronald Colman, Hollywood film actor whose screen image embodied the archetypal English gentleman. His elegant accent and polished demeanour gave voice to characters who were sophisticated yet graciously heroic, which contrasted with the rugged, action-oriented screen images of American-bred leading

  • Colman, Samuel (American painter)

    Samuel Colman, American painter, whose landscapes of the early West remain popular. Colman was a pupil of Asher Durand in New York City and from 1860 to 1862 studied in Spain, Italy, France, and England. In 1871–76 he was again in Europe. With James D. Smillie, he founded the American Water Color

  • Colmar (France)

    Colmar, town, Haut-Rhin département, Grand Est région, northeastern France. Colmar is located 42 miles (68 km) south-southwest of Strasbourg, 10 miles west of the Rhine River, bordering the German frontier and a few miles east of the foothills of the Vosges Mountains. It is on the main railway from

  • Colmar, Charles Xavier Thomas de (French mathematician)

    Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar, French mathematician. In 1820, while serving in the French army, he built his first arithmometer, which could perform basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The first mechanical calculator to gain widespread use, it became a commercial success

  • colmena, La (work by Cela)

    Camilo José Cela: …second novel, La colmena (1951; The Hive), with its fragmented chronology and large cast of characters, is an innovative and perceptive story of postwar Madrid. It solidified Cela’s critical and popular reputation. Another of his better-known avant-garde novels, San Camilo, 1936 (1969), is one continuous stream of consciousness. His later…

  • Colmerauer, Alain (computer scientist)

    artificial intelligence programming language: …en Logique) was conceived by Alain Colmerauer at the University of Aix-Marseille, France, where the language was first implemented in 1973. PROLOG was further developed by the logician Robert Kowalski, a member of the AI group at the University of Edinburgh. This language makes use of a powerful theorem-proving technique…

  • Colmes, Alan (American radio and television commentator)

    Alan Colmes, American talk radio and television news commentator. Colmes came to national prominence in his role as cohost of the Fox News Channel’s political debate show Hannity & Colmes. He is also host of The Alan Colmes Show, a nationally syndicated late-night talk radio program on Fox News

  • Colneceaste (England, United Kingdom)

    Colchester, town and borough (district), administrative and historic county of Essex, England. It occupies the northeastern part of the county on the River Colne. As Camulodunum, the town of Colchester was the capital of the pre-Roman Belgic ruler Cunobelinus and is so named on his coins. Although

  • Coloane (island, Macau, China)

    Macau: …the islands of Taipa and Coloane, which are joined by an expanse of land that was reclaimed from the sea and is known as Cotai. Extending up a hillside is the city of Macau, which occupies almost the entire peninsula. The name Macau, or Macao (Pinyin: Aomen; Wade-Giles romanization: Ao-men),…

  • Coloane, Francisco (Chilean author)

    Francisco Coloane, Chilean author (born July 19, 1910, Quemchi, Chile—died Aug. 5, 2002, Santiago, Chile), penned seafaring adventure tales that were wildly popular and critically praised. His stories drew on local legends and reflected the landscape of the harsh Chilean coast, particularly T

  • Colobinae (primate subfamily)

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