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  • cognitive equilibrium (psychology)

    Cognitive equilibrium, a state of balance between individuals’ mental schemata, or frameworks, and their environment. Such balance occurs when their expectations, based on prior knowledge, fit with new knowledge. The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget used the concept of equilibrium to describe one of

  • cognitive ethology (animal behaviour)

    Donald Redfield Griffin: He is credited with founding cognitive ethology, a field that studies thought processes in animals.

  • cognitive faculty (thought process)

    Cognition, the states and processes involved in knowing, which in their completeness include perception and judgment. Cognition includes all conscious and unconscious processes by which knowledge is accumulated, such as perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning. Put differently, cognition

  • cognitive mapping (neuroscience)

    Edvard I. Moser: …of their function in generating spatial coordinates used by animals to navigate their environment. Moser’s research had important implications for scientists’ understanding of spatial representation in the mammalian brain and offered insight into spatial deficits in neurological disease and the neural processes involved in memory and thinking. For his contributions…

  • cognitive motivation (psychology)

    motivation: Cognitive motivation: Cognitive theories of motivation assume that behaviour is directed as a result of the active processing and interpretation of information. Motivation is not seen as a mechanical or innate set of processes but as a purposive and persistent set of behaviours based on…

  • cognitive psychology

    Cognitive psychology, Branch of psychology devoted to the study of human cognition, particularly as it affects learning and behaviour. The field grew out of advances in Gestalt, developmental, and comparative psychology and in computer science, particularly information-processing research.

  • cognitive revolution (psychology)

    psychology: Impact and aftermath of the cognitive revolution: By the early 1960s the relevance of the Skinnerian approach for understanding complex mental processes was seriously questioned. The linguist Noam Chomsky’s critical review of Skinner’s theory of “verbal behaviour” in 1959 showed that it could not properly account for human language acquisition.…

  • cognitive science

    Cognitive science, the interdisciplinary scientific investigation of the mind and intelligence. It encompasses the ideas and methods of psychology, linguistics, philosophy, computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), neuroscience (see neurology), and anthropology. The term cognition, as used by

  • cognitive style (psychology)

    George S. Klein: Schlesinger introduced the term cognitive style to refer to the combination of several cognitive controls within a single person. Klein also did research on subliminal (below consciousness) perception and altered states of consciousness. Throughout his career, he tried to adapt the experimental methods characteristic of cognitive psychology to the…

  • cognitive taxonomy (educational psychology)

    Bloom's taxonomy: Understanding education and its objectives: …was not only in a cognitive taxonomy but also constituted a reform in how teachers thought about the questioning process within the classroom. Indeed, the taxonomy was originally structured as a way of helping faculty members think about the different types of test items that could be used to measure…

  • cognitive-contextual theory (psychology)

    human intelligence: Cognitive-contextual theories: Cognitive-contextual theories deal with the way that cognitive processes operate in various settings. Two of the major theories of this type are that of the American psychologist Howard Gardner and that of Sternberg. In 1983 Gardner challenged the assumption of a single intelligence…

  • cognitive-role semantics (semantics)

    semantics: Conceptual-role semantics: In order to avoid having to distinguish between meaning and character, some philosophers, including Gilbert Harman and Ned Block, have recommended supplementing a theory of truth with what is called a conceptual-role semantics (also known as cognitive-role, computational-role, or inferential-role semantics). According to…

  • cognitivism (metaethics)

    Cognitivism, In metaethics, the thesis that the function of moral sentences (e.g., sentences in which moral terms such as “right,” “wrong,” and “ought” are used) is to describe a domain of moral facts existing independently of our subjective thoughts and feelings, and that moral statements can

  • cognizone del dolore, La (work by Gadda)

    Carlo Emilio Gadda: …del dolore (1963, revised 1970; Acquainted with Grief) is autobiographical, though its setting is transferred from modern Italy to an invented South American country.

  • cognomen (name)

    name: European patterns of naming: …a hereditary name, called a cognomen.

  • cogon grass (plant)

    Cogon grass, (Imperata cylindrica), species of perennial grass in the family Poaceae, native to temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. Cogon grass is a serious weed in cultivated areas of South Africa and Australia and is considered an invasive species in many areas outside its native

  • cogwheel

    gear: …component consisting of a toothed wheel attached to a rotating shaft. Gears operate in pairs to transmit and modify rotary motion and torque (turning force) without slip, the teeth of one gear engaging the teeth on a mating gear. If the teeth on a pair of mating gears are arranged…

  • cohabitation (sociology)

    family law: …solution may be to terminate cohabitation or to remove an abused child from the family unit into some form of public or foster custody.

  • cohabitation (politics)

    Cohabitation, in politics, the state of affairs in which a head of state serves with an antagonistic parliamentary majority. In semipresidential systems such as that of France, cohabitation entails that the offices of president and prime minister are held by members of competing political parties.

  • Cohan, George M. (American composer and dramatist)

    George M. Cohan, American actor, popular songwriter, playwright, and producer especially of musical comedies, who became famous as the “Yankee Doodle Dandy.” At an early age he performed with his parents and sister, subsequently taking comedy roles in vaudeville and on the legitimate stage. By 1893

  • Cohan, George Michael (American composer and dramatist)

    George M. Cohan, American actor, popular songwriter, playwright, and producer especially of musical comedies, who became famous as the “Yankee Doodle Dandy.” At an early age he performed with his parents and sister, subsequently taking comedy roles in vaudeville and on the legitimate stage. By 1893

  • cohanim (Jewish priest)

    Cohen, Jewish priest, one who is a descendant of Zadok, founder of the priesthood of Jerusalem when the First Temple was built by Solomon (10th century bc) and through Zadok related to Aaron, the first Jewish priest, who was appointed to that office by his younger brother, Moses. Though laymen such

  • Cohansey Bridge (New Jersey, United States)

    Bridgeton, city, seat (1749) of Cumberland county, southwestern New Jersey, U.S. It lies along Cohansey Creek, 38 miles (61 km) south of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The site was settled by Richard Hancock in 1686, and its first name was Cohansey Bridge, for a bridge (1718) that spanned the creek.

  • Cohasset (Massachusetts, United States)

    Cohasset, town (township), Norfolk county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along Massachusetts Bay, about 20 miles (30 km) southeast of Boston. Captain John Smith supposedly landed there in 1614, and the site, settled about 1647, was a part of Hingham until its incorporation in 1770. The name

  • cohen (Jewish priest)

    Cohen, Jewish priest, one who is a descendant of Zadok, founder of the priesthood of Jerusalem when the First Temple was built by Solomon (10th century bc) and through Zadok related to Aaron, the first Jewish priest, who was appointed to that office by his younger brother, Moses. Though laymen such

  • Cohen v. California (law case)

    First Amendment: Permissible restrictions on expression: …may not be punished (Cohen v. California [1971]).

  • Cohen, Albert (Greek-born French-Jewish author and diplomat)

    Albert Cohen, Greek-born French-Jewish novelist, journalist, and diplomat who secured his reputation with a trilogy written over the course of 38 years. From 1900 Cohen was reared in Marseilles, France. He studied law in Geneva, became a Swiss citizen, and began a career as a writer and as a civil

  • Cohen, Albert (American criminologist)

    Albert Cohen, American criminologist best known for his subcultural theory of delinquent gangs. In 1993 Cohen received the Edwin H. Sutherland Award from the American Society of Criminology for his outstanding contributions to criminological theory and research. Cohen earned an M.A. in sociology

  • Cohen, Alexander Henry (American theatrical producer)

    Alexander Henry Cohen, American theatrical producer (born July 24, 1920, New York, N.Y.—died April 22, 2000, New York), provided financial backing for more than 100 shows on Broadway and the West End theatre district in London. Using money inherited from his father, Cohen began producing shows in t

  • Cohen, Basya (American songwriter)

    Betty Comden, (Elizabeth Cohen), American lyricist (born May 3, 1919, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Nov. 23, 2006, New York, N.Y.), collaborated with Adolph Green, and the two made up the musical-comedy team that wrote scripts—and often the lyrics—for many Broadway shows and Hollywood film musicals. They w

  • Cohen, Bram (American computer programmer)

    BitTorrent: …was created in 2001 by Bram Cohen, an American computer programmer who was frustrated by the long download times that he experienced using applications such as FTP.

  • Cohen, Bruce (American film producer)
  • Cohen, Dan (researcher)

    soil seed bank: Seed bank modeling: Researcher Dan Cohen was one of the first scientists to model soil seed banks. In the 1960s, focusing on desert annuals subject to highly irregular rainfall, he developed population-dynamics models that suggested that a reserve of some fraction of seed in the soil was essential for…

  • Cohen, Eli (Israeli spy)

    Eli Cohen, Egyptian-born Israeli spy who infiltrated the highest ranks of the Syrian military and government by posing as a Syrian businessman. Between 1961 and 1965 Cohen passed Syrian secrets to the Israeli government in what is remembered as one of the most daring and productive

  • Cohen, Eliahu ben Shaoul (Israeli spy)

    Eli Cohen, Egyptian-born Israeli spy who infiltrated the highest ranks of the Syrian military and government by posing as a Syrian businessman. Between 1961 and 1965 Cohen passed Syrian secrets to the Israeli government in what is remembered as one of the most daring and productive

  • Cohen, Ellen Naomi (American singer)

    the Mamas and the Papas: ), (“Mama”) Cass Elliot (original name Ellen Naomi Cohen; b. September 19, 1943, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.—d. July 29, 1974, London, England), and Dennis Doherty (b. November 29, 1941, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada—d. January 19, 2007, Mississauga, Ontario).

  • Cohen, Ernst Julius (Dutch chemist)

    Ernst Julius Cohen, Dutch chemist noted for his extensive work on the allotropy of metals, particularly tin, and for his research in piezochemistry and electrochemical thermodynamics. Cohen was educated under J.H. van’t Hoff at the University of Amsterdam (Ph.D., 1893) and worked in Paris with

  • Cohen, Erwin Eli (American comedian)

    Irwin Corey, American comedian who, presenting himself as “Professor Irwin Corey, the world’s foremost authority,” enthusiastically spouted streams of nonsensical bombast laden with malapropisms and non sequiturs. Corey performed as that character in vaudeville and nightclubs and on TV talk shows

  • Cohen, Eve (American-born photojournalist)

    Eve Arnold, (Eve Cohen), American-born photojournalist (born April 21, 1912, Philadelphia, Pa.—died Jan. 4, 2012, London, Eng.), was best known for her candid images that provided glimpses of the intimate moments of celebrities on movie sets, including those of Paul Newman, Joan Crawford, and

  • Cohen, Hermann (German philosopher)

    Hermann Cohen, German-Jewish philosopher and founder of the Marburg school of neo-Kantian philosophy, which emphasized “pure” thought and ethics rather than metaphysics. Cohen was the son of a cantor, and he studied at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau and at the University of Berlin

  • Cohen, Howard William (American sportscaster)

    Howard Cosell, (HOWARD WILLIAM COHEN), U.S. sportscaster (born March 25, 1918, Winston-Salem, N.C.—died April 23, 1995, New York, N.Y.), reached the pinnacle of his career as the audacious commentator on television’s "Monday Night Football" (1970-83) and was simultaneously crowned the nation’s m

  • Cohen, Isidore (American violinist and teacher)

    Isidore Cohen, American violinist and teacher (born Dec. 16, 1922, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died June 23, 2005, Bronx, N.Y.), was a member of two of the most distinguished chamber groups of the 20th century. From 1958 to 1968 he was second violinist in the Juilliard String Quartet, and he then joined the B

  • Cohen, Jacob (American comedian)

    Rodney Dangerfield, (Jacob Cohen), American comedian (born Nov. 22, 1921, Babylon, N.Y.—died Oct. 5, 2004, Los Angeles, Calif.), immortalized the line “I don’t get no respect” as part of his stand-up comedy act. His perpetually agitated look and hilariously self-deprecating one-liners landed him r

  • Cohen, Judith Sylvia (American artist)

    Judy Chicago, American feminist artist whose complex and focused installations created some of the visual context of the women’s liberation movement in the 1970s and beyond. Reared in Chicago, Cohen attended the University of California, Los Angeles (B.A., 1962). Her change of name in the 1960s

  • Cohen, Leonard (Canadian musician and author)

    Leonard Cohen, Canadian singer-songwriter whose spare songs carried an existential bite and established him as one of the most distinctive voices of 1970s pop music. Already established as a poet and novelist (his first book of poems, Let Us Compare Mythologies, was published in 1956), Cohen became

  • Cohen, Leonard Norman (Canadian musician and author)

    Leonard Cohen, Canadian singer-songwriter whose spare songs carried an existential bite and established him as one of the most distinctive voices of 1970s pop music. Already established as a poet and novelist (his first book of poems, Let Us Compare Mythologies, was published in 1956), Cohen became

  • Cohen, Matt (Canadian author)

    Matt Cohen, Canadian novelist and short-story writer who was equally at home writing in English and translating from French and created multidimensional works that told of disaffected youths—Korsoniloff (1969) and Johnny Crackle Sings (1971)—and an urgent need to search for one’s roots—The

  • Cohen, Michael (American attorney)

    Donald Trump: Russia investigation: …the home and office of Michael Cohen, Trump’s personal attorney, seizing business records and recordings of telephone conversations between Cohen and his clients, including Trump. According to press reports, Cohen was being investigated on charges of tax evasion, bank fraud, and violations of campaign finance law in connection with his…

  • Cohen, Paul Joseph (American mathematician)

    Paul Joseph Cohen, American mathematician, who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1966 for his proof of the independence of the continuum hypothesis from the other axioms of set theory. Cohen attended the University of Chicago (M.S., 1954; Ph.D., 1958). He held appointments at the University of

  • Cohen, Samuel (American songwriter)

    Sammy Cahn, American lyricist who, in collaboration with such composers as Saul Chaplin, Jule Styne, and Jimmy Van Heusen, wrote songs that won four Academy Awards and became number one hits for many performers, notably Frank Sinatra. After dropping out of high school, Cahn published his first

  • Cohen, Samuel Theodore (American physicist)

    Samuel Theodore Cohen, American physicist (born Jan. 25, 1921, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Nov. 28, 2010, Los Angeles, Calif.), invented the neutron bomb, an atomic weapon that had the killing power of a hydrogen bomb but was designed to minimize damage to property by releasing most of its energy in the

  • Cohen, Stanley (American biochemist)

    Stanley Cohen, American biochemist who, with Rita Levi-Montalcini, shared the 1986 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his researches on substances produced in the body that influence the development of nerve and skin tissues. Cohen was educated at Brooklyn College (B.A., 1943), Oberlin

  • Cohen, William S. (United States senator and secretary of defense)

    Susan Collins: William Cohen, who moved to the Senate in 1979. During that time she met Thomas A. Daffron, who was then Cohen’s chief of staff, and the couple married in 2012. Collins continued to work for Cohen—holding various administrative posts—until 1987. That year she joined the…

  • Cohen–Caine plan (British history)

    20th-century international relations: Great Britain and decolonization: …the Attlee government sponsored the Cohen–Caine plan for a new approach to West Africa as well. It aimed at preparing tropical Africa for self-rule by gradually transferring local authority from tribal chiefs to members of the Western-educated elite. Accordingly, the Colonial Office drafted elaborate constitutions, most of which had little…

  • Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude (French physicist)

    Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, French physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1997 with Steven Chu and William D. Phillips. They received the award for their development of techniques that use laser light to cool atoms to extremely low temperatures. At such temperatures the atoms move slowly

  • cohenite (mineral)

    Cohenite, an iron nickel carbide mineral with some cobalt [(Fe,Ni,Co)3C] that occurs as an accessory constituent of iron meteorites, including all coarse octahedrites containing 7 percent nickel or less, and that is a rare constituent of some chondritic stony meteorites and micrometeorites. Another

  • Cohens v. Virginia (law case)

    Cohens v. Virginia, (1821), U.S. Supreme Court case in which the court reaffirmed its right to review all state court judgments in cases arising under the federal Constitution or a law of the United States. The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for mandatory Supreme Court review of the final judgments

  • coherence (physics)

    Coherence, a fixed relationship between the phase of waves in a beam of radiation of a single frequency. Two beams of light are coherent when the phase difference between their waves is constant; they are noncoherent if there is a random or changing phase relationship. Stable interference patterns

  • coherence length (physics)

    electromagnetic radiation: Propagation and coherence: …a wave train are called coherence length and coherence time, respectively. Light from the Sun or from a lightbulb comes in many tiny bursts lasting about a millionth of a millionth of a second and having a coherence length of about one centimetre. The discrete radiant energy emitted by an…

  • coherence length, superconducting (physics)

    superconductivity: Structures and properties: …the distance is called the superconducting coherence length (or Ginzburg-Landau coherence length), ξ. If a material has a superconducting region and a normal region, many of the superconducting properties disappear gradually—over a distance ξ—upon traveling from the former to the latter region. In the pure (i.e., undoped) classic superconductors ξ…

  • coherence theory of truth (philosophy)

    Coherentism, Theory of truth according to which a belief is true just in case, or to the extent that, it coheres with a system of other beliefs. Philosophers have differed over the relevant sense of “cohere,” though most agree that it must be stronger than mere consistency. Among rival theories of

  • coherence time (physics)

    electromagnetic radiation: Propagation and coherence: …are called coherence length and coherence time, respectively. Light from the Sun or from a lightbulb comes in many tiny bursts lasting about a millionth of a millionth of a second and having a coherence length of about one centimetre. The discrete radiant energy emitted by an atom as it…

  • coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (physics)

    spectroscopy: Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS): This technique involves the phenomenon of wave mixing, takes advantage of the high intensity of stimulated Raman scattering, and has the applicability of conventional Raman spectroscopy. In the CARS method two strong collinear laser beams at frequencies ν1 and ν2…

  • coherentism (philosophy)

    Coherentism, Theory of truth according to which a belief is true just in case, or to the extent that, it coheres with a system of other beliefs. Philosophers have differed over the relevant sense of “cohere,” though most agree that it must be stronger than mere consistency. Among rival theories of

  • coherer (electronics)

    Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose: …to make improvements on the coherer, an early form of radio detector, which have contributed to the development of solid-state physics.

  • cohesion (physics)

    Cohesion, in physics, the intermolecular attractive force acting between two adjacent portions of a substance, particularly of a solid or liquid. It is this force that holds a piece of matter together. Intermolecular forces act also between two dissimilar substances in contact, a phenomenon called

  • cohesion hypothesis (botany)

    Cohesion hypothesis, in botany, a generally accepted explanation of the rise of sap in plants by means of intermolecular attractions. Calculation and experiment indicate that the forces of cohesion between water molecules and the forces of adhesion between water molecules and the walls of the

  • cohesion theory (botany)

    Cohesion hypothesis, in botany, a generally accepted explanation of the rise of sap in plants by means of intermolecular attractions. Calculation and experiment indicate that the forces of cohesion between water molecules and the forces of adhesion between water molecules and the walls of the

  • cohesive energy (physics)

    crystal: Metallic bonds: Cohesive energy is the energy gained by arranging the atoms in a crystalline state, as compared with the gas state. Insulators and semiconductors have large cohesive energies; these solids are bound together strongly and have good mechanical strength. Metals with electrons in sp-bonds have very…

  • cohesive energy density (physics)

    liquid: Regular solutions: …introducing the concept of cohesive energy density, which is defined as the potential energy of a liquid divided by its volume. The adjective cohesive is well chosen because it indicates that this energy is associated with the forces that keep the molecules close together in a condensed state. Again restricting…

  • cohesive pressure (physics)

    liquid: Regular solutions: …introducing the concept of cohesive energy density, which is defined as the potential energy of a liquid divided by its volume. The adjective cohesive is well chosen because it indicates that this energy is associated with the forces that keep the molecules close together in a condensed state. Again restricting…

  • cohesive strength (mechanics)

    landslide: …material’s interacting constituent particles, and cohesive strength, which is the bonding between the particles. Coarse particles such as sand grains have high frictional strength but low cohesive strength, whereas the opposite is true for clays, which are composed of fine particles. Another factor that affects the shear strength of a…

  • Cohine (Spain)

    Coín, city, Málaga provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain. It is situated near the beach resort region of Costa del Sol. The site was first settled by the Turdetanos, an Iberian tribe, and was later occupied by the Romans, who established

  • Cohl, Émile (French animator)

    animation: Early history: In France, Émile Cohl was developing a form of animation similar to Blackton’s, though Cohl used relatively crude stick figures rather than Blackton’s ambitious newspaper-style cartoons. Coinciding with the rise in popularity of the Sunday comic sections of the new tabloid newspapers, the nascent animation industry recruited…

  • Cohn, Edwin Joseph (American biochemist)

    Edwin Joseph Cohn, American biochemist who helped develop the methods of blood fractionation (the separation of plasma proteins into fractions). During World War II he headed a team of chemists, physicians, and medical scientists who made possible the large-scale production of human plasma

  • Cohn, Emil (German writer)

    Emil Ludwig, German writer internationally known for his many popular biographies. Ludwig was trained in law but at 25 began writing plays and poems. After serving as foreign correspondent for a German newspaper during World War I, he wrote a novel (Diana, originally published as two works,

  • Cohn, Ferdinand (German botanist)

    Ferdinand Cohn, German naturalist and botanist known for his studies of algae, bacteria, and fungi. He is considered one of the founders of bacteriology. Cohn was born in the ghetto of Breslau, the first of three sons of a Jewish merchant. His father spared no effort in the education of his

  • Cohn, Ferdinand Julius (German botanist)

    Ferdinand Cohn, German naturalist and botanist known for his studies of algae, bacteria, and fungi. He is considered one of the founders of bacteriology. Cohn was born in the ghetto of Breslau, the first of three sons of a Jewish merchant. His father spared no effort in the education of his

  • Cohn, Harry (American film producer)

    Harry Cohn, cofounder and president of Columbia Pictures and winner of 45 Academy Awards for films he produced. The son of an immigrant Polish-Jewish tailor, Cohn quit school at age 14 and worked at sundry jobs before becoming a vaudeville singer and song plugger. His motion picture career began in

  • Cohn, Martin (American television producer)

    Quinn Martin, American television producer who was perhaps best known for a series of popular crime shows. Martin worked as a film editor and producer before forming the television production company QM Productions (1960–79). He produced some 20 television movies and created more than 15 series,

  • Cohn, Mildred (American biochemist)

    Mildred Cohn, American biochemist (born July 12, 1913, New York, N.Y.—died Oct. 12, 2009, Philadelphia, Pa.), pioneered the use of stable isotopes and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study enzymatic reactions and to trace the movement of molecules within cells. Cohn entered Hunter College, New

  • Cohn, Roy (American attorney)

    Michael Mukasey: …such high-profile clients as lawyer Roy Cohn, socialite Claus von Bülow, the New York Daily News, and The Wall Street Journal. In 1987 Mukasey was nominated by U.S. Pres. Ronald Reagan for a federal judgeship in the Southern District of New York. He rose to chief judge in 2000 and…

  • Cohn, Zanvil A. (American biologist)

    Ralph M. Steinman: …codiscovery with American cell biologist Zanvil A. Cohn of the dendritic cell (a type of immune cell) and his elucidation of its role in adaptive immunity. Steinman’s work contributed to advances in the understanding and treatment of infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and graft rejection. His receipt of the Nobel Prize…

  • Cohnheim, Julius Friedrich (German pathologist)

    Julius Friedrich Cohnheim, pioneer of experimental pathology who helped determine the morbid changes that occur in animal tissue affected by inflammation, tuberculosis, and other disease states. At the Pathological Institute, Berlin (1865–68), Cohnheim was an outstanding pupil of Rudolf Virchow,

  • coho (fish)

    Coho, (Oncorhynchus kisutch), species of salmon, family Salmonidae, prized for food and sport. The coho may weigh up to 16 kg (35 pounds) and is recognized by the small spots on the back and upper tail-fin lobe. Young coho stay in fresh water for about one year before entering North Pacific

  • cohoba (drug)

    Cohoba, hallucinogenic snuff made from the seeds of a tropical American tree (Piptadenia peregrina) and used by Indians of the Caribbean and South America at the time of early Spanish explorations. DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) and bufotenine (qq.v.) are thought to have been the active principles. C

  • Cohoes (New York, United States)

    Cohoes, city, Albany county, eastern New York, U.S. It lies at the Cohoes Falls (locally called the Great Falls; 70 feet [21 metres] high) of the Mohawk River, where it tumbles into the Hudson River. Settled in 1665 by the Dutch Van Schaick family on the colonial military road between Albany (10

  • cohomology group (mathematics)

    mathematics: Algebraic topology: …groups, the so-called homology and cohomology groups of a space.

  • cohong (Chinese guild)

    Cohong, the guild of Chinese merchants authorized by the central government to trade with Western merchants at Guangzhou (Canton) prior to the first Opium War (1839–42). Such firms often were called “foreign-trade firms” (yanghang) and the merchants who directed them “hong merchants” (hangshang).

  • Cohors Praetoria (Roman military)

    Praetorian Guard, household troops of the Roman emperors. The cohors praetoria existed by the 2nd century bc, acting as bodyguards for Roman generals. In 27 bc the emperor Augustus created a permanent corps of nine cohorts, stationing them around Rome; in 2 bc he appointed two equestrian prefects t

  • cohort (Roman military)

    legion: …of each line formed a cohort of 420 men; this was the Roman equivalent of a battalion. Ten cohorts made up the heavy-infantry strength of a legion, but 20 cohorts were usually combined with a small cavalry force and other supporting units into a little self-supporting army of about 10,000…

  • cohort analysis (demography)

    Cohort analysis, method used in studies to describe an aggregate of individuals having in common a significant event in their life histories, such as year of birth (birth cohort) or year of marriage (marriage cohort). The concept of cohort is useful because occurrence rates of various forms of

  • cohort study (demography)

    Cohort analysis, method used in studies to describe an aggregate of individuals having in common a significant event in their life histories, such as year of birth (birth cohort) or year of marriage (marriage cohort). The concept of cohort is useful because occurrence rates of various forms of

  • cohosh (plant species)

    baneberry: The cohosh, or herb Christopher (A. spicata), native to Eurasia, is approximately 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 inches) tall and bears purplish black berries that sometimes are used to make dye. The red baneberry, or red cohosh (A. rubra), native to North America, closely…

  • cohosh (plant genus)

    Baneberry, (genus Actaea), any of about eight species of perennial herbaceous plants in the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae); they are all native to north temperate zone woodlands. The white baneberry (A. pachypoda; sometimes A. alba), which is native to North America, is 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18

  • cohoun oil

    Cohune oil, oil obtained from the kernels of the fruits, or nuts, of the cohune palm tree, Attalea cohune. The tree grows in western Central America from the Yucatán Peninsula to Honduras. The oil’s properties, similar to those of coconut oil, have given it increasing importance. Because the nuts

  • COHRED (international organization)

    Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED), international nongovernmental organization (NGO) created in 1993 to improve public health primarily in developing countries. The Council on Health Research for Development helps countries strengthen their health research infrastructure and devise

  • cohune oil

    Cohune oil, oil obtained from the kernels of the fruits, or nuts, of the cohune palm tree, Attalea cohune. The tree grows in western Central America from the Yucatán Peninsula to Honduras. The oil’s properties, similar to those of coconut oil, have given it increasing importance. Because the nuts

  • cohune palm

    cohune oil: …fruits, or nuts, of the cohune palm tree, Attalea cohune. The tree grows in western Central America from the Yucatán Peninsula to Honduras. The oil’s properties, similar to those of coconut oil, have given it increasing importance. Because the nuts are unusually hard and difficult to crack and their collection…

  • cohune-nut oil

    Cohune oil, oil obtained from the kernels of the fruits, or nuts, of the cohune palm tree, Attalea cohune. The tree grows in western Central America from the Yucatán Peninsula to Honduras. The oil’s properties, similar to those of coconut oil, have given it increasing importance. Because the nuts

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