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  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Territory of (territory, Australia)

    Cocos Islands, external territory of Australia in the eastern Indian Ocean. The islands lie 2,290 miles (3,685 km) west of Darwin, Northern Territory, on the northern Australian coast, and about 560 miles (900 km) southwest of Christmas Island (another external territory of Australia). The isolated

  • Cocos Island (island, Costa Rica)

    Cocos Island, island of volcanic origin lying in the Pacific Ocean, about 300 miles (480 km) south of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. It rises to an elevation of about 2,800 feet (850 metres) above sea level, is about 5 miles (8 km) long and 3 miles (5 km) wide, and has a total area of 9 square

  • Cocos Island National Park (island, Costa Rica)

    Cocos Island, island of volcanic origin lying in the Pacific Ocean, about 300 miles (480 km) south of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. It rises to an elevation of about 2,800 feet (850 metres) above sea level, is about 5 miles (8 km) long and 3 miles (5 km) wide, and has a total area of 9 square

  • Cocos Islander (people)

    Cocos Islands: People: Some four-fifths of the population—Cocos Islanders, or Cocos Malays, as they are often called, together with the descendants of the Clunies-Ross family—live on Home Island. Most of the Cocos Malays speak a dialect of Malay and are Muslim. Numerous Cocos Islanders moved to the Australian mainland in the mid-1950s…

  • Cocos Islands (territory, Australia)

    Cocos Islands, external territory of Australia in the eastern Indian Ocean. The islands lie 2,290 miles (3,685 km) west of Darwin, Northern Territory, on the northern Australian coast, and about 560 miles (900 km) southwest of Christmas Island (another external territory of Australia). The isolated

  • Cocos Islands Co-operative Society Ltd. (organization, Cocos Islands, Australia)

    Cocos Islands: Economy: The Cocos Islands Co-operative Society Ltd., established in 1979, undertakes building maintenance and construction and provides stevedoring, interisland transport, lighter on- and off-loading, and other services. Although fishing is good and the islanders have gardens, much of the food must be imported, as must fuels and…

  • Cocos Malay (people)

    Cocos Islands: People: Some four-fifths of the population—Cocos Islanders, or Cocos Malays, as they are often called, together with the descendants of the Clunies-Ross family—live on Home Island. Most of the Cocos Malays speak a dialect of Malay and are Muslim. Numerous Cocos Islanders moved to the Australian mainland in the mid-1950s…

  • Cocos nucifera (tree)

    angiosperm: Mechanisms of dispersal: …for this reason, coconuts (Cocos nucifera; Arecaceae) are readily transported across oceans to neighbouring islands. Adaptations for water dispersal include aerenchyma in fruits or seeds and light weight (e.g., water chestnut, Trapa natans; Lythraceae).

  • Cocos Plate (geology)

    mountain: The Caribbean chains: …Plate another small plate, the Cocos Plate, is being underthrust beneath Mexico and Central America. A belt of volcanoes extends from northern Panama to western Mexico, and virtually all of the highest mountains in this belt are volcanic. These volcanoes are built on thickened crust, and crustal shortening has occurred…

  • Cocos Ridge (ridge, Pacific Ocean)

    Pacific Ocean: Principal ridges and basins: In the eastern Pacific the Cocos Ridge extends southwestward from the Central American isthmus to the Galapagos Islands. To the south of the Galapagos lies the Peru Basin, which is separated by the extensive Sala y Gómez Ridge from the Southeast Pacific Basin, which in turn is separated from the…

  • Cocteau, Jean (French poet and artist)

    Jean Cocteau, French poet, librettist, novelist, actor, film director, and painter. Some of his most important works include the poem L’Ange Heurtebise (1925; “The Angel Heurtebise”); the play Orphée (1926; Orpheus); the novels Les Enfants terribles (1929; “The Incorrigible Children”; Eng. trans.

  • COCU (American Protestant history)

    Reformed and Presbyterian churches: Reformed Christians in the ecumenical movement: …place since 1961 by a Consultation on Church Union that included Reformed, Presbyterian, Congregational, Methodist, Episcopal, and Disciples churches.

  • Cocu magnifique, Le (work by Crommelynck)

    Fernand Crommelynck: …play Le Cocu magnifique (The Magnificent Cuckold). First produced in Paris in 1920, it was revived many times. It is one of the few French-language plays from this period to have retained its appeal. The play is a penetrating study of sexual jealousy, although Crommelynck called it a farce.…

  • Cocuy, Mount (mountain, Colombia)

    Colombia: Relief: …Oriental culminates in the towering Mount Cocuy (Sierra Nevada del Cocuy), which rises to 18,022 feet (5,493 metres). Beyond this point, near Pamplona, the cordillera splits into two much narrower ranges, one extending into Venezuela, the other, the Perijá Mountains, forming the northern boundary range between Colombia and Venezuela. The…

  • cod (fish, Gadus species)

    Cod, (genus Gadus), large and economically important marine fish of the family Gadidae. The species Gadus morhua is found on both sides of the North Atlantic. A cold-water fish, it generally remains near the bottom, ranging from inshore regions to deep waters. It is valued for its edible flesh, the

  • Cod (Dutch history)

    Holland: …the Hooks (Hoeken) and the Cods (Kabeljauwen), who came to represent rival aristocratic and middle-class parties, respectively. The issue was finally settled with the intervention of the house of Wittelsbach, whose members served as counts of Holland, Zeeland, and Hainaut until forced to give up the titles to Philip III…

  • cod family (fish family)

    commercial fishing: Fishes: The codfishes, including cod, hake, haddock, whiting, pollock, and saithe, share with herring the leading place among edible marine fish. Alaska pollock is the most important, particularly for Russia and Japan. Atlantic cod is an important food fish in both Europe and North America.

  • Cod Wars (Icelandic history)

    Iceland: Fishing limits: …commonly known as the “Cod Wars,” came to an end in 1976 when Britain recognized the 200-mile limit. Although all the political parties supported the claim for Iceland’s dominance over the fishing grounds, only the more isolationist parties were willing to risk Iceland’s good relations with its NATO partners.

  • Cod’ine (song by Sainte-Marie)

    Buffy Sainte-Marie: Early life and breakthrough: “Cod’ine,” which was based on Sainte-Marie’s addiction to codeine during treatment for bronchial pneumonia, conveyed a warning about the perils of substance dependency. “Cripple Creek” features Sainte-Marie singing and intermittently playing a Native American musical bow—specifically, a mouth bow, so called because it uses the…

  • Cod, Cape (peninsula, Massachusetts, United States)

    Cape Cod, hooked sandy peninsula of glacial origin encompassing most of Barnstable county, southeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It extends 65 miles (105 km) into the Atlantic Ocean, has a breadth of between 1 and 20 miles (1.6 and 32 km), and is bounded by Cape Cod Bay (north and west), Buzzards Bay

  • cod-liver oil

    Cod-liver oil, pale yellow oil obtained primarily from the liver of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, and other species of the family Gadidae. Cod-liver oil is a source of vitamins A and D. It was widely used in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries to treat and prevent rickets, a disease

  • coda (music)

    Coda, (Italian: “tail”) in musical composition, a concluding section (typically at the end of a sonata movement) that is based, as a general rule, on extensions or reelaborations of thematic material previously heard. The origins of the coda go back at least as far as the later European Middle

  • Codazzi, Agostino (Italian geographer)

    Andes Mountains: Study and exploration: …Peru, and the Italian geographer Agostino Codazzi, who produced detailed maps of Colombia and Venezuela. Since the late 19th century much Andean research has been directed toward economic development, primarily mining operations and railway construction.

  • Codd, Edgar Frank (American computer scientist and mathematician)

    Edgar Frank Codd, British-born American computer scientist and mathematician who devised the “relational” data model, which led to the creation of the relational database, a standard method of retrieving and storing computer data. Codd interrupted his study of mathematics and chemistry at the

  • Codde, Petrus (archbishop of Utrecht)

    Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands: …in Holland in 1702 when Petrus Codde, archbishop of Utrecht, was accused of heresy for suspected sympathy with Jansenism, a heresy emphasizing God’s grace and predestination, which was condemned by Pope Alexander VII in 1656. Many of the Dutch clergy and laity remained loyal to Codde and left the Roman…

  • Coddington lens

    microscope: Types of magnifiers: A Coddington lens combines two lens elements into a single thick element, with a groove cut in the centre of the element to select the portion of the imaging light with the lowest aberrations. This was a simple and inexpensive design but suffers from the requirement…

  • Coddington, William (colonial governor of Rhode Island)

    William Coddington, colonial governor and religious dissident who founded Newport, Rhode Island, in 1639. Coddington, an assistant in the Massachusetts Bay Company, migrated to the New England colony in 1630. He settled in Boston, where he became the company treasurer from 1634 to 1636 and, in the

  • CODE (audio recording technology)

    T Bone Burnett: …(rendered in English as “CODE”) technology. CODE offered a listening experience that replicated the original studio master recording as faithfully as possible, with no additional cost to the consumer. CODE audio DVDs were included in the standard CD package, and listeners could thus compare the two formats side-by-side. CODE…

  • code (computing)

    Machine language, the numeric codes for the operations that a particular computer can execute directly. The codes are strings of 0s and 1s, or binary digits (“bits”), which are frequently converted both from and to hexadecimal (base 16) for human viewing and modification. Machine language

  • code (communications)

    Code, in communications, an unvarying rule for replacing a piece of information such as a letter, word, or phrase with an arbitrarily selected equivalent. The term has been frequently misapplied and used as a synonym for cipher. In the past this blurring of the distinction between code and cipher

  • code (law)

    Law code, a more or less systematic and comprehensive written statement of laws. Law codes were compiled by the most ancient peoples. The oldest extant evidence for a code is tablets from the ancient archives of the city of Ebla (now at Tell Mardikh, Syria), which date to about 2400 bc. The best

  • Code annamite, Le (work by Philastre)

    Paul-Louis-Félix Philastre: …erudite work was published as Le Code annamite in two volumes in Paris in 1876.

  • code breaking (biology)

    instinct: Instinct as behaviour: …signaling is known as “code breaking.” There also exists “blind” deceit; for example, orchids of the genus Ophrys have flowers mimicking the shape, colour, and sex pheromones of certain species of wasps. The plants trick male wasps into trying to copulate with the flowers, and thus they coerce the…

  • Code Civil (France [1804])

    Napoleonic Code, French civil code enacted on March 21, 1804, and still extant, with revisions. It was the main influence on the 19th-century civil codes of most countries of continental Europe and Latin America. The demand for codification and, indeed, codification itself preceded the Napoleonic

  • Code Civil Suisse (Switzerland [1907])

    Swiss Civil Code, body of private law codified by the jurist Eugen Huber at the end of the 19th century; it was adopted in 1907 and went into effect in 1912, and it remains in force, with modifications, in present-day Switzerland. Because Huber’s work was completed after the Napoleonic Code (

  • Code for the Government of Armies in the Field (work by Lieber)

    Francis Lieber: ” His Code for the Government of Armies in the Field (1863) subsequently served as a basis for international conventions on the conduct of warfare.

  • Code inconnu (film by Haneke [2000])

    Michael Haneke: …Binoche in Code inconnu (2000; Code Unknown), which episodically traces the fates of several lives that intersect on a multicultural Parisian street corner. Next, Isabelle Huppert evinced a middle-aged woman’s psychosexual frustrations in La Pianiste (2001; The Piano Teacher), which Haneke adapted from a novel by Austrian writer Elfriede Jelinek.…

  • Code Louis (France [1667])

    procedural law: Medieval European law: …by Louis XIV of the Ordonnance Civile, also known as Code Louis, a comprehensive code regulating civil procedure in all of France in a uniform manner. The Code Louis continued, with some improvements, many of the basic principles of procedure that had prevailed since the late Middle Ages.

  • Code Napoléon (France [1804])

    Napoleonic Code, French civil code enacted on March 21, 1804, and still extant, with revisions. It was the main influence on the 19th-century civil codes of most countries of continental Europe and Latin America. The demand for codification and, indeed, codification itself preceded the Napoleonic

  • Code of Terpsichore (work by Blasis)

    dance: The importance of training: …master Carlo Blasis in his Code of Terpsichore. Blasis advocated at least three hours of dance classes a day, involving exercises that progressively developed different parts of the body.

  • Code Pénal (France [1810])

    criminal law: Common law and code law: …criminelle of 1808 and the Code pénal of 1810. The latter constituted the leading model for European criminal legislation throughout the first half of the 19th century, after which, although its influence in Europe waned, it continued to play an important role in the legislation of certain Latin American and…

  • Code Pink (anti-war organization)

    Code Pink, feminist antiwar organization founded in 2002 to protest U.S. military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq. The name Code Pink was adopted to satirize the colour-coded terrorism alert system put in place by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security in 2002 and discontinued in 2011. The

  • code talker (United States history)

    Code talker, any of more than 400 Native American soldiers—including Assiniboin, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Choctaw, Comanche, Cree, Crow, Fox, Hopi, Kiowa, Menominee, Navajo, Ojibwa, Oneida, Osage, Pawnee, Sauk, Seminole, and Sioux men—who transmitted sensitive wartime messages by speaking their native

  • Code Talkers Recognition Act (United States [2002])

    code talker: Congress passed the Code Talkers Recognition Act to honour Sioux, Comanche, and Choctaw code talkers, and a similar act in 2008 further honoured men of other tribes who had used their languages in the wartime service of the United States. More gold medals were awarded in 2013.

  • Code Unknown (film by Haneke [2000])

    Michael Haneke: …Binoche in Code inconnu (2000; Code Unknown), which episodically traces the fates of several lives that intersect on a multicultural Parisian street corner. Next, Isabelle Huppert evinced a middle-aged woman’s psychosexual frustrations in La Pianiste (2001; The Piano Teacher), which Haneke adapted from a novel by Austrian writer Elfriede Jelinek.…

  • Code, Lorraine (Canadian philosopher)

    philosophical feminism: Feminist epistemology and philosophy of science: …the feminist philosophers Sandra Harding, Lorraine Code, and Helen Longino noted that “communities of knowers”—those recognized as experts in some field of inquiry—were remarkably homogeneous, not only with respect to sex but also with respect to race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Most such knowers, in other words, were white, Western,…

  • code-breaking (technology)

    computer: Colossus: …in Britain the impetus was code breaking. The Ultra project was funded with much secrecy to develop the technology necessary to crack ciphers and codes produced by the German electromechanical devices known as the Enigma and the Geheimschreiber (“Secret Writer”). The first in a series of important code-breaking machines, Colossus,…

  • code-division multiple access

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: …spectrum multiple access known as code-division multiple access (CDMA)—a technique that, like the original TIA approach, combined digital voice compression with digital modulation. (For more information on the techniques of information compression, signal modulation, and multiple access, see telecommunications.) The CDMA system offered 10 to 20 times the capacity of…

  • code-switching (linguistics)

    Code-switching, process of shifting from one linguistic code (a language or dialect) to another, depending on the social context or conversational setting. Sociolinguists, social psychologists, and identity researchers are interested in the ways in which code-switching, particularly by members of

  • codec (technology)

    Codec, a standard used for compressing and decompressing digital media, especially audio and video, which have traditionally consumed significant bandwidth. Codecs are used to store files on disk, as well as to transmit media (either as discrete files or as a stream) over computer networks. By

  • codeine (drug)

    Codeine, naturally occurring alkaloid of opium, the dried milky exudate of the unripe seed capsule of the poppy Papaver somniferum, that is used in medicine as a cough suppressant and analgesic drug. Codeine exerts its effects by acting on the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). First

  • Codelco (Chilean company)

    Codelco, state-owned Chilean mining company that is one of the largest copper producers in the world. Headquarters are in Santiago. Codelco’s core business is the exploration, development, and exploitation of copper mineral resources, the processing and refining of copper, and its subsequent sale.

  • codependency (psychology)

    Codependency, a psychological syndrome noted in partners or relatives of persons with alcohol or drug addiction. Not a formal psychiatric diagnosis, codependency has come to be a useful term for discussing aspects of family dysfunction, particularly among participants in recovery groups like

  • coder-decoder (technology)

    Codec, a standard used for compressing and decompressing digital media, especially audio and video, which have traditionally consumed significant bandwidth. Codecs are used to store files on disk, as well as to transmit media (either as discrete files or as a stream) over computer networks. By

  • codetermination (business)

    organized labour: Breakup of the postwar settlement: Inflation, neocorporatism, and restructuring: “Codetermination,” as it was called in Germany and Sweden, provided workers with quasi-constitutionalized shop-floor representation on nonwage matters, such as work organization, that industrial unions had been unable or unwilling to address before 1968. Thus, in order to prevent a return of the representation gap…

  • codetta (music)

    coda: A codetta (“little coda”) is a brief conclusion, a dominant–tonic cadence at the end of the exposition that may be repeated several times for emphasis.

  • codex (manuscript)

    Codex, manuscript book, especially of Scripture, early literature, or ancient mythological or historical annals. The earliest type of manuscript in the form of a modern book (i.e., a collection of written pages stitched together along one side), the codex replaced the earlier rolls of papyrus and

  • Codex Alexandrinus (ancient Greek manuscript)

    codex: Also important is the Codex Alexandrinus, a Greek text of the Bible that probably was produced in the 5th century and is now preserved in the British Library, London. The term codex aureus describes a volume with gold letters written on sheets that have been stained with a purple…

  • Codex Alimentarius Commission (international commission on food standards)

    Codex Alimentarius Commission, joint commission of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) established in 1963 to develop an international code of food quality standards. In its first 20 years of activity, the commission compiled hundreds of

  • Codex Ambrosianus (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: The Christian canon: …Peshitta (Syriac version) known as Codex Ambrosianus also has III and IV Maccabees, II (sometimes IV) Esdras, and Josephus’s Wars VII.

  • Codex Amiatinus (Celtic manuscript)

    calligraphy: The Anglo-Celtic and other national styles (5th to 13th century): There is another, Codex Amiatinus (Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Florence), of 1,030 leaves measuring 20 by 13 12 inches (51 by 34 cm), made in Northumbria in the 8th century. It is continental Roman in style with no concession to the Insular habit of ornamentation—perhaps because it was designed for…

  • Codex Argenteus (Gothic manuscript)

    Uppsala University: …and contains the illuminated manuscript Codex Argenteus, which is the only extant manuscript of Bishop Ulfilas’s 4th-century translation of the Gospels into the Gothic language. The main university building (1887) has a large art collection.

  • Codex Atlanticus (documents by Leonardo da Vinci)

    Leonardo da Vinci: Art and science: the notebooks: …Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, called Codex Atlanticus because of its size, was collected by the sculptor Pompeo Leoni at the end of the 16th century; after a roundabout journey, its companion volume fell into the possession of the English crown in the 17th century and was placed in the Royal…

  • codex aureus (manuscript type)

    codex: The term codex aureus describes a volume with gold letters written on sheets that have been stained with a purple dye called murex. Existing examples of the codex aureus date from the 8th and 9th centuries.

  • Codex Bezae (Greco-Roman manuscript)

    Theodore Beza: …from his library the celebrated Codex Bezae (D), an important manuscript from about the 5th century bearing Greek and Latin texts of the Gospels and Acts and supplemented by Beza’s commentary based on the Calvinist viewpoint. Other works among Beza’s own writings include anti-Catholic tracts, a biography of Calvin, and…

  • Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis (Greco-Roman manuscript)

    Theodore Beza: …from his library the celebrated Codex Bezae (D), an important manuscript from about the 5th century bearing Greek and Latin texts of the Gospels and Acts and supplemented by Beza’s commentary based on the Calvinist viewpoint. Other works among Beza’s own writings include anti-Catholic tracts, a biography of Calvin, and…

  • Codex Calixtinus (Spanish music manuscript)

    canonical hours: The Spanish Codex Calixtinus (about the 12th century) also includes two-part polyphony for the Matins responsories.

  • Codex canonum (canon law)

    canon law: Development of canon law in the West: …form the Corpus (“Body”) or Codex canonum (“Code of Canons”).

  • Codex Cenannensis (illuminated manuscript)

    Book of Kells, illuminated gospel book (MS. A.I. 6; Trinity College Library, Dublin) that is a masterpiece of the ornate Hiberno-Saxon style. It is probable that the illumination was begun in the late 8th century at the Irish monastery on the Scottish island of Iona and that after a Viking raid the

  • Codex Claromontanus (New Testament manuscript)

    biblical literature: Uncials: Dp, Codex Claromontanus, of the same Western text type although not remarkably dissimilar from other known texts, contains the Pauline Letters including Hebrews. Dp (p, for Pauline epistles) is sometimes referred to as D2. Beza acquired this 6th-century manuscript at about the same time as Dea,…

  • Codex Colombino (pre-Columbian manuscript)

    codex: …are the Vienna Codex, the Codex Colombino, and the Codex Fejérváry-Mayer, all believed to have been produced before the Spanish conquest of the region. Certain collections of formulas or standards are also referred to as codices; for example, the Codex Alimentarius and the British Pharmaceutical Codex.

  • Codex Constitutionum (Romanian law)

    Code of Justinian: …consists of four books: (1) Codex Constitutionum, (2) Digesta, or Pandectae, (3) Institutiones, and (4) Novellae Constitutiones Post Codicem.

  • Codex Cumanicus (Turkish textbook)

    Kipchak: …important surviving record is the Codex Cumanicus, a late 13th-century dictionary of words in Kipchak, Latin, and Persian. The presence in Egypt of Turkic-speaking Mamlūks also stimulated the compilation of Kipchak-Arabic dictionaries and grammars that are important in the study of several old Turkic languages.

  • Codex Dresdensis (Mayan literature)

    Dresden Codex, one of the few collections of pre-Columbian Mayan hieroglyphic texts known to have survived the book burnings by the Spanish clergy during the 16th century (others include the Madrid, Paris, and Grolier codices). It contains astronomical calculations—eclipse-prediction tables, the

  • Codex Ephraemi Syri (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: Uncials: C, Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus, is a palimpsest. Originally written as a biblical manuscript in the 5th century, it was erased in the 12th century, and the treatises or sermons of Ephraem Syrus, a 4th-century Syrian Church Father, were written over the scraped text. The manuscript…

  • Codex Euricianus (Visigoth law)

    Euric: …that bears his name, the Code of Euric.

  • Codex Fejérváry-Mayer (pre-Columbian manuscript)

    codex: …the Codex Colombino, and the Codex Fejérváry-Mayer, all believed to have been produced before the Spanish conquest of the region. Certain collections of formulas or standards are also referred to as codices; for example, the Codex Alimentarius and the British Pharmaceutical Codex.

  • Codex Festi Farnesianus (Roman manuscript)

    Sextus Pompeius Festus: …in only one manuscript, the Codex Festi Farnesianus, at Naples. The glosses on it of Josephus Justus Scaliger (1565) were one of the first examples of modern classical scholarship.

  • Codex Freerianus (biblical manuscript)

    biblical literature: Uncials: W, Codex Washingtonianus (or Freerianus), consists of the four Gospels in the so-called Western order (Matthew, John, Luke, and Mark, as Dea). It was acquired in Egypt by C.L. Freer, an American businessman and philanthropist (hence, the Freer-Gospels), in 1906 and is now in the Freer…

  • Codex Gissensis (Gothic manuscript)

    biblical literature: German versions: 525) and Codex Gissensis. The translation, essentially based on a Byzantine text, is exceedingly literal and not homogeneous. It is difficult to determine the degree of contamination that the original Gospels translation of Ulfilas had undergone by the time it appeared in these codices.

  • Codex Hilleli (Masoretic manuscript)

    biblical literature: Masoretic texts: …10th century, and the “Codex Hilleli,” said to have been written circa 600 by Rabbi Hillel ben Moses ben Hillel, have both vanished.

  • Codex Juris Canonici (canon law)

    Code of Canon Law, official compilation of ecclesiastical law promulgated in 1917 and again, in revised form, in 1983, for Roman Catholics of the Latin rite. The code obliges Roman Catholics of Eastern rites only when it specifically refers to them or clearly applies to all Roman Catholics. For

  • Codex Justinianeus (law)

    Code of Justinian, collections of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I from 529 to 565 ce. Strictly speaking, the works did not constitute a new legal code. Rather, Justinian’s committees of jurists provided basically two reference

  • Codex Koridethianus (New Testament manuscript)

    biblical literature: Uncials: Θ, Codex Koridethianus, is a 9th-century manuscript taking its name from the place of the scribe’s monastery, Koridethi, in the Caucasus Mountains, near the Caspian Sea. Θ contains the Gospels; Matthew, Luke, and John have a text similar to most Byzantine manuscripts, but the text of…

  • Codex Laudianus (Greek and Latin manuscript)

    biblical literature: Uncials: Ea, Codex Laudianus, is a bilingual Greco-Latin text of Acts presented in 1636 by Archbishop Laud, an Anglican churchman, to the Bodleian Library at Oxford. It is a late-6th- or early-7th-century manuscript often agreeing with Dea and its Western readings but also having a mixture of…

  • Codex Lindisfarnensis (medieval manuscript)

    Lindisfarne Gospels, manuscript (MS. Cotton Nero D.IV.; British Museum, London) illuminated in the late 7th or 8th century in the Hiberno-Saxon style. The book was probably made for Eadfrith, the bishop of Lindisfarne from 698 to 721. Attributed to the Northumbrian school, the Lindisfarne Gospels

  • Codex Marchalianus of the Prophets (biblical papyrus)

    biblical literature: Manuscripts and printed editions of the Septuagint: …valuable of these is the Codex Marchalianus of the Prophets, written in the 6th century.

  • Codex Mendoza (Latin American manuscript)

    Latin American art: Mesoamerica: Included in the Codex Mendoza (begun in 1541) were a tribute list, of great interest to him in the exploitation of the new domain; a summary of cultural ranks and behaviour expected from men and women at different stages of life; and a list of monthly religious observances,…

  • Codex Mugah (Masoretic manuscript)

    biblical literature: Masoretic texts: A “Codex Mugah,” frequently referred to as an authority in the early 10th century, and the “Codex Hilleli,” said to have been written circa 600 by Rabbi Hillel ben Moses ben Hillel, have both vanished.

  • Codex of Ur-Nammu (Sumerian manuscript)

    epigraphy: Ancient Mesopotamia: …bce with that of King Ur-Nammu of the Sumerian 3rd dynasty of Ur (c. 2100 bce), continuing with those of the Sumero-Akkadian king Lipit-Ishtar (in Sumerian) and King Bilalama of Eshnunna (in Akkadian) during the interval of the 3rd dynasty of Ur, and the rise of the Amorite dynasty of…

  • Codex Peresianus (Mayan literature)

    Paris Codex, one of the very few texts of the pre-Conquest Maya known to have survived the book burnings by the Spanish clergy during the 16th century (others include the Madrid, Dresden, and Grolier codices). Its Latin name comes from the name Perez, which was written on the torn wrappings of the

  • Codex Petrei (Florentine art history)

    Giotto: Early life: In the Codex Petrei version, a statement that Giotto was born in 1276 at Vespignano, the son of a peasant, occurs at the very end of the “Life” and may have been added much later, even, conceivably, from Vasari. In any case, whether Vasari or “Antonio Billi”…

  • Codex Regius (Icelandic literature)

    Codex Regius, (Latin: “Royal Book” or “King’s Book”) medieval Old Norse (Icelandic) manuscript that contains the 29 poems commonly designated by scholars as the Poetic Edda, or Elder Edda (see Edda). It is the oldest such collection, the best-known of all Icelandic books, and an Icelandic national

  • Codex Sinaiticus (4th-century biblical manuscript)

    Codex Sinaiticus, the earliest known manuscript of the Christian Bible, compiled in the 4th century ce. In 1844, 43 leaves of a 4th-century biblical codex (a collection of single pages bound together along one side) were discovered at St. Catherine’s Monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai (hence the

  • Codex Tchacos (Coptic literature)

    gnosticism: Diversity of gnostic myths: …a 4th-century papyrus manuscript, the Codex Tchacos, which also contained at least three other writings, two of which were found in the Nag Hammadi collection. The codex was discovered in Egypt in the 1970s but was subsequently acquired by and passed among collectors in Europe and the United States for…

  • Codex Teplensis (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: German versions: …1350, and another from Bohemia, Codex Teplensis (c. 1400), has also survived.

  • Codex Theodosianus (Roman law)

    Theodosius II: …in supervising compilation of the Theodosian Code (published 438), which codified the laws issued after 312. Theodosius died from injuries suffered during a hunting accident. His daughter Licinia Eudoxia married the Western Roman emperor Valentinian III (reigned 425–455).

  • Codex Tro-Cortesianus (Mayan literature)

    Madrid Codex, together with the Paris, Dresden, and Grolier codices, a richly illustrated glyphic text of the pre-Conquest Mayan period and one of few known survivors of the mass book-burnings by the Spanish clergy during the 16th century. The variant name Tro-Cortesianus is a result of the early

  • Codex Urbinas Latinus 1270 (work by Leonardo da Vinci)

    Leonardo da Vinci: Science of painting: …for Melzi’s manuscript—known as the Codex Urbinas, in the Vatican Library—have been identified and located in the extant notebooks, and it is impossible to assess how closely Melzi’s presentation of the material reflected Leonardo’s specific intentions.

  • Codex Vaticanus (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: Uncials: B, Codex Vaticanus, a biblical manuscript of the mid-4th century in the Vatican Library since before 1475, appeared in photographic facsimile in 1889–90 and 1904. The New Testament lacks Hebrews from chapter 9, verse 14, on the Pastorals, Philemon, and Revelation. Because B has no ornamentation,…

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