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  • Coenopteridales (order of preferns)

    prefern: …group are the Protopteridales and Coenopteridales.

  • Coenothecalia (cnidarian order)

    cnidarian: Annotated classification: Helioporacea (Coenothecalia) Blue coral. Massive lobed calcareous skeleton. Tropical; 1 Caribbean and 1 Indo-West Pacific species. Order Pennatulacea Sea pens and sea pansies. Fleshy, always dimorphic, unbranched colonies, with 1 axial polyp and many lateral ones. Polyp-free peduncle burrows into soft sediments; polyp-bearing distal end of the…

  • Coenus (Macedonian commander)

    Alexander the Great: Invasion of India: …in body and spirit, and Coenus, one of Alexander’s four chief marshals, acted as their spokesman. On finding the army adamant, Alexander agreed to turn back.

  • Coenwulf (Anglo-Saxon king)

    Cenwulf, Anglo-Saxon king of the Mercians from 796 who preserved the Mercian supremacy established by King Offa (reigned 757–796). During a Kentish rebellion against Mercian suzerainty, he tried to move the chief English see from Canterbury to London. He abandoned this plan after quelling the r

  • coenzyme (biochemistry)

    Coenzyme, Any of a number of freely diffusing organic compounds that function as cofactors with enzymes in promoting a variety of metabolic reactions. Coenzymes participate in enzyme-mediated catalysis in stoichiometric (mole-for-mole) amounts, are modified during the reaction, and may require

  • coenzyme A (biochemistry)

    carboxylic acid: Saturated aliphatic acids: …a large biochemical molecule called coenzyme A; the entire compound is known as acetyl coenzyme A. In the metabolism of food materials (the body’s conversion of food to energy), the carbon atoms of carbohydrates, fats, and, to some degree, proteins are converted to acetyl groups that are bonded to coenzyme…

  • coenzyme Q (biochemistry)

    Ubiquinone, any of several members of a series of organic compounds belonging to a class called quinones. Widely distributed in plants, animals, and many types of bacteria, ubiquinones function in conjunction with enzymes in cellular respiration (i.e., oxidation-reduction processes). The naturally

  • coercion (human behaviour)

    Coercion, threat or use of punitive measures against states, groups, or individuals in order to force them to undertake or desist from specified actions. In addition to the threat of or limited use of force (or both), coercion may entail economic sanctions, psychological pressures, and social

  • Coercion Acts (Great Britain [1774])

    Intolerable Acts, (1774), in U.S. colonial history, four punitive measures enacted by the British Parliament in retaliation for acts of colonial defiance, together with the Quebec Act establishing a new administration for the territory ceded to Britain after the French and Indian War (1754–63). The

  • Coercive Acts (Great Britain [1774])

    Intolerable Acts, (1774), in U.S. colonial history, four punitive measures enacted by the British Parliament in retaliation for acts of colonial defiance, together with the Quebec Act establishing a new administration for the territory ceded to Britain after the French and Indian War (1754–63). The

  • coercive field (physics)

    magnetism: Remanence: …field strength known as the coercive force. Further increase in the reverse field H sets up a reverse field B that again quickly reaches a saturation value S′. Finally, as the reverse field is removed and a positive field applied, B traces out the lower broken line back to a…

  • coercive force (physics)

    magnetism: Remanence: …field strength known as the coercive force. Further increase in the reverse field H sets up a reverse field B that again quickly reaches a saturation value S′. Finally, as the reverse field is removed and a positive field applied, B traces out the lower broken line back to a…

  • coercive persuasion

    Brainwashing, systematic effort to persuade nonbelievers to accept a certain allegiance, command, or doctrine. A colloquial term, it is more generally applied to any technique designed to manipulate human thought or action against the desire, will, or knowledge of the individual. By controlling t

  • Coereba flaveola (bird)

    Bananaquit, (Coereba flaveola), bird of the West Indies (except Cuba) and southern Mexico to Argentina. It is sometimes placed with honeycreepers in the family Emberizidae (order Passeriformes); however, because of disagreements over its taxonomy, many authorities assign the bananaquit to its own

  • Coerebinae (bird)

    Honeycreeper, any of four species of tropical Western Hemisphere birds of the family Thraupidae, order Passeriformes. Many honeycreepers feed on nectar, and some are called sugarbirds. All honeycreepers are small, and many have thin, downcurved bills; the tongue is brushy and may be double-tubed.

  • Coeroeni River (river, South America)

    Courantyne River, river in northern South America, rising in the Akarai Mountains and flowing generally northward for 450 miles (700 km) to the Atlantic Ocean near Nieuw Nickerie, Suriname. It divides Suriname and Guyana. Guyana nationals have free navigation on the river but no fishing rights.

  • coesite (mineral)

    Coesite, a high-pressure polymorph (crystal form) of silica, silicon dioxide (SiO2). It has the same chemical composition as the minerals cristobalite, stishovite, quartz, and tridymite but possesses a different crystal structure. Because of the very high pressure necessary for its formation, it

  • Coetsee, Hendrik Jacobus (South African politician)

    Hendrik Jacobus Coetsee, (“Kobie”), South African politician (born April 19, 1931, Ladybrand, Orange Free State, S.Af.—died July 29, 2000, Bloemfontein, S.Af.), was the pragmatic minister of justice, police, and prisons (1980–94) under South African presidents P.W. Botha and F.W. de Klerk. C

  • Coetsee, Jacobus (South African hunter)

    Orange River: Study and exploration: …was an Afrikaner elephant hunter, Jacobus Coetsee, who forded the Groot River, as it was then called, near the river mouth in 1760. Later expeditions across the river in the 18th century were led by the Afrikaner explorer Hendrik Hop; Robert Jacob Gordon, a Dutch officer; William Paterson, an English…

  • Coetsee, Kobie (South African politician)

    Hendrik Jacobus Coetsee, (“Kobie”), South African politician (born April 19, 1931, Ladybrand, Orange Free State, S.Af.—died July 29, 2000, Bloemfontein, S.Af.), was the pragmatic minister of justice, police, and prisons (1980–94) under South African presidents P.W. Botha and F.W. de Klerk. C

  • Coetzee, J. M. (South African author)

    J.M. Coetzee, South African novelist, critic, and translator noted for his novels about the effects of colonization. In 2003 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Coetzee was educated at the University of Cape Town (B.A., 1960; M.A., 1963) and the University of Texas (Ph.D., 1969). An opponent of

  • Coetzee, John Maxwell (South African author)

    J.M. Coetzee, South African novelist, critic, and translator noted for his novels about the effects of colonization. In 2003 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Coetzee was educated at the University of Cape Town (B.A., 1960; M.A., 1963) and the University of Texas (Ph.D., 1969). An opponent of

  • Coeur d’Alene (Idaho, United States)

    Coeur d’Alene, city, seat (1908) of Kootenai county, northwestern Idaho, U.S. It lies near the Washington border at the northern end of Coeur d’Alene Lake. Founded in 1879 as a trading post serving Fort Coeur d’Alene (later Fort Sherman), it developed after the discovery of lead and silver (1883)

  • Coeur d’Alene (people)

    Plateau Indian: Language: Kalispel, Pend d’Oreille, Coeur d’Alene, and Flathead peoples. Some early works incorrectly denote all Salishan groups as “Flathead.”

  • Coeur d’Alene Indian Reservation (reservation, Idaho, United States)

    Coeur d'Alene Lake: Coeur d’Alene Indian Reservation borders the southern half of the lake. Coeur d’Alene city lies at the northern end of the lake and marks the western end of an area important for its forests and mineral deposits. The origin of the name, given by the…

  • Coeur d’Alene Lake (lake, Idaho, United States)

    Coeur d’Alene Lake, lake in Kootenai county, northwestern Idaho, U.S. It lies 25 miles (40 km) east of Spokane, Washington. Impounded by Coeur d’Alene Lake Dam on the Spokane River, it is fed by the Coeur d’Alene and St. Joe rivers. The lake is 30 miles (48 km) long and 1–3 miles (1.6–4.8 km) wide,

  • Coeur d’Alene Mountains (mountains, Idaho, United States)

    Coeur d’Alene Mountains, segment of the Northern Rocky Mountains, northern Idaho, U.S. The mountains extend in roughly triangular form south for about 60 miles (100 km) along the Montana border from Pend Oreille Lake to St. Joe River. The highest peaks (6,000–7,000 feet [1,800–2,100 metres]) are in

  • Coeur d’Alene riots (United States history)

    Coeur d’Alene riots , (1890s), in U.S. history, recurring violence at silver and lead mines around Coeur d’Alene in northern Idaho. When union miners struck in the summer of 1892, mine owners employed nonunion workers, hired armed guards to protect them, and obtained an injunction against the

  • Coeur, Jacques (French royal adviser)

    Jacques Coeur, wealthy and powerful French merchant, who served as a councillor to King Charles VII of France. His career remains a significant example of the spirit of enterprise and the social progress among the merchant classes in the beginning of the period of the rise of France after the

  • coevolution (biology)

    Coevolution, the process of reciprocal evolutionary change that occurs between pairs of species or among groups of species as they interact with one another. The activity of each species that participates in the interaction applies selection pressure on the others. In a predator-prey interaction,

  • coevolutionary alternation (ecology)

    Coevolutionary alternation, in ecology, the process by which one species coevolves with several other species by shifting among the species with which it interacts over many generations. European cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) provide an example of this type of coevolution. The cuckoos behave as brood

  • cofactor (biochemistry)

    Cofactor, a component, other than the protein portion, of many enzymes. If the cofactor is removed from a complete enzyme (holoenzyme), the protein component (apoenzyme) no longer has catalytic activity. A cofactor that is firmly bound to the apoenzyme and cannot be removed without denaturing the

  • COFC

    railroad: Development: …European railroads concentrated initially on container-on-flatcar (COFC) intermodal systems. A few offered a range of small containers of their own design for internal traffic, but until the 1980s domestic as well as deep-sea COFC in Europe was dominated by the standard sizes of maritime containers. In the 1980s an increasing…

  • Coffea (plant genus)

    Coffee production, cultivation of the coffee plant, usually done in large commercial operations. The plant, a tropical evergreen shrub or small tree of African origin (genus Coffea, family Rubiaceae), is grown for its seeds, or beans, which are roasted, ground, and sold for brewing coffee. This

  • Coffea arabica (plant)

    coffee: …species of the coffee plant, Coffea arabica and C. canephora, supply almost all of the world’s consumption. Arabica is considered a milder, more-flavourful and aromatic brew than Robusta, the main variety of C. canephora. The flatter and more-elongated Arabica bean is more widespread than Robusta but more delicate and vulnerable…

  • Coffea canephora (plant)

    coffee: …coffee plant, Coffea arabica and C. canephora, supply almost all of the world’s consumption. Arabica is considered a milder, more-flavourful and aromatic brew than Robusta, the main variety of C. canephora. The flatter and more-elongated Arabica bean is more widespread than Robusta but more delicate and vulnerable to pests, requiring…

  • Coffea canephora robusta (plant)

    coffee rust: …varieties of Robusta coffee (Coffea canefora) have been developed, but the beans are generally considered to be of lower quality than those of the vulnerable Arabica plants (C. arabica). One resistant variety, Lempira, was widely planted in Honduras but lost its resistance to the disease in 2017, resulting in…

  • Coffea charrieriana (plant)

    Charrier coffee, (Coffea charrieriana), species of coffee plant (genus Coffea, family Rubiaceae) found in Central Africa that was the first discovered to produce caffeine-free beans (seeds). Endemic to the Bakossi Forest Reserve in western Cameroon, the plant inhabits steep rocky slopes of wet

  • Coffea robusta (plant)

    coffee rust: …varieties of Robusta coffee (Coffea canefora) have been developed, but the beans are generally considered to be of lower quality than those of the vulnerable Arabica plants (C. arabica). One resistant variety, Lempira, was widely planted in Honduras but lost its resistance to the disease in 2017, resulting in…

  • coffee (beverage)

    Coffee, beverage brewed from the roasted and ground seeds of the tropical evergreen coffee plant of African origin. Coffee is one of the three most-popular beverages in the world (alongside water and tea) and one of the most-profitable international commodities. Though coffee is the basis for an

  • coffee (plant genus)

    Coffee production, cultivation of the coffee plant, usually done in large commercial operations. The plant, a tropical evergreen shrub or small tree of African origin (genus Coffea, family Rubiaceae), is grown for its seeds, or beans, which are roasted, ground, and sold for brewing coffee. This

  • Coffee (work by Portinari)

    National Museum of Fine Arts: …19th and 20th centuries, including Coffee by Cândido Portinari and works by Emiliano de Cavalcanti and Tarsila do Amaral. Foreign art is well represented with a series of views of Pernambuco by Franz Post as well as by examples of European art from the 13th century to the present. The…

  • Coffee and Cigarettes (film by Jarmusch [2003])

    Jim Jarmusch: Coffee and Cigarettes (2003) consisted of a collection of brief exchanges between various well-known actors and musicians as they smoked and drank coffee. Jarmusch won the Grand Prix at the 2005 Cannes film festival for Broken Flowers (2005), a dramedy about a man who visits…

  • coffee bean (fruit)

    kopi luwak: …luwak, (Indonesian: “civet coffee”) the coffee bean or specialty coffee that is digested by, fermented within, and then excreted by the Asian palm civet—popularly called a luwak in Indonesia but found throughout South and Southeast Asia. The coffee bean produced in that manner was discovered and collected by native farmers…

  • coffee bean weevil (insect)

    fungus weevil: The coffee bean weevil (Araecerus fasciculatus) is an important pest.

  • coffee berry disease

    coffee production: …plantations of Arabica, and the coffee berry disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum coffeanum, which also attacks the Arabica. Robusta appears to be resistant, or only slightly susceptible, to these scourges. Among the numerous parasites that attack the coffee shrub is the berry borer (Stephanoderes hamjei), which damages the seeds…

  • coffee cherry (plant)

    coffee: Hulling: …coffee shrub are known as coffee cherries, and each cherry generally contains two coffee seeds (“beans”) positioned flat against one another. About 5 percent of cherries contain only one seed; called peaberries, those single seeds are smaller and denser and produce, in the opinion of some, a sweeter, more-flavourful coffee.

  • coffee house (eating and drinking establishment)

    Café, small eating and drinking establishment, historically a coffeehouse, usually featuring a limited menu; originally these establishments served only coffee. The English term café, borrowed from the French, derives ultimately from the Turkish kahve, meaning coffee. The introduction of coffee and

  • coffee leaf rust (disease)

    Coffee rust, devastating foliar disease of coffee plants caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Long known in coffee-growing areas of Africa, the Near East, India, Asia, and Australasia, coffee rust was discovered in 1970 to be widespread in Brazil, the first known infected area in the Western

  • coffee production (plant genus)

    Coffee production, cultivation of the coffee plant, usually done in large commercial operations. The plant, a tropical evergreen shrub or small tree of African origin (genus Coffea, family Rubiaceae), is grown for its seeds, or beans, which are roasted, ground, and sold for brewing coffee. This

  • coffee rust (disease)

    Coffee rust, devastating foliar disease of coffee plants caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Long known in coffee-growing areas of Africa, the Near East, India, Asia, and Australasia, coffee rust was discovered in 1970 to be widespread in Brazil, the first known infected area in the Western

  • coffee senna (plant)

    senna: Coffee senna, or styptic weed (C. occidentalis), native to North and South America, is widely grown in the Old World tropics for its cathartic and laxative properties. The candlestick senna, or candlebush (C. alata), is a showy shrub that may grow up to 2.5 metres…

  • coffee service

    Tea and coffee service, set of vessels and implements for making and serving tea and coffee, the items often of matched design. Elaborate 18th-century examples had tea and coffee pots, a milk or cream jug, a pair of tea caddies, a sugar bowl and pair of tongs, teaspoons and a small tray for them,

  • coffeehouse (eating and drinking establishment)

    Café, small eating and drinking establishment, historically a coffeehouse, usually featuring a limited menu; originally these establishments served only coffee. The English term café, borrowed from the French, derives ultimately from the Turkish kahve, meaning coffee. The introduction of coffee and

  • coffer (furniture)

    Coffer, in furniture, most commonly a portable container for valuables, clothes, and other goods, used from the Middle Ages onward. It was normally a wooden box covered in leather, studded with nails, and fitted with carrying handles. The top was commonly rounded so that rain would run off (the

  • coffer (architectural decoration)

    Coffer, in architecture, a square or polygonal ornamental sunken panel used in a series as decoration for a ceiling or vault. The sunken panels were sometimes also called caissons, or lacunaria, and a coffered ceiling might be referred to as lacunar. Coffers were probably originally formed by the

  • cofferdam (engineering)

    Cofferdam, watertight enclosure from which water is pumped to expose the bed of a body of water in order to permit the construction of a pier or other hydraulic work. Cofferdams are made by driving sheetpiling, usually steel in modern works, into the bed to form a watertight fence. The vertical

  • coffered ceiling (architecture)

    coffer: …caissons, or lacunaria, and a coffered ceiling might be referred to as lacunar.

  • Coffeyville (Kansas, United States)

    Coffeyville, city, Montgomery county, southeastern Kansas, U.S., on the Verdigris River. Founded in 1869, it was named for James A. Coffey, a pioneer settler. During the early 1870s, following the completion of a railroad, Coffeyville became a major shipping point for Texas cattle and later

  • coffin

    Coffin, the receptacle in which a corpse is confined. The Greeks and Romans disposed of their dead both by burial and by cremation. Greek coffins were urn-shaped, hexagonal, or triangular, with the body arranged in a sitting posture. The material used was generally burnt clay and in some cases had

  • coffin fly (insect)

    Humpbacked fly, (family Phoridae), any of numerous species of tiny, dark-coloured flies with humped backs that are in the fly order, Diptera, and can be found around decaying vegetation. Larvae may be scavengers, parasites, or commensals in ant and termite nests. Some species have reduced or no

  • coffin ship (transportation)

    Charles Reade: …revealed the frauds of “coffin ships” (unseaworthy and overloaded ships, often heavily insured by unscrupulous owners) and helped to sway public opinion in favour of the safety measures proposed later by Samuel Plimsoll; like many of Reade’s fictions, it had a dual identity as novel and play. The historical…

  • Coffin Texts (Egyptian religion)

    Coffin Texts, collection of ancient Egyptian funerary texts consisting of spells or magic formulas, painted on the burial coffins of the First Intermediate period (c. 2130–1938 bce) and the Middle Kingdom (1938–c. 1630 bce). The Coffin Texts, combined with the Pyramid Texts from which they were

  • Coffin, Henry Sloane (American clergyman)

    Henry Sloane Coffin, American clergyman, author, and educator who led in the movement for liberal evangelicalism in Protestant churches. After serving as minister of two Presbyterian churches in New York City (1900–26), he became president (1926–45) of Union Theological Seminary, also in New York

  • Coffin, Levi (American abolitionist)

    Levi Coffin, American abolitionist, called the “President of the Underground Railroad,” who assisted thousands of runaway slaves on their flight to freedom. Coffin was raised on a farm, an upbringing that provided little opportunity for formal education. He nonetheless became a teacher, and in 1821

  • Coffin, Lucretia (American social reformer)

    Lucretia Mott, pioneer reformer who, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, founded the organized women’s rights movement in the United States. Lucretia Coffin grew up in Boston, where she attended public school for two years in accordance with her father’s wish that she become familiar with the workings of

  • Coffin, Robert P. Tristram (American poet)

    Robert P. Tristram Coffin, American poet whose works, based on New England farm and seafaring life, were committed to cheerful depiction of the good in the world. Coffin regarded poetry as a public function that should speak well of life so that people might find inspiration. In vigorous, fresh

  • Coffin, Robert Peter Tristram (American poet)

    Robert P. Tristram Coffin, American poet whose works, based on New England farm and seafaring life, were committed to cheerful depiction of the good in the world. Coffin regarded poetry as a public function that should speak well of life so that people might find inspiration. In vigorous, fresh

  • Coffin, the Rev. William Sloane, Jr. (American clergyman and activist)

    The Rev. William Sloane Coffin, Jr., American clergyman and civil rights activist (born June 1, 1924, New York, N.Y.—died April 12, 2006, Strafford, Vt.), achieved national prominence as the chaplain (1958–75) at Yale University, where he became a familiar figure on his motorcycle, championing

  • Coffin, Tristram (American journalist)

    Tristram Coffin, American journalist who had a nearly 50-year career that encompassed reporting for a newspaper and on radio, writing books, penning a syndicated column, and, from 1968, publishing the newsletter that went on to become the Washington Spectator (b. July 25, 1912--d. May 28,

  • coffinite (mineral)

    mineral deposit: Roll-front deposits: …is precipitated as uraninite and coffinite.

  • Coffman, Faye Robert (American murderer)

    Gary Gilmore, American murderer whose execution by the state of Utah in 1977 ended a de facto nationwide moratorium on capital punishment that had lasted nearly 10 years. His case also attracted widespread attention because Gilmore resisted efforts made on his behalf to commute the sentence.

  • Coffret de Crusoe, Le (work by Seers)

    Eugène Seers: …was also the author of Le Coffret de Crusoé (1932; “Crusoe’s Chest”), a volume of poems dealing with his loss of faith, and Les Enfances de Fanny (1951; Eng. trans. Fanny), a semiautobiographical novel.

  • Coffs Harbour (New South Wales, Australia)

    Coffs Harbour, town and port, northeastern New South Wales, Australia. It comprises Coffs Harbour Jetty (at the artificial harbour) and Coffs Harbour (2 miles [3 km] west on the Pacific Highway). The town was founded in 1847 to serve a cedar-lumbering district, and it was known as Brelsford until

  • Cog (robot)

    Rodney Brooks: …“raising” a robot “child” named Cog—a clever allusion to cognition and gears—that would learn from its interactions with humans. Work on Cog ended in 2004, but Cog did learn some rudimentary skills, such as recognizing animate objects.

  • cog (ship)

    ship: 17th-century developments: …by another Venetian ship, the cog. A buss of 240 tons with lateen sails was required by maritime statutes of Venice to be manned by a crew of 50 sailors. The crew of a square-sailed cog of the same size was only 20 sailors. Thus began an effort that has…

  • Cog Railway (railway, Mount Washington, New Hampshire)

    New Hampshire: Transportation: Outstanding among these is the Cog Railway, a 6-mile (10-km) line running to the summit of Mount Washington that has been in operation since 1869.

  • cog rattle (musical instrument)

    scraper: The cog rattle, or ratchet, is a more complex scraper, consisting of a cog wheel set in a frame to which a flexible tongue is attached; when the wheel revolves on its axle, the tongue scrapes the cogs. Found in Europe and Asia, cog rattles often…

  • cogeneration (power)

    Cogeneration, in power systems, use of steam for both power generation and heating. High-temperature, high-pressure steam from a boiler and superheater first passes through a turbine to produce power (see steam engine). It then exhausts at a temperature and pressure suitable for heating purposes,

  • Coggan, Donald Frederick, Baron (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Donald, Baron Coggan, Anglican archbishop of Canterbury from 1974 to 1980, theologian, educator, and the first Evangelical Anglican to become spiritual leader of the church in more than a century. Educated at Merchant Taylors’ School, London, and St. John’s College, Cambridge (B.A. 1931), and

  • Coggan, Donald, Baron (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Donald, Baron Coggan, Anglican archbishop of Canterbury from 1974 to 1980, theologian, educator, and the first Evangelical Anglican to become spiritual leader of the church in more than a century. Educated at Merchant Taylors’ School, London, and St. John’s College, Cambridge (B.A. 1931), and

  • Coggeshall, Ralph of (English historian)

    Ralph Of Coggeshall, English chronicler of the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Ralph was a monk of the Cistercian abbey at Coggeshall, Essex, and abbot there from 1207 until 1218, when he resigned because of ill health. The abbey already possessed its own Chronicon Anglicanum, beginning at

  • Coghlan, Eamonn (Irish athlete)
  • Cogidubnus (king of Britain)

    Sussex: The last of these, Cogidubnus, was a useful ally to the Romans and was given a kingdom centred on Chichester.

  • Cogidumnus (king of Britain)

    Sussex: The last of these, Cogidubnus, was a useful ally to the Romans and was given a kingdom centred on Chichester.

  • cogito, ergo sum (philosophy)

    Cogito, ergo sum, (Latin: “I think, therefore I am) dictum coined by the French philosopher René Descartes in his Discourse on Method (1637) as a first step in demonstrating the attainability of certain knowledge. It is the only statement to survive the test of his methodic doubt. The statement is

  • cognac (alcoholic beverage)

    Cognac, a brandy produced in the Charente and Charente-Maritime départements of France and named for the town of Cognac in the locality. French law limits the use of the name to brandy made from the wine of a specified grape variety, distilled twice in special alembics, or pot stills, and aged for

  • Cognac (France)

    Cognac, town, Charente département, Nouvelle-Aquitaine région, western France. It lies 20 miles (30 km) west-northwest of Angoulême. The town gives its name to the brandy distilled there and exported all over the world. The distilling of cognac is its main industry and provides the impetus for the

  • Cognac, League of (European history)

    Germany: Lutheran church organization and confessionalization: …against him (the so-called “Holy League of Cognac”), intended to forestall Habsburg hegemony in Europe (a scenario to be replayed many times in the following two centuries). In 1526, therefore, Charles was in no position to dictate to the German estates on the Lutheran matter. Within a year, however,…

  • cognate (linguistics)

    Uralic languages: Shared cognates: Several kinds of indirect evidence support the above supposition. One approach attempts to reconstruct the natural environment of these groups on the basis of shared cognates (related words) for plants, animals, and minerals and on the distribution of these words in the modern languages.…

  • cognate xenolith (geology)

    xenolith: Xenoliths can be contrasted with autoliths, or cognate xenoliths, which are pieces of older rock within the intrusion that are genetically related to the intrusion itself. The general term for all such incorporated bodies is inclusions. Xenoliths are usually reconstituted through the processes of contact metamorphism, in which heat and…

  • cognatic descent (sociology)

    descent: Bilateral or cognatic descent systems reckon kinship through the mother and the father more or less equally.

  • cognitio extraordinaria (law)

    Roman legal procedure: …(3rd century ce); and the cognitio extraordinaria, in operation during the post-Classical period.

  • cognition (thought process)

    Cognition, the states and processes involved in knowing, which in their completeness include perception and judgment. Cognition includes all conscious and unconscious processes by which knowledge is accumulated, such as perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning. Put differently, cognition

  • Cognitive Assessment System (intelligence test)

    human intelligence: The IQ test: Naglieri published the Cognitive Assessment System, a test based on a theory of intelligence first proposed by the Russian psychologist Alexander Luria. The test measured planning abilities, attentional abilities, and simultaneous and successive processing abilities. Simultaneous processing abilities are used to solve tasks such as figural matrix problems,…

  • cognitive behavioral therapy (psychology)

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), form of psychotherapy that blends strategies from traditional behavioral treatments with various cognitively oriented strategies. It is different from other forms of psychotherapy (e.g., traditional psychodynamic psychotherapies) in that the focus of treatment is

  • cognitive behaviour therapy (psychology)

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), form of psychotherapy that blends strategies from traditional behavioral treatments with various cognitively oriented strategies. It is different from other forms of psychotherapy (e.g., traditional psychodynamic psychotherapies) in that the focus of treatment is

  • cognitive control (psychology)

    personality: Cognitive controls and styles: …have been referred to as cognitive controls. Combinations of several cognitive controls within a person have been referred to as cognitive style, of which there can be numerous variations.

  • cognitive dissonance (psychology)

    Cognitive dissonance, the mental conflict that occurs when beliefs or assumptions are contradicted by new information. The unease or tension that the conflict arouses in people is relieved by one of several defensive maneuvers: they reject, explain away, or avoid the new information; persuade

  • cognitive enhancer

    Smart drug, any of a group of pharmaceutical agents used to improve the intellectual capacity of persons suffering from neurological diseases and psychological disorders. The use of such drugs by healthy individuals in order to improve concentration, to study longer, and to better manage stress is

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