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  • Coca, Imogene (American actress)

    Imogene Fernandez de Coca, American actress and comedian (born Nov. 18, 1908, Philadelphia, Pa.—died June 2, 2001, Westport, Conn.), employed her expressive, elastic face—enhanced by saucer eyes and a huge smile—as well as her energetic physicality and improvisational abilities to great effect, m

  • Coca-Cola (beverage)

    The Coca-Cola Company: …of syrup and concentrate for Coca-Cola, a sweetened carbonated beverage that is a cultural institution in the United States and a global symbol of American tastes. The company also produces and sells other soft drinks and citrus beverages. With more than 2,800 products available in more than 200 countries, Coca-Cola…

  • Coca-Cola Company, The (American company)

    The Coca-Cola Company, American corporation founded in 1892 and today engaged primarily in the manufacture and sale of syrup and concentrate for Coca-Cola, a sweetened carbonated beverage that is a cultural institution in the United States and a global symbol of American tastes. The company also

  • Coca-Cola Zero (beverage)

    The Coca-Cola Company: In 2005 the company introduced Coca-Cola Zero, a zero-calorie soft drink with the taste of regular Coca-Cola. In 2007 the company acquired Energy Brands, Inc., along with its variously enhanced waters. That same year Coca-Cola announced that it would join the Business Leaders Initiative on Human Rights (BLIHR), a group…

  • Cocai, Merlin (Italian author)

    Teofilo Folengo, Italian popularizer of verse written in macaronics (q.v.), a synthetic combination of Italian and Latin, first written by Tisi degli Odassi in the late 15th century. Folengo entered the Benedictine order as a young man, taking the name Teofilo by which he is known. He lived in the

  • cocaine (drug)

    Cocaine, white crystalline alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum coca), a bush commonly found growing wild in Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador and cultivated in many other countries. The chemical formula of cocaine is C17H21NO4. Cocaine acts as an anesthetic because it

  • Cocaine Nights (novel by Ballard)

    J.G. Ballard: …that she becomes homicidal, and Cocaine Nights (1996) centres on an island community whose cultured lifestyle is supported by crime. Ballard deploys events of extraordinary violence in the plots of Super-Cannes (2000), Millennium People (2003), and Kingdom Come (2006), effectively exposing the foibles of his middle-class characters by documenting their…

  • Cocanada (India)

    Kakinada, city, eastern Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. It is situated along the Bay of Bengal, about 30 miles (50 km) east of Rajahmundry. Kakinada is a seaport—a barrier island to the east protecting its harbour—but it is now little used because the anchorage is 5 to 6 miles (8 to 10 km)

  • cocarde (hat decoration)

    Cockade, a bow or knot of ribbons worn in the hat. Though originally ornamental, cockades soon came to be used to broadcast identification with such various organizations as a political party, a military unit, or a household (in the form of livery). During the French Revolution the partisans of the

  • Cocceianus, Dio (Greek philosopher)

    Dio Chrysostom, (Latin: “Dio the Golden-Mouthed”) Greek rhetorician and philosopher who won fame in Rome and throughout the empire for his writings and speeches. Dio was banished in 82 ce for political reasons from both Bithynia and Italy. He wandered for 14 years through the lands near the Black

  • Cocceius, Johannes (German theologian)

    Johannes Cocceius, Dutch theologian of the Reformed Church, biblical scholar, prolific writer, and a leading exponent of covenant theology, a school of religious thought emphasizing the compacts between God and man. Educated in biblical languages, Cocceius was appointed in 1630 to the professorship

  • Cocceji, Samuel von (Prussian official)

    Frederick II: Problems of autocracy: …where the reforming efforts of Samuel von Cocceji resulted in all judges in higher and appellate courts being appointed only after they had passed a rigorous examination. Cocceji also inspired the establishment in 1750 of a new Superior Consistory to supervise church and educational affairs and began the process of…

  • cocci (bacterial shape)

    Coccus, in microbiology, a spherical-shaped bacterium. Many species of bacteria have characteristic arrangements that are useful in identification. Pairs of cocci are called diplococci; rows or chains of such cells are called streptococci; grapelike clusters of cells, staphylococci; packets of

  • coccid (insect)

    homopteran: aphids or plant lice, phylloxerans, coccids, scales, whiteflies, and mealybugs.

  • coccidia (protozoan)

    Coccidium, (order Coccidea), any of a large group of protozoan parasites of the sporozoan type. Coccidia live in both vertebrates and invertebrates, primarily in the lining cells of the intestine; they cause the disease coccidiosis. The two main phases in the life cycle are free-living oocysts

  • coccidioidal granuloma (pathology)

    coccidioidomycosis: Disseminated coccidioidomycosis, or coccidioidal granuloma, is a progressive form of infection that can result in skin ulcers, many nodules or cavities in the lungs, widespread involvement of lymph nodes, lesions of the bones, and osteomyelitis (infection of the bone). Meningitis is usually the immediate cause…

  • Coccidioides (fungus)

    disease: Epidemiology: …are species of the fungus Coccidioides, which infect both rodents and humans (producing desert fever in the latter), and the anthrax bacillus, which causes disease in cattle, sheep, and other domesticated animals and occasionally infects humans as well. A disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans is called…

  • Coccidioides immitis (fungus)

    coccidioidomycosis: …of spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis. C. immitis can be found in the soil, and most infections occur during dry spells in semiarid regions of the southwestern United States, especially around the San Joaquin Valley, and in the Chaco region of Argentina; dust storms have caused outbreaks of the…

  • coccidioidomycosis (pathology)

    Coccidioidomycosis, an infectious disease caused by inhalation of spores of the fungus Coccidioides immitis. C. immitis can be found in the soil, and most infections occur during dry spells in semiarid regions of the southwestern United States, especially around the San Joaquin Valley, and in the

  • coccidiosis (pathology)

    Coccidiosis, any of several gastrointestinal infections of humans and other animals produced by members of the sporozoan parasite coccidium (class Coccidea). Human coccidiosis is produced by species of Isospora; in its severe form it is characterized by diarrhea (sometimes alternating with

  • coccidium (protozoan)

    Coccidium, (order Coccidea), any of a large group of protozoan parasites of the sporozoan type. Coccidia live in both vertebrates and invertebrates, primarily in the lining cells of the intestine; they cause the disease coccidiosis. The two main phases in the life cycle are free-living oocysts

  • Coccinella novemnotata (insect)

    ladybug: The pattern of the nine-spotted ladybird beetle (Coccinella novemnotata), which has four black spots on each reddish orange wing cover (elytron) and one shared spot, is an example of the typical colour pattern of ladybird beetles.

  • coccinellid (insect)

    Ladybug, (family Coccinellidae), any of approximately 5,000 widely distributed species of beetles (insect order Coleoptera) whose name originated in the Middle Ages, when the beetle was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and called “beetle of Our Lady.” Ladybird beetles are hemispheric in shape and

  • Coccinellidae (insect)

    Ladybug, (family Coccinellidae), any of approximately 5,000 widely distributed species of beetles (insect order Coleoptera) whose name originated in the Middle Ages, when the beetle was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and called “beetle of Our Lady.” Ladybird beetles are hemispheric in shape and

  • coccolith (biology)

    Coccolith, minute calcium carbonate platelet or ring secreted by certain organisms (coccolithophores, classed either as protozoans or algae) and imbedded in their cell membranes. When the organisms die, the coccoliths are deposited (at an estimated 60,000,000,000 per square metres [10 square feet]

  • coccolithophore (protist)

    algae: Evolution and paleontology of algae: Coccolithophores, coccolith-bearing members of the Prymnesiophyceae, date from the Late Triassic (227 million to 201.3 million years ago), with one reported from approximately 280 million years ago. Coccolithophores were extremely abundant during the Mesozoic Era (252.2 million to 66 million years ago), contributing to deep…

  • coccolithophorid (protist)

    algae: Evolution and paleontology of algae: Coccolithophores, coccolith-bearing members of the Prymnesiophyceae, date from the Late Triassic (227 million to 201.3 million years ago), with one reported from approximately 280 million years ago. Coccolithophores were extremely abundant during the Mesozoic Era (252.2 million to 66 million years ago), contributing to deep…

  • Coccolithophorida (protist)

    algae: Evolution and paleontology of algae: Coccolithophores, coccolith-bearing members of the Prymnesiophyceae, date from the Late Triassic (227 million to 201.3 million years ago), with one reported from approximately 280 million years ago. Coccolithophores were extremely abundant during the Mesozoic Era (252.2 million to 66 million years ago), contributing to deep…

  • Coccoloba uvifera (plant)

    Italy: Plant life: …a notable development of pioneer sea grape on the coastal dunes. The Mediterranean foothill area is characterized by the cork oak and the Aleppo pine. Higher up, in southern Italy, there are still traces of the ancient mountain forest, with truffle oak, chestnut, flowering ash, Oriental oak, white poplar, and…

  • Coccomyxa (lichen)

    fungus: Form and function of lichens: A few phycobionts, such as Coccomyxa and Stichococcus, which are not penetrated by haustoria, have thin-walled cells that are pressed close to fungal hyphae.

  • Cocconi, Giuseppe (Italian physicist)

    extraterrestrial life: Searching for technical civilizations: …in 1959 by Italian physicist Giuseppe Cocconi and American physicist Philip Morrison. Using the radio telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia, in 1960, Drake mounted the first (very brief) search, Project Ozma, which was oriented to two nearby stars, Epsilon Eridani and Tau Ceti. On the basis of the Drake…

  • Coccosteus (paleontology)

    arthrodire: …as the Middle Devonian genus Coccosteus, tended toward marine habitats. Coccosteans were less heavily armoured than Arctolepis, and the bony head and body shields were connected by a joint on each side allowing free head movement. They were predators and had bony jaws. Two toothplates were present on each side…

  • Coccothraustes vespertina (bird)

    Evening grosbeak, North American grosbeak species. See

  • coccus (bacterial shape)

    Coccus, in microbiology, a spherical-shaped bacterium. Many species of bacteria have characteristic arrangements that are useful in identification. Pairs of cocci are called diplococci; rows or chains of such cells are called streptococci; grapelike clusters of cells, staphylococci; packets of

  • coccygeal nerve (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The spinal cord: …5 sacral (S), and 1 coccygeal (Coc). Spinal nerve roots emerge via intervertebral foramina; lumbar and sacral spinal roots, descending for some distance within the subarachnoid space before reaching the appropriate foramina, produce a group of nerve roots at the conus medullaris known as the cauda equina. Two enlargements of…

  • coccygeal plexus (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Coccygeal plexus: The ventral rami of S4, S5, and Coc1 form the coccygeal plexus, from which small anococcygeal nerves arise to innervate the skin over the coccyx (tailbone) and around the anus.

  • coccygeus muscle (anatomy)

    Coccygeus muscle, muscle of the lower back that arises from the ischium (lower, rear portion of the hipbone) and from the ligaments that join the spinal column and the sacrum (triangular bone at the base of the spine). It is attached to the lower sacrum and the coccyx (tailbone). In humans its

  • coccyx (anatomy)

    Coccyx, curved, semiflexible lower end of the backbone (vertebral column) in apes and humans, representing a vestigial tail. It is composed of three to five successively smaller caudal (coccygeal) vertebrae. The first is a relatively well-defined vertebra and connects with the sacrum; the last is

  • Coccyzus americanus (bird)

    cuckoo: …yellow-billed and black-billed cuckoos (Coccyzus americanus and C. erythropthalmus) and the mangrove cuckoo (C. minor), which is restricted in the United States to coastal southern Florida (also found in the West Indies and Mexico to northern South America); they are represented in Central and South America by about 12…

  • Coccyzus erythropthalmus (bird)

    cuckoo: …by the widespread yellow-billed and black-billed cuckoos (Coccyzus americanus and C. erythropthalmus) and the mangrove cuckoo (C. minor), which is restricted in the United States to coastal southern Florida (also found in the West Indies and Mexico to northern South America); they are represented in Central and South America by…

  • Coccyzus minor (bird)

    cuckoo: erythropthalmus) and the mangrove cuckoo (C. minor), which is restricted in the United States to coastal southern Florida (also found in the West Indies and Mexico to northern South America); they are represented in Central and South America by about 12 other species, some placed in the genera…

  • Coch, Johannes (German theologian)

    Johannes Cocceius, Dutch theologian of the Reformed Church, biblical scholar, prolific writer, and a leading exponent of covenant theology, a school of religious thought emphasizing the compacts between God and man. Educated in biblical languages, Cocceius was appointed in 1630 to the professorship

  • Cochabamba (Bolivia)

    Cochabamba, city, central Bolivia. It lies in the densely populated, fertile Cochabamba Basin, at 8,432 feet (2,570 metres) above sea level. Founded as Villa de Oropeza in 1574 by the conquistador Sebastián Barba de Padilla, it was elevated to city status in 1786 and renamed Cochabamba, the Quechua

  • Cochamama (Inca god)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Inca gods: …until after 1450, was called Cochamama (Mama Qoca), the Sea Mother.

  • Cochato (Massachusetts, United States)

    Randolph, town (township), Norfolk county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., 15 miles (24 km) south of Boston. Settled in 1710 as Cochato (named for the Cochato Indians), it was part of Braintree until separately incorporated in 1793. The town was renamed for Peyton Randolph, first president of the

  • Coche (island, Venezuela)

    Nueva Esparta: …two small neighbours, Cubagua and Coche. There are numerous small islands in the area; most of them remain uninhabited. Those islands are directly dependent on the federal government.

  • Cochet, Henri (French tennis player)

    Henri Cochet, French tennis player who, as one of the Four Musketeers (with Jean Borotra, René Lacoste, and Jacques Brugnon), helped establish the French domination of world tennis in the mid-1920s. Cochet’s father was the secretary of a local tennis court, and as a youth Cochet spent much time

  • Cochin (India)

    Kochi, city and major port on the Malabar Coast of the Arabian Sea, west-central Kerala state, southwestern India. Also the name of a former princely state, “Kochi” is sometimes used to refer to a cluster of islands and towns, including Ernakulam, Mattancheri, Fort Cochin, Willingdon Island, Vypin

  • Cochin Jews (Indian religious community)

    Cochin Jews, Malayalam-speaking Jews from the Kochi (formerly Cochin) region of Kerala, located along the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. The Cochin Jews were known for their division into three castelike groups—the Paradesis (White Jews), the Malabaris (Black Jews), and the Meshuchrarim

  • Cochin, Charles-Nicolas, the Younger (French artist)

    Charles-Nicolas Cochin, the Younger, outstanding French engraver of the 18th century. The son of Charles-Nicolas the Elder (1688–1754), from whom he learned engraving, Cochin rose to national prominence early in his career. As a member of the academy (admitted in 1751) and the keeper of the king’s

  • Cochinchina (region, Vietnam)

    Cochinchina, the southern region of Vietnam during the French colonial period, known in precolonial times as Nam Ky (“Southern Administrative Division”), the name that the Vietnamese continued to use. Cochinchina was bounded on the northeast by the part of central Vietnam that the French called A

  • Cochinchine (region, Vietnam)

    Cochinchina, the southern region of Vietnam during the French colonial period, known in precolonial times as Nam Ky (“Southern Administrative Division”), the name that the Vietnamese continued to use. Cochinchina was bounded on the northeast by the part of central Vietnam that the French called A

  • Cochinchinese language

    Viet-Muong languages: …Vietnamese, centred in Hue, and Southern Vietnamese, centred in Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), differ from the Northern norm in having fewer tones and in modifying certain consonants. All three use the same writing system, which is called Quoc-ngu. The dialects spoken in the city of Vinh and in much…

  • cochineal (dye)

    Cochineal, red dyestuff consisting of the dried, pulverized bodies of certain female scale insects, Dactylopius coccus, of the Coccidae family, cactus-eating insects native to tropical and subtropical America. Cochineal is used to produce scarlet, crimson, orange, and other tints and to prepare

  • Cochini Jews (Indian religious community)

    Cochin Jews, Malayalam-speaking Jews from the Kochi (formerly Cochin) region of Kerala, located along the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. The Cochin Jews were known for their division into three castelike groups—the Paradesis (White Jews), the Malabaris (Black Jews), and the Meshuchrarim

  • Cochise (Apache chief)

    Cochise, Chiricahua Apache chief who led the Indians’ resistance to the white man’s incursions into the U.S. Southwest in the 1860s; the southeasternmost county of Arizona bears his name. Nothing is known of Cochise’s birth or early life. His people remained at peace with white settlers through the

  • Cochise culture

    Cochise culture, an ancient North American Indian culture that existed perhaps 9,000 to 2,000 years ago, known from sites in Arizona and western New Mexico and named for the ancient Lake Cochise, now a dry desert basin called Willcox Playa, near which important finds were made. The Cochise was a

  • cochito (mammal)

    porpoise: The vaquita, or cochito (P. sinus), is listed as a critically endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Vaquitas are found only near the northern end of the Gulf of California. By 2020, ecologists had estimated that no more than 18 adults…

  • Cochlaeus, Johannes (German humanist)

    Johannes Cochlaeus, German Humanist and a leading Roman Catholic opponent of Martin Luther. Educated at the University of Cologne (1504–10), Cochlaeus became rector of the Latin School of St. Lawrence, Nürnberg (1510–15), where he published several textbooks that notably improved instructional

  • cochlea (anatomy)

    human ear: Cochlea: The cochlea contains the sensory organ of hearing. It bears a striking resemblance to the shell of a snail and in fact takes its name from the Greek word for this object. The cochlea is a spiral tube that is…

  • cochlear duct (anatomy)

    inner ear: …in the vestibule; and the cochlear duct, which is the only part of the inner ear involved in hearing. The cochlear duct forms a shelf across the cochlea dividing it into two sections, the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. The entire inner ear is bathed in a cushioning fluid,…

  • cochlear fluid (anatomy)

    sound reception: The auditory mechanism in frogs: …which makes contact with the fluids of the inner-ear (otic) capsule through an opening, the oval window. A second opening in the otic capsule, the round window, is covered by a thin, flexible membrane; it is bounded externally by a fluid-filled space that can expand into the air-filled cavity of…

  • cochlear implant (hearing device)

    Cochlear implant, electrical device inserted surgically into the human ear that enables the detection of sound in persons with severe hearing impairment. The cochlea is a coiled sensory structure in the inner ear that plays a fundamental role in hearing. It is innervated by the cochlear nerve,

  • cochlear nerve (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII or 8): Auditory receptors of the cochlear division are located in the organ of Corti and follow the spiral shape (about 2.5 turns) of the cochlea. Air movement against the eardrum initiates action of the ossicles of the ear, which, in turn, causes movement of fluid in the spiral cochlea. This…

  • cochlear nucleus (anatomy)

    human ear: Ascending pathways: …of nerve cells called the cochlear nucleus. The cochlear nucleus consists of several distinct cell types and is divided into the dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus. Each cochlear nerve fibre branches at the cochlear nucleus, sending one branch to the dorsal and the other branch to the ventral cochlear nucleus.

  • Cochlearia officinalis (plant, Cochlearia officinalis)
  • Cochlearius cochlearius (bird)

    heron: Another night heron is the boat-billed heron, or boatbill (Cochlearius cochlearius), of Central and South America, placed by some authorities in its own family (Cochleariidae).

  • Cochliomyia (insect)

    insect: Medical significance: …is the screwworm fly (Cochliomyia) of the southern United States and Central America. In many parts of the world, various blowflies infest the fleece and skin of sheep. This infestation, called sheep-strike, causes severe economic damage.

  • Cochliomyia hominivorax (insect)

    blow fly: The true screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax; formerly, Callitroga americana) and the secondary screwworm (Callitroga macellaria) develop in decaying flesh in surface wounds of domestic animals and occasionally of humans, and the larvae may attack living tissue as well. Each female deposits about 200 to 400 eggs near an open…

  • Cochlospermum (plant genus)

    Cochlospermum, genus of tropical trees belonging to the family Cochlospermaceae. About 15 species are known, 3 occurring as far north as northern Mexico and southwestern United States. The buttercup tree (C. vitifolium), found in Central America and the West Indies, has bright-yellow, cup-shaped

  • Cochlospermum vitifolium (plant)

    Cochlospermum: The buttercup tree (C. vitifolium), found in Central America and the West Indies, has bright-yellow, cup-shaped flowers about 10 cm (4 inches) across. In some areas rope is made of its bark. Several species yield dye. The seeds of C. angolense, an African species, yield a…

  • Cochran, Eddie (American singer and musician)

    Eddie Cochran, a first-generation rock-and-roll singer, guitarist, and songwriter who died at age 21 in a car crash while on tour in England. Cochran’s family lived in Oklahoma and Minnesota before settling in California in 1950, and the young Cochran sang and played country music—touring and

  • Cochran, Elizabeth (American journalist)

    Nellie Bly, American journalist whose around-the-world race against a fictional record brought her world renown. Elizabeth Cochran (she later added a final “e” to Cochran) received scant formal schooling. She began her career in 1885 in her native Pennsylvania as a reporter for the Pittsburgh

  • Cochran, Hank (American songwriter and musician)

    Hank Cochran, (Garland Perry Cochran), American songwriter and musician (born Aug. 2, 1935, Isola, Miss.—died July 15, 2010, Hendersonville, Tenn.), penned chart-topping songs for numerous country music artists, including Patsy Cline (“I Fall to Pieces,” co-written with Harlan Howard; “She’s Got

  • Cochran, J. G. (American settler)

    Centralia: …was founded in 1852 by J.G. Cochran and George Washington; Washington, the son of an African slave and an Englishwoman, had been denied the right to settle, and Cochran, his adoptive father, had filed the claim for him. Washington purchased the claim from his father when the newly created Washington…

  • Cochran, Jackie (American pilot)

    Jacqueline Cochran, American pilot who held more speed, distance, and altitude records than any other flyer during her career. In 1964 she flew an aircraft faster than any woman had before. Pittman grew up in poverty and had little formal education. (She later claimed to have been an orphan in a

  • Cochran, Jacqueline (American pilot)

    Jacqueline Cochran, American pilot who held more speed, distance, and altitude records than any other flyer during her career. In 1964 she flew an aircraft faster than any woman had before. Pittman grew up in poverty and had little formal education. (She later claimed to have been an orphan in a

  • Cochran, Johnnie L., Jr. (American lawyer)

    Johnnie L. Cochran, Jr., American trial lawyer who gained international prominence with his skillful and controversial defense of O.J. Simpson, a football player and celebrity who was charged with a double murder in 1994. In 1949 Cochran’s family moved from Louisiana to California, where he later

  • Cochran, Margaret (American heroine)

    Margaret Corbin, American Revolutionary War heroine whose valour and sacrifice were recognized by the new United States government. Margaret Cochran, having lost both her parents in an Indian raid when she was five, grew up with relatives and, in 1772, married John Corbin. When he enlisted in the

  • Cochran, Ray Edward (American singer and musician)

    Eddie Cochran, a first-generation rock-and-roll singer, guitarist, and songwriter who died at age 21 in a car crash while on tour in England. Cochran’s family lived in Oklahoma and Minnesota before settling in California in 1950, and the young Cochran sang and played country music—touring and

  • Cochran, Sir Charles Blake (British theatrical producer)

    Sir Charles Blake Cochran, leading British impresario and theatrical producer between World Wars I and II, best known for his musical revues. A colourful showman, he also owned a flea circus and produced boxing matches, circuses, rodeos, and a travelling medicine show during his long and varied

  • Cochran, Thad (United States senator)

    Thad Cochran, American politician who represented Mississippi in the U.S. Senate from 1978 to 2018. He was the first Republican to win statewide office in Mississippi in more than 100 years. Cochran previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1973–78). While growing up, Cochran was

  • Cochran, Welker (American billiards player)

    Welker Cochran, prominent American billiards player who, with his rivals Willie Hoppe and Jake Schaefer, Jr., dominated the game for the first three decades of the 20th century. Cochran began playing billiards at the age of 13 in his father’s billiards room in Manson, Iowa. He studied the game

  • Cochran, William Thad (United States senator)

    Thad Cochran, American politician who represented Mississippi in the U.S. Senate from 1978 to 2018. He was the first Republican to win statewide office in Mississippi in more than 100 years. Cochran previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1973–78). While growing up, Cochran was

  • Cochrane, Archibald Leman (British physician)

    Archibald Leman Cochrane, British physician who contributed greatly to the development of epidemiology, emphasized the necessity for randomized control trials (RCTs) in medical studies, and was a pioneer in evidence-based medicine. His ideas eventually led to the creation of the international

  • Cochrane, Archie (British physician)

    Archibald Leman Cochrane, British physician who contributed greatly to the development of epidemiology, emphasized the necessity for randomized control trials (RCTs) in medical studies, and was a pioneer in evidence-based medicine. His ideas eventually led to the creation of the international

  • Cochrane, Elizabeth (American journalist)

    Nellie Bly, American journalist whose around-the-world race against a fictional record brought her world renown. Elizabeth Cochran (she later added a final “e” to Cochran) received scant formal schooling. She began her career in 1885 in her native Pennsylvania as a reporter for the Pittsburgh

  • Cochrane, Thomas (British politician and admiral)

    Thomas Cochrane, 10th earl of Dundonald, iconoclastic British politician and admiral, who ranks among the greatest of British seamen. He was the eldest son of the 9th earl, whose scientific experiments on his Scottish estates impoverished his family. In 1793 Thomas joined the ship commanded by his

  • Cocibolca (lake, Nicaragua)

    Lake Nicaragua, the largest of several freshwater lakes in southwestern Nicaragua and the dominant physical feature of the country. It is also the largest lake in Central America. Its indigenous name is Cocibolca, and the Spanish called it Mar Dulce—both terms meaning “sweet sea.” Its present name

  • Cocibolca (ancient city, Nicaragua)

    Cocibolca, extinct city, Rivas department, Nicaragua, on the western shore of Lake Nicaragua. The last capital of the indigenous tribes that lived around the lake, it apparently declined following the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. The Nicaraguan artist Rodrigo Peñalba immortalized

  • cocida (food)
  • cock (bird)

    chicken: Natural history: Males (called cocks or roosters) and females (hens) are known for their fleshy combs, lobed wattles hanging below the bill, and high-arched tails. In some roosters, the tail can extend more than 30 cm (12 inches) in length.

  • cock (device)

    valve: A plug valve, or cock, is a conical plug with a hole perpendicular to its axis fitting in a conical seat in the valve body at right angles to the pipe. By turning the plug the hole is either lined up with the pipe to permit…

  • cock (flintlock part)

    military technology: The flintlock: …a small vise, called a cock, which described an arc around its pivot to strike the steel (generally called the frizzen) a glancing blow. A spring inside the lock was connected through a tumbler to the cock. The sear, a small piece of metal attached to the trigger, either engaged…

  • cock of the wood (bird)

    Capercaillie, European game bird of the grouse family. See

  • cock of the woods (bird)

    Capercaillie, European game bird of the grouse family. See

  • Cock, Hieronymus (Flemish artist)

    Pieter Bruegel, the Elder: Life: …designs for engravings commissioned by Hiëronymus Cock, an engraver and Antwerp’s foremost publisher of prints.

  • cock-of-the-rock (bird)

    Cock-of-the-rock, either of two species of brilliantly coloured birds of tropical South America, usually included in the family Cotingidae (q.v.; order Passeriformes) but sometimes placed in a family of their own, Rupicolidae. They are noted for the males’ flattened circular crest extending over

  • cockade (hat decoration)

    Cockade, a bow or knot of ribbons worn in the hat. Though originally ornamental, cockades soon came to be used to broadcast identification with such various organizations as a political party, a military unit, or a household (in the form of livery). During the French Revolution the partisans of the

  • Cockaigne (imaginary country)

    Cockaigne, imaginary land of extreme luxury and ease where physical comforts and pleasures are always immediately at hand. References to Cockaigne are especially prominent in medieval European lore. These accounts describe rivers of wine, houses built of cake and barley sugar, streets paved with p

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