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  • colitis (pathology)

    Ulcerative colitis, inflammation of the large intestine (colon), especially of its mucous membranes, characterized by patches of tiny ulcers in the inflamed membranese. The most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. Other symptoms include fatigue, weight

  • Colius (bird genus)

    Coly, any member of the genus Colius, a group of African birds that, because of their long, drooping tails, look much like mice when seen running along branches. The single genus (Colius) and six species constitute the family Coliidae, order Coliiformes. The body is sparrow sized, but the tail m

  • Colla (people)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The beginnings of external expansion: …between two Aymara-speaking kingdoms, the Colla and the Lupaca, in the northern part of the Titicaca Basin. The Inca allied themselves with the Lupaca, probably because the Colla were located between themselves and the Lupaca. But before the Inca could attack, the Colla attacked the Lupaca and were defeated. The…

  • collaboration system (information system)

    information system: Collaboration systems: The main objectives of collaboration systems are to facilitate communication and teamwork among the members of an organization and across organizations. One type of collaboration system, known as a workflow system, is used to route relevant documents automatically to all appropriate individuals for…

  • collaborative software

    Collaborative software, type of computer program that shares data between more than one computer for processing. In particular, several programs have been written to harness the vast number of computers connected to the Internet. Rather than run a screen saver program when idle, these computers can

  • Colladon, Daniel (Swiss physicist)

    acoustics: Measuring the speed of sound: …water was first measured by Daniel Colladon, a Swiss physicist, in 1826. Strangely enough, his primary interest was not in measuring the speed of sound in water but in calculating water’s compressibility—a theoretical relationship between the speed of sound in a material and the material’s compressibility having been established previously.…

  • collage (art)

    Collage, (French: “pasting”), artistic technique of applying manufactured, printed, or “found” materials, such as bits of newspaper, fabric, wallpaper, etc., to a panel or canvas, frequently in combination with painting. In the 19th century, papiers collés were created from papers cut out and put

  • Collage (dance by Cunningham)

    Merce Cunningham: Symphonie pour un homme seul (1952; later called Collage) was performed to Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Henry’s composition of the same name and was the first performance in the United States of musique concrète, or music constructed from tape-recorded environmental sounds.

  • collage novel (art)

    Max Ernst: …100 Heads, his first “collage novel”—a sequence of illustrations assembled from 19th- and 20th-century reading material and a format which he is credited with having invented. Soon afterward he created the collage novels A Little Girl Dreams of Taking the Veil (1930) and A Week of Kindness (1934).

  • collagen (protein)

    Collagen, any of a group of proteins that are components of whitish, rather inelastic fibres of great tensile strength present in tendon and ligament and in the connective tissue layer of the skin—dermis—and in dentin and cartilage. Collagenous fibres occur in bundles up to several hundred microns

  • collagen fibre (connective tissue)

    cornea: The collagen fibres that make up the corneal stroma (middle layer) are arranged in a strictly regular, geometric fashion. This arrangement has been shown to be the essential factor resulting in the cornea’s transparency. When the cornea is damaged by infection or trauma, the collagen laid…

  • collagraphy (art)

    printmaking: Collagraphy: Like the metal graphic process, collagraphy is an additive method; the printing surface is built up. It is essentially an intaglio method, but it can be combined with relief printing. The printing surface is created by gluing various materials and textures to a support.…

  • Collapse into Now (album by R.E.M.)

    R.E.M.: …returned to the studio for Collapse into Now (2011), an album that combined power pop, straightforward rock, and acoustic ballads into a single audio palette, unified by Buck’s masterful guitar work. In September 2011, after more than three decades at the forefront of rock music, the members of R.E.M. announced…

  • Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940, The (work by Shirer)

    William L. Shirer: …other major historical work is The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France in 1940 (1969). The book is considered by some to be the best one-volume study of France during the period between the world wars. In 1979 Shirer published Gandhi: A Memoir, in…

  • collapse theory (quantum mechanics)

    philosophy of physics: The theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber: …law of the so-called “collapse” of the wave function.

  • collar (clothing)

    Troy: …early 1800s of the detachable collar by a Troy housewife. Clothing dominated the city’s economy after the introduction of the sewing machine in 1852, but a more diversified economy (including auto-parts, high-technology, clothing, and heavy gardening equipment industries) now prevails. Troy is the home of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1824), Russell…

  • collar cell (biology)

    reproductive behaviour: Protozoans and sponges: …up by specialized cells called choanocytes and carried to the egg. Fertilization takes place when a choanocyte fuses with the egg. The free-swimming larval stage that is produced is of short duration, after which the organism settles on the bottom and becomes a new adult sponge.

  • collarbone (anatomy)

    Clavicle, curved anterior bone of the shoulder (pectoral) girdle in vertebrates; it functions as a strut to support the shoulder. The clavicle is present in mammals with prehensile forelimbs and in bats, and it is absent in sea mammals and those adapted for running. The wishbone, or furcula, of

  • collard (plant)

    Collard, (Brassica oleracea, variety acephala), form of cabbage, of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The plant is a source of nutritionally important minerals and vitamins A and C. It is commonly raised as a source of winter greens in the southern United States, where it is customarily boiled

  • collared dove (bird)

    turtledove: …the other Streptopelia species, including collared doves (S. decaocto) and ring-necked doves (S. capicola). These slim-bodied, fast-flying gamebirds are found throughout the temperate and tropical Old World. The ringed turtledove, or ringdove, is a domestic variant of S. turtur that now has feral New World populations in California and Florida;…

  • collared flagellate (protozoan)

    Choanoflagellate, any protozoan of the flagellate order Choanoflagellida (sometimes classified in the order Kinetoplastida) having a transparent food-gathering collar of cytoplasm around the base of the flagellum. Many choanoflagellates are solitary and sessile (attached to a surface), with or

  • collared hemipode (bird)

    Plains wanderer, (species Pedionomus torquatus), Australian bird resembling a tiny quail. It has a mottled reddish brown body and a collar of black spots against a white throat. The plains wanderer constitutes the family Pedionomidae (order Gruiformes) but is placed by some authorities in the b

  • collared lemming (rodent)

    lemming: The colour of the collared lemming varies seasonally. During the summer its coat is gray tinged with buff or reddish brown and with dark stripes on the face and back. In the winter they molt into a white coat and develop forked digging claws. Other species are gray, sandy…

  • collared lizard (reptile)

    Collared lizard, (genus Crotaphytus), any of nine species of lizards belonging to the lizard subfamily Crotaphytinae (family Crotaphytidae) found in hilly areas of the central United States and northeastern Mexico westward to the Great Basin. The coloration and pattern of collared lizards varies

  • collared peccary (mammal)

    peccary: The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is the smallest and the most common, living throughout the entire tayassuid range in a variety of habitats. Distinguished by a pale stripe around the neck, collared peccaries are less than a metre (three feet) long and weigh between 17 and…

  • collared pika (mammal)

    pika: The collared pika (O. collaris) of Alaska and northern Canada has been found on the isolated nunataks (crags or peaks surrounded by glaciers) in Kluane National Park, and O. macrotis has been recorded at 6,130 metres (20,113 feet) on the slopes of the Himalayas. The pika…

  • collared puffbird (bird)

    puffbird: Widespread species include the collared puffbird (Bucco capensis), 18 cm (7 inches) long, in northern South America east of the Andes; and the white-necked, or large-billed, puffbird (Notharchus macrorhynchos), 24 cm (9 inches) long, ranging from Mexico to Argentina.

  • Collateral (film by Mann [2004])

    Tom Cruise: …and the gritty Los Angeles-set Collateral (2004), in which he took on the role of an obdurate contract killer. He reteamed with Spielberg on War of the Worlds (2005), a visually impressive adaptation of the H.G. Wells novel of the same name. In 2008 Cruise earned laughs as an abrasive…

  • collateral (finance)

    Collateral, a borrower’s pledge to a lender of something specific that is used to secure the repayment of a loan (see credit). The collateral is pledged when the loan contract is signed and serves as protection for the lender. If the borrower ends up not making the agreed-upon principal and

  • Collateral Beauty (film by Frankel [2016])

    Edward Norton: …next appeared in the sentimental Collateral Beauty (2016), playing the coworker of a grieving father. He later lent his voice to a mangy canine in Anderson’s stop-motion animated feature, Isle of Dogs (2018). In 2019 he returned to the director’s chair for Motherless Brooklyn, an adaptation of Jonathan Lethem’s novel…

  • collateral bundle (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Stems: … and phloem is called a collateral bundle; the outer portion of the procambium (adjacent to the cortex) becomes phloem, and the inner portion (adjacent to the pith) becomes xylem. In a bicollateral bundle, the phloem is both outside and inside the xylem, as in Solanaceae (the potato family) and Cucurbitaceae…

  • Collateral Council (Neapolitan history)

    Italy: The Kingdom of Naples: …in the kingdom was the Collateral Council, comprising five regents presided over by the viceroy, with a judicial council and a financial council exercising their respective competencies at its side. A new elite of lawyers, a “nobility of the robe,” began to emerge, sustaining the Spanish regime with its indispensable…

  • collateral estoppel (law)

    procedural law: Effects of the judgment: The related doctrine of collateral estoppel (also called issue preclusion) precludes the parties from relitigating, in a second suit based on a different claim, any issue of fact common to both suits that was actually litigated and necessarily determined in the first suit. At the start of the 20th…

  • collateral kin (anthropology)

    consanguinity: Lineal and collateral kin: A great-grandparent and great-grandchild are genetically related to the same degree as a pair of first cousins. The grandparent is, however, a lineal kinsman, whereas the cousin is collateral kin. In genetics the degree of consanguinity is the sole factor of significance, but…

  • collateral trust bond (finance)

    security: Bonds: Another type is a collateral trust bond, in which the security consists of intangible property, usually stocks and bonds owned by the corporation. Railroads and other transportation companies sometimes finance the purchase of rolling stock with equipment obligations, in which the security is the rolling stock itself.

  • collateralized debt obligation (finance)

    securitization: …an asset-backed security (ABS) or collateralized debt obligation (CDO). If the pool of debt instruments consists primarily of mortgages, the bond is referred to as a mortgage-backed security (MBS). The holders of such securities are entitled to the receipt of principal and interest payments on the debts underlying them.

  • collatio lustralis (Roman tax)

    Constantine I: Legacy: …of a new tax, the collatio lustralis. It was levied every five years upon trade and business and seems to have become genuinely oppressive.

  • collation (textual criticism)

    textual criticism: Recension: They must then be collated; i.e., the variant readings that they contain must be registered by comparison with some selected form of the text, often a standard printed edition. Where the number of witnesses is large, collation may have to be of selected passages. If there is only one…

  • Collationes (work by Odo)

    Saint Odo of Cluny: Abbot of Cluny: …most important works are the Collationes (“Conferences”) and the De vita sancti Gerardi (Life of St. Gerald of Aurillac). The Collationes is both a commentary on the virtues and vices of men in society and a spiritual meditation modeled on a work of the same name by the monk and…

  • Collations of the Fathers (work by Cassian)

    Christianity: Eastern Christianity: …Collations of the Fathers, or Conferences. Gregory of Nyssa, the younger brother of St. Basil the Great, sketched out a model for progress in the mystical path in his Life of Moses and, following the example of Origen, devoted a number of homilies to a mystical interpretation of the Song…

  • Colleano, Con (Australian actor)

    circus: Acts of skill: …her apparatus broke); the Australian-born Con Colleano, the “Toreador of the Tight Wire,” whose dance on the wire to a Spanish cadence thrilled American audiences from 1925 until his retirement in 1959; Antoinette Concello, who became the first woman to perform the triple somersault on the trapeze in 1937; and…

  • collect on delivery (business)

    Cash on delivery (C.O.D.), a common business term indicating that goods must be paid for at the time of delivery. The payment is usually due in cash but may be made by check if acceptable to the seller. The transfer agent very often used is the postal service, but it is common for consumer and

  • Collectanea (work by Leland)

    John Leland: …Leland’s manuscripts—including his important five-volume Collectanea, with notes on antiquities, catalogs of manuscripts in monastic libraries, and Leland’s account of British writers—was deposited (1632) in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. They had in the meantime been freely drawn upon by many other antiquarians, notably by John Bale (who edited the…

  • collected canter (horsemanship)

    canter: In the short form, or collected canter, a gait seen in dressage or three-gaited classes, a much higher head and neck is featured, as is a more visible point of suspension.

  • Collected Greed: Parts 1-13, The (poetry by Wakoski)

    Diane Wakoski: The Collected Greed: Parts 1–13 (1984), in which “greed” is defined as “failing to choose,” contains previously published as well as unpublished poetry.

  • Collected Letters of a Renaissance Feminist (work by Cereta)

    feminism: The ancient world: …15th-century Venetian woman who published Epistolae familiares (1488; “Personal Letters”; Eng. trans. Collected Letters of a Renaissance Feminist), a volume of letters dealing with a panoply of women’s complaints, from denial of education and marital oppression to the frivolity of women’s attire.

  • Collected Papers (work by Park)

    Robert E. Park: Three volumes of his Collected Papers, edited by Everett C. Hughes and others, were published between 1950 and 1955. The second volume deals with the city and with human ecology, which was the title of a course taught by Park at the University of Chicago in 1926.

  • Collected Poems (poetry by Ponsot)

    Marie Ponsot: …and Selected Poems (2002), and Collected Poems (2016).

  • Collected Poems 1934–52 (poetry by Thomas)

    Dylan Thomas: In 1952 Thomas published his Collected Poems, which exhibited the deeper insight and superb craftsmanship of a major 20th-century English poet. The volume was an immediate success on both sides of the Atlantic. But, because of the insistence of the Inland Revenue, his monetary difficulties persisted. He coped with his…

  • Collected Poems of Lucille Clifton: 1965–2010, The (poetry by Clifton)

    Lucille Clifton: The Collected Poems of Lucille Clifton: 1965–2010 (2012) aggregated much of her oeuvre, including a substantial number of unpublished poems.

  • Collected Poems, 1930–1976 (poetry by Eberhart)

    Richard Eberhart: His works include Collected Poems, 1930–1976 (1976; National Book Award), Of Poetry and Poets (1979), New and Selected Poems (1990), and a book of criticism. From 1959 to 1961 Eberhart was consultant in poetry to the Library of Congress (now poet laureate consultant in poetry). In 1962 he…

  • Collected Poems, The (poetry by Plath)

    Sylvia Plath: The Collected Poems, which includes many previously unpublished poems, appeared in 1981 and received the 1982 Pulitzer Prize for poetry, making Plath the first to receive the honour posthumously. A book for children that she had written in 1959, The It-Doesn’t-Matter Suit, was published in…

  • Collected Short Stories (work by Porter)

    Katherine Anne Porter: Porter’s Collected Short Stories (1965) won the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize for fiction. Her essays, articles, and book reviews were collected in The Days Before (1952; augmented 1970). Her last work, published in 1977, when she suffered a disabling stroke, was The Never-Ending…

  • Collected Stories, The (short stories by Davis)

    Lydia Davis: Davis’s The Collected Stories, a compilation of stories written over 30 years, was published in 2009, and she published a book of new short stories, Can’t and Won’t, in 2014. In addition to stories, she published a novel, The End of the Story (1995), in which…

  • collected walk (dressage)

    dressage: …great importance to dressage is collection, in which the horse’s gaits are shortened and raised by bringing the balance rearward to lighten the forehand, thus giving special agility in a limited space. This change is made without sacrificing ability to move freely. The desired result is that the horse will…

  • collecting (leisure)

    conservation: Logging and collecting: Similar cases of overharvested species are found in terrestrial ecosystems. For example, even when forests are not completely cleared, particularly valuable trees such as mahogany may be selectively logged from an area, eliminating both the tree species and all the animals that depend on…

  • collecting tubule (anatomy)

    Renal collecting tubule, any of the long narrow tubes in the kidney that concentrate and transport urine from the nephrons, the chief functioning units of the kidneys, to larger ducts that connect with the renal calyces, cavities in which urine gathers until it flows through the renal pelvis and

  • Collectio canonum Isidoriana (canon law)

    St. Isidore of Sevilla: …the original edition of the Hispana collectio, the canon law of the Spanish church sometimes known as the Collectio canonum Isidoriana (“The Collection of the Canons of Isidore”); a mid-9th-century enlarged edition of the Hispana, falsely attributed to Isidore, is now called the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals. He was canonized by Pope…

  • Collectio Hibernensis (canon law)

    canon law: Development of canon law in the West: The Collectio Hibernensis (“Hibernian [or Irish] Collection”), of about 700, used texts from Scripture—mainly from the Old Testament—for the first time in canonical collections, and texts from the Greek and Latin early Church Fathers in addition to canons. The Liber ex lege Moysi (“Book from the…

  • Collectio Quesnelliana (canon law)

    canon law: Development of canon law in the West: …Spain, and Rome, including the Collectio Quesnelliana (an early 6th-century canonical collection named for its publisher, the 17th-century Jansenist scholar Pasquier Quesnel), circulated there. In about 480 Gennadius, a priest from Marseille, wrote the Statuta ecclesiae antiqua (“Ancient Statutes of the Church”), principally inspired by the Constitutiones Apostolicae

  • Collectio tripartita (canon law)

    canon law: Eastern churches: The Collectio tripartita (“Tripartite Collection”), from the end of the 6th century and composed of the entire Justinian ecclesiastical legislation, was the most widely distributed. The nomocanons were expressions of the fusion of imperial and church authority. The Nomocanon 50 titulorum (“Canon Law of 50 Titles”)…

  • collection (dressage)

    dressage: …great importance to dressage is collection, in which the horse’s gaits are shortened and raised by bringing the balance rearward to lighten the forehand, thus giving special agility in a limited space. This change is made without sacrificing ability to move freely. The desired result is that the horse will…

  • collection (biology)

    hunting: Later history: The idea of game preservation arose in feudal times when the right to hunt became attached to the ownership of land. Because of their hereditary claim to the title Lord High Masters of the Chase for the Holy Roman Empire, the electors of Saxony enjoyed exceptional opportunities to hunt.…

  • Collection of 87 Chapters (work by Scholasticus)

    John Scholasticus: …Constantinople he composed the “Collection of 87 Chapters,” a synthesis of the emperor Justinian’s supplementary legislation on church matters. Among other works attributed to John are theological writings relative to Trinitarian doctrinal controversy, the “Catechetical Discourse,” and instructions for religious initiation, the “Mystagogia.”

  • Collection of Canons (compilation by Scholasticus)

    John Scholasticus: 545, John compiled the “Collection of Canons,” the earliest catalog of Byzantine Church legislation that has been preserved. It collated imperial ecclesiastical statutes with those of the 4th-century theologian-legislator Basil of Cappadocia. At Constantinople he composed the “Collection of 87 Chapters,” a synthesis of the emperor Justinian’s supplementary legislation…

  • Collection of Private Devotions (work by Cosin)

    John Cosin: …and subsequently wrote the famed Collection of Private Devotions (1627) at the request of King Charles I for a daily prayer book at court. He became master of Peterhouse, Cambridge, in 1634 and patronized the revival of Gothic art and architecture. He was exiled in Paris during the Puritan Commonwealth…

  • Collection of Spiritual Songs and Hymns Selected from Various Authors, A (American hymnal)

    gospel music: Black gospel music: A Collection of Spiritual Songs and Hymns Selected from Various Authors (1801) was the first hymnal intended for use in black worship. It contained texts written mostly by 18th-century British clergymen, such as Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley, but also included a number of poems…

  • Collection of Tales from Uji, A (Japanese literary work)

    Japanese literature: Kamakura period (1192–1333): …the most enjoyable is the Uji shūi monogatari (A Collection of Tales from Uji), a compilation made over a period of years of some 197 brief stories. Although the incidents described in these tales are often similar to those found in Konjaku monogatari, they are told with considerably greater literary…

  • collective action (social science)

    collective action problem: Collective action problem, problem, inherent to collective action, that is posed by disincentives that tend to discourage joint action by individuals in the pursuit of a common goal.

  • collective action problem

    Collective action problem, problem, inherent to collective action, that is posed by disincentives that tend to discourage joint action by individuals in the pursuit of a common goal. Collective action occurs when a number of people work together to achieve some common objective. However, it has

  • collective bargaining (economics)

    Collective bargaining, the ongoing process of negotiation between representatives of workers and employers to establish the conditions of employment. The collectively determined agreement may cover not only wages but hiring practices, layoffs, promotions, job functions, working conditions and

  • collective behaviour (psychology)

    Collective behaviour, the kinds of activities engaged in by sizable but loosely organized groups of people. Episodes of collective behaviour tend to be quite spontaneous, resulting from an experience shared by the members of the group that engenders a sense of common interest and identity. The

  • Collective Choice and Social Welfare (work by Sen)

    Amartya Sen: ” His influential monograph Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1970)—which addressed problems such as individual rights, majority rule, and the availability of information about individual conditions—inspired researchers to turn their attention to issues of basic welfare. Sen devised methods of measuring poverty that yielded useful information for improving economic…

  • Collective Dada Manifesto (work by Hülsenbeck)
  • collective farm (Soviet agriculture)

    Kolkhoz, in the former Soviet Union, a cooperative agricultural enterprise operated on state-owned land by peasants from a number of households who belonged to the collective and who were paid as salaried employees on the basis of quality and quantity of labour contributed. Conceived as a voluntary

  • collective guilt (ethics)

    Karl Jaspers: Postwar development of thought: …same responsibility and shared a collective guilt. He felt that the fact that no one could escape this collective guilt and responsibility might enable the German people to transform their society from its state of collapse into a more highly developed and morally responsible democracy. The fact that these ideas…

  • Collective House (building, Stockholm, Sweden)

    Sven Markelius: …more experimental works is the Collective House (1935) in Stockholm, which provided communal kitchens, restaurants, nurseries, and other domestic facilities to accommodate families in which both parents worked outside the home.

  • collective model (physics)

    Collective model, description of atomic nuclei that incorporates aspects of both the shell nuclear model and the liquid-drop model to explain certain magnetic and electric properties that neither of the two separately can explain. In the shell model, nuclear energy levels are calculated on the

  • collective obsession (psychology)

    collective behaviour: Collective obsessions: The various kinds of collective obsession—fads, hysterias, and the like—have three main features in common. (1) The most conspicuous sign is a remarkable increase in the frequency and intensity with which people engage in a specific kind of behaviour or assert a belief.…

  • collective operation (mechanics)

    elevator: Collective operation is popular for use with a single elevator in a building. The car answers all calls in one direction in sequence and then reverses and answers all calls in the opposite direction. It is used in larger apartments, hospitals, and small office buildings.…

  • collective pitch control (aeronautics)

    helicopter: Control functions: A helicopter has four controls: collective pitch control, throttle control, antitorque control, and cyclic pitch control.

  • collective poverty

    poverty: Collective poverty: In contrast to cyclical poverty, which is temporary, widespread or “collective” poverty involves a relatively permanent insufficiency of means to secure basic needs—a condition that may be so general as to describe the average level of life in a society or that may…

  • collective security (international relations)

    Collective security, system by which states have attempted to prevent or stop wars. Under a collective security arrangement, an aggressor against any one state is considered an aggressor against all other states, which act together to repel the aggressor. Collective security arrangements have

  • collective unconscious (psychology)

    Collective unconscious, term introduced by psychiatrist Carl Jung to represent a form of the unconscious (that part of the mind containing memories and impulses of which the individual is not aware) common to mankind as a whole and originating in the inherited structure of the brain. It is distinct

  • collective violence

    Collective violence, violent form of collective behaviour engaged in by large numbers of people responding to a common stimulus. Collective violence can be placed on a continuum, with one extreme involving the spontaneous behaviour of people who react to situations they perceive as uncertain,

  • Collective, The (American philosphical group)

    Ayn Rand: The Collective and the Nathaniel Branden Institute: In 1950 Rand agreed to meet a young admirer, Nathan Blumenthal, on the basis of his several articulate fan letters. The two established an immediate rapport, and Blumenthal and his girlfriend, Barbara Weidman, became Rand’s friends as well…

  • collectively deformed model (physics)

    Collective model, description of atomic nuclei that incorporates aspects of both the shell nuclear model and the liquid-drop model to explain certain magnetic and electric properties that neither of the two separately can explain. In the shell model, nuclear energy levels are calculated on the

  • collectivism (sociology)

    Collectivism, any of several types of social organization in which the individual is seen as being subordinate to a social collectivity such as a state, a nation, a race, or a social class. Collectivism may be contrasted with individualism (q.v.), in which the rights and interests of the

  • Collectivité Territoriale de Corse (island and territorial collectivity, France)

    Corsica, collectivité territoriale (territorial collectivity) of France and island in the Mediterranean Sea embracing (from 1976) the départements of Haute-Corse and Corse-du-Sud. Corsica is the fourth largest island (after Sicily, Sardinia, and Cyprus) in the Mediterranean. It lies 105 miles (170

  • Collectivité Territoriale de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon (archipelago, North America)

    Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, archipelago about 15 miles (25 km) off the southern coast of the island of Newfoundland, Canada, a collectivité of France since 1985. The area of the main islands is 93 square miles (242 square km), 83 square miles (215 square km) of which are in the Miquelons (Miquelon

  • collectivization (agricultural policy)

    Collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between 1929 and 1933, to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants). Under collectivization the peasantry were forced to give up

  • collector (transistor terminal)

    semiconductor device: Bipolar transistors: …the p region is the collector. The circuit arrangement in Figure 4B is known as a common-base configuration. The arrows indicate the directions of current flow under normal operating conditions—namely, the emitter-base junction is forward-biased and the base-collector junction is reverse-biased. The complementary structure of the p-n-p bipolar transistor is…

  • collector (Indian government official)

    Rajasthan: Constitutional framework: In each district the collector, who is also the district magistrate, is the principal representative of the administration. The collector functions in close cooperation with the superintendent of police to maintain law and order in the district and serves as the principal revenue officer. For administrative purposes, each district…

  • Collector of Treasures, The (work by Head)

    Bessie Emery Head: The Collector of Treasures (1977), a volume of short fiction, includes brief vignettes of traditional Botswanan village life, macabre tales of witchcraft, and passionate attacks on African male chauvinism.

  • Collector, The (film by Wyler [1965])

    William Wyler: Films of the 1960s: The Collector (1965), based on a chilling novel by John Fowles, followed; it focused on a mild-mannered bank clerk (Terence Stamp) whose collection of butterflies is expanded one day to include a young woman (Samantha Eggar) whom he kidnaps and imprisons in his basement. This…

  • Collector, The (novel by Fowles)

    John Fowles: His first novel, The Collector (1963; filmed 1965), about a shy man who kidnaps a girl in a hapless search for love, was an immediate success. This was followed by The Aristos: A Self-Portrait in Ideas (1964), a collection of essays reflecting Fowles’s views on such subjects as…

  • Collectorium circa IV libros sententiarum (commentary by Biel)

    Gabriel Biel: Biel’s Collectorium circa IV libros sententiarum, a classical commentary on the celebrated Sentences by Bishop Peter Lombard of Paris, gives a clear and methodical exposition of the teaching of the great English philosopher William of Ockham, whose doctrine Biel supported. The work was so influential that…

  • Colledge, Cecilia (British figure skater)

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