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  • Cobain, Kurt (American musician)

    Kurt Cobain, American rock musician who rose to fame as the lead singer, guitarist, and primary songwriter for the seminal grunge band Nirvana. Cobain had a generally happy childhood until his parents divorced when he was nine years old. After that event, he was frequently troubled and angry, and

  • Cobain, Kurt Donald (American musician)

    Kurt Cobain, American rock musician who rose to fame as the lead singer, guitarist, and primary songwriter for the seminal grunge band Nirvana. Cobain had a generally happy childhood until his parents divorced when he was nine years old. After that event, he was frequently troubled and angry, and

  • cobalamin (chemical compound)

    Vitamin B12, a complex water-soluble organic compound that is essential to a number of microorganisms and animals, including humans. Vitamin B12 aids in the development of red blood cells in higher animals. The vitamin, which is unique in that it contains a metallic ion, cobalt, has a complex

  • cobalt (chemical element)

    Cobalt (Co), chemical element, ferromagnetic metal of Group 9 (VIIIb) of the periodic table, used especially for heat-resistant and magnetic alloys. The metal was isolated (c. 1735) by Swedish chemist Georg Brandt, though cobalt compounds had been used for centuries to impart a blue colour to

  • cobalt bloom (mineral)

    Erythrite, arsenate mineral in the vivianite group, hydrated cobalt arsenate [Co3(AsO4)2·8H2O]. Erythrite, which is used as a guide to the presence of cobalt-nickel-silver ores because of its crimson or peach-red colour, occurs as radiating crystals, concretions, or earthy masses in the oxidized z

  • cobalt blue (pigment)

    cobalt processing: History: …as pigments to impart a blue colour to porcelain and glass. It was not until 1742, however, that a Swedish chemist, Georg Brandt, showed that the blue colour was due to a previously unidentified metal, cobalt.

  • cobalt chloride (chemical compound)

    blood doping: …production include the administration of cobalt chloride, which enhances transcription of the erythropoietin gene. Because this practice involves manipulation of a genetic element, it is considered by some to be a form of gene doping.

  • cobalt milkweed beetle (insect)

    Cobalt milkweed beetle, (Chrysochus cobaltinus), member of the insect subfamily Eumolpinae of the leaf beetle family Chrysomelidae (order Coleoptera). The milkweed beetle is a beautiful dark cobalt blue in colour. It is a close relative of, and a bit shorter than, the dogbane beetle, and it is

  • cobalt oxide (chemical compound)

    cobalt processing: Cobalt oxide: This substance, usually prepared by heating the cobaltic hydroxide that is precipitated from cobalt-containing solutions by sodium hypochlorite, has a number of important uses in the glass and ceramics industries.

  • cobalt processing

    Cobalt processing, preparation of the metal for use in various products. Below 417 °C (783 °F), cobalt (Co) has a stable hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. At higher temperatures up to the melting point of 1,495 °C (2,723 °F), the stable form is face-centred cubic. The metal has 12

  • cobalt siccative (chemical compound)

    painting: Oil: …to speed the process is cobalt siccative.

  • cobalt-60 (chemical isotope)

    cobalt processing: Cobalt-60: A radioactive form of cobalt, cobalt-60, prepared by exposing cobalt to the radiations of an atomic pile, is useful in industry and medical science. Cobalt-60 is used in place of X-rays or radium in the inspection of materials to reveal internal structure, flaws, or…

  • cobaltian arsenopyrite (mineral)

    arsenopyrite: …partially replaces iron is called cobaltian arsenopyrites; those in which the Co:Fe ratio lies between 1:2 and 6:1 are called glaucodot (see also cobaltite). Weathering alters these sulfides to arsenates: arsenopyrite to scorodite, and glaucodot to erythrite. For detailed physical properties, see sulfide mineral (table).

  • cobaltite (mineral)

    Cobaltite, a cobalt sulfoarsenide mineral in which iron commonly replaces part of the cobalt [(Co,Fe)AsS], that occurs in high-temperature deposits. Notable occurrences are at Daşkäsän, in the lesser Caucasus, Azerbaijan; Tunaberg, Swed.; and Rājasthān, India. Cobaltite, like its relatives

  • cobalto-cobaltic oxide (chemical compound)

    cobalt: Compounds: …CoO, and tricobalt textroxide, or cobalto-cobaltic oxide, Co3O4. The latter contains cobalt in both +2 and +3 oxidation states and constitutes up to 40 percent of the commercial cobalt oxide used in the manufacture of ceramics, glass, and enamel and in the preparation of catalysts and cobalt metal powder.

  • cobaltous chloride (chemical compound)

    cobalt: Compounds: Cobaltous chloride (CoCl2∙6H2O in commercial form), a pink solid that changes to blue as it dehydrates, is utilized in catalyst preparation and as an indicator of humidity. Cobaltous phosphate, Co3(PO4)2∙8H2O, is used in painting porcelain and colouring glass.

  • cobaltous oxide (chemical compound)

    cobalt processing: Cobalt oxide: This substance, usually prepared by heating the cobaltic hydroxide that is precipitated from cobalt-containing solutions by sodium hypochlorite, has a number of important uses in the glass and ceramics industries.

  • cobaltous phosphate (chemical compound)

    cobalt: Compounds: Cobaltous phosphate, Co3(PO4)2∙8H2O, is used in painting porcelain and colouring glass.

  • cobaltous sulfate (chemical compound)

    cobalt: Compounds: …salts of cobalt is the sulfate CoSO4, which is employed in electroplating, in preparing drying agents, and for pasture top-dressing in agriculture. Other cobaltous salts have significant applications in the production of catalysts, driers, cobalt metal powders, and other salts. Cobaltous chloride (CoCl2∙6H2O in commercial form), a pink solid that…

  • Cobán (Guatemala)

    Cobán, city, north-central Guatemala, situated 4,331 feet (1,320 metres) above sea level in the Chamá Mountains on the Cahabón River. Founded about 1538 near Mayan ruins and named for the Indian chieftain Cobaóu, the city developed as the major urban centre of northern Guatemala. A 17th-century

  • Cobar (New South Wales, Australia)

    Cobar, town, central New South Wales, Australia. It is located in the Western Plains region. Cobar began as a copper-mining centre in the 19th century and remains principally a mining town. Its name possibly was derived from an Aboriginal word meaning “red earth” or, alternatively, may have been a

  • Cobb (film by Shelton [1994])

    Tommy Lee Jones: …baseball player Ty Cobb in Cobb (1994). Jones deviated from his characteristic flinty inscrutability with his turn as the deranged villain Two-Face in Batman Forever (1995) before playing straight man to Will Smith in the alien comedy Men in Black (1997) and its sequels (2002 and 2012).

  • Cobb, Frank I. (American journalist)

    Frank I. Cobb, American journalist who succeeded Joseph Pulitzer as editor of the New York World and who became famous for his “fighting” editorials. He was described as “liberal but sane, brilliant but sound.” Cobb was a youthful high-school superintendent in 1890 when his interest turned to

  • Cobb, Frank Irving (American journalist)

    Frank I. Cobb, American journalist who succeeded Joseph Pulitzer as editor of the New York World and who became famous for his “fighting” editorials. He was described as “liberal but sane, brilliant but sound.” Cobb was a youthful high-school superintendent in 1890 when his interest turned to

  • Cobb, Henry Ives (American architect)

    Henry Ives Cobb, American architect who designed numerous residences and landmark buildings in Chicago, including the Newberry Library, the Chicago Athletic Association building, the Union Club of Chicago, and the main quadrangle and other buildings on the campus of the University of Chicago. After

  • Cobb, Howell (American politician)

    Howell Cobb, Georgia politician who championed Southern unionism during the 1850s but then advocated immediate secession following the election of Abraham Lincoln. Cobb was born into the antebellum plantation elite and grew up in Athens, Ga. He was graduated from the University of Georgia in 1834,

  • Cobb, Irvin S. (American journalist and humorist)

    Irvin S. Cobb, American journalist and humorist best known for his colloquial handling of familiar situations with ironical, penetrating humour. At 19 Cobb became managing editor of the Paducah Daily News, and in 1904 he went to New York City, where he became a staff writer for the Evening World

  • Cobb, Irvin Shrewsbury (American journalist and humorist)

    Irvin S. Cobb, American journalist and humorist best known for his colloquial handling of familiar situations with ironical, penetrating humour. At 19 Cobb became managing editor of the Paducah Daily News, and in 1904 he went to New York City, where he became a staff writer for the Evening World

  • Cobb, John (English cabinetmaker)

    John Cobb, English cabinetmaker whose work was once overshadowed by that of Thomas Chippendale but who is now regarded as being among England’s greatest furniture makers. He was in partnership (c. 1750–65) with William Vile, their firm becoming one of the most important among London’s

  • Cobb, John Rhodes (British motor race–car driver)

    John Rhodes Cobb, automobile and motorboat racer, first to reach a speed of 400 mph on land. On Sept. 16, 1947, at the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, U.S., he set world speed records (not broken until 1964) for Class A (unlimited engine size) automobiles: 394.196 mph for one mile and 393.825 mph for

  • Cobb, Lee J. (American actor)

    12 Angry Men: …of a dynamic cast, including Lee J. Cobb and E.G. Marshall, to create a riveting drama. Although a critical success, the film performed poorly at the box office. In 1997 12 Angry Men was remade as an acclaimed television movie, starring Jack Lemmon and George C. Scott.

  • Cobb, Ty (American athlete)

    Ty Cobb, professional baseball player, considered one of the greatest offensive players in baseball history and generally regarded as the fiercest competitor in the game. Cobb took to baseball early in his life: by age 14 he was playing alongside adults on the local baseball team in Royston,

  • Cobb, Tyrus Raymond (American athlete)

    Ty Cobb, professional baseball player, considered one of the greatest offensive players in baseball history and generally regarded as the fiercest competitor in the game. Cobb took to baseball early in his life: by age 14 he was playing alongside adults on the local baseball team in Royston,

  • Cobb-Douglas function (economics)

    distribution theory: Substitution problems: …production function known as the Cobb-Douglas function. The pioneering research of Paul H. Douglas and Charles W. Cobb in the 1930s seemed to confirm the rough equality between production elasticities and distributive shares, but that conclusion was later questioned; in particular the assumption of easy substitution of labour and capital…

  • Cobba Hüyük (archaeological site, Turkey)

    Sakcagöz: …a small mound (tell) called Cobba Hüyük, adjacent the village. Excavations of the mound between 1907 and 1911 revealed a Late Hittite palace at its summit. The fortification walls, nearly 12 feet (4 m) thick, were strengthened by projecting external buttresses and by turrets at the corners. The palace was…

  • Cobbett, William (British journalist)

    William Cobbett, English popular journalist who played an important political role as a champion of traditional rural England against the changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution. His father was a small farmer and innkeeper. Cobbett’s memories of his early life were pleasant, and, although he

  • cobbity daisy (plant)

    Marguerite, (Argyranthemum frutescens), ornamental plant of the aster family (Asteraceae), grown for its daisylike flowers. The plant is native to the Canary Islands and has become naturalized in parts of Europe and North America. The marguerite plant is a short-lived shrubby perennial and is grown

  • cobble (rock)

    gravel: 52 inches] in diameter), through cobbles (64–256 mm [2.52–10.08 inches]), to boulders (larger than 256 mm). The rounding of gravel results from abrasion in the course of transport by streams or from milling by the sea. Gravel deposits accumulate in parts of stream channels or on beaches where the water…

  • Cobden Club (British economic group)

    Richard Cobden: …to be shared by the Cobden Club, founded to perpetuate his principles. The strain of the protracted Anglo-French negotiations undermined his health, and he had to spend many months outside London. He died in 1865, having made a last effort to leave his sickbed and attend Parliament to vote against…

  • Cobden, Richard (British politician)

    Richard Cobden, British politician best known for his successful fight for repeal (1846) of the Corn Laws and his defense of free trade. Cobden was the fourth of 11 children of a poor farmer. Raised by relatives, he attended a second-rate boarding school and then entered his uncle’s warehouse in

  • Cobden-Chevalier Treaty (France-United Kingdom [1860])

    international trade: Liberalism: …for liberal ideas was the Anglo-French trade agreement of 1860, which provided that French protective duties were to be reduced to a maximum of 25 percent within five years, with free entry of all French products except wines into Britain. This agreement was followed by other European trade pacts.

  • Cobden-Sanderson, Thomas James (British book designer)

    Thomas James Cobden-Sanderson, English book designer and binder who contributed much to the success of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Though initially a barrister, he turned in 1883 to bookbinding, a field in which he rapidly won distinction. He established the Doves Bindery at Hammersmith, London

  • COBE (United States satellite)

    Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), U.S. satellite placed in Earth orbit in 1989 to map the “smoothness” of the cosmic background radiation field and, by extension, to confirm the validity of the big bang theory of the origin of the universe. In 1964 Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, working together

  • cobego (mammal)

    Flying lemur, (order Dermoptera), either of the two species of primitive gliding mammals found only in Southeast Asia and on some of the Philippine Islands. Flying lemurs resemble large flying squirrels, as they are arboreal climbers and gliders that have webbed feet with claws. The form of the

  • Cobell v. Salazar (law case)

    Mildred Cleghorn: …in its final iteration as Cobell v. Salazar—against the U.S. Departments of the Interior and the Treasury for mismanagement of Indian accounts and trust funds. But she did not live to see the settlement of the suit in 2009 for the amount of $3.4 billion.

  • Cobell, Elouise (American activist)

    Elouise Cobell, (Elouise Pepion; Yellow Bird Woman), American activist (born Nov. 5, 1945, Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana—died Oct. 16, 2011, Great Falls, Mont.), filed one of the largest class-action lawsuits in American history; the federal government ultimately paid $3.4 billion for

  • Cobenzl, Johann Ludwig Joseph, Graf von (foreign minister of Austria)

    Ludwig, count von Cobenzl, Austrian diplomat and foreign minister who played a leading role in the Third Partition of Poland (1795) and the negotiations of several treaties with Napoleonic France. He was the cousin of Philipp, Graf von Cobenzl, an Austrian chancellor. A protégé of the Austrian

  • Cobenzl, Johann Philipp, Graf von (chancellor of Austria)

    Philipp, count von Cobenzl, Austrian statesman and chancellor who unsuccessfully attempted to gain Bavaria for Austria in exchange for the Austrian Netherlands. He was a cousin of Ludwig, Graf von Cobenzl, an Austrian foreign minister. Rising rapidly under the patronage of Chancellor Wenzel Anton

  • Cobenzl, Ludwig, Graf von (foreign minister of Austria)

    Ludwig, count von Cobenzl, Austrian diplomat and foreign minister who played a leading role in the Third Partition of Poland (1795) and the negotiations of several treaties with Napoleonic France. He was the cousin of Philipp, Graf von Cobenzl, an Austrian chancellor. A protégé of the Austrian

  • Cobenzl, Philipp, Graf von (chancellor of Austria)

    Philipp, count von Cobenzl, Austrian statesman and chancellor who unsuccessfully attempted to gain Bavaria for Austria in exchange for the Austrian Netherlands. He was a cousin of Ludwig, Graf von Cobenzl, an Austrian foreign minister. Rising rapidly under the patronage of Chancellor Wenzel Anton

  • Cober, River (river, England, United Kingdom)

    Helston: …having a harbour on the Cober, which then connected with Mount’s Bay but now drains into a landlocked lake. In the Elizabethan era Helston was one of the four Cornish stannary (tin-working) towns. Pop. (2001) 9,780; (2011) 11,178.

  • Cobergher, Wenceslas (Flemish architect)

    Wenceslas Cobergher, Flemish architect, painter, and engraver who was a leader in the development of the Flemish Baroque style of architecture, based on the early Italian Baroque buildings of the Roman school. Cobergher received his education as a painter in the workshop of Maarten de Vos and by

  • Cobet, C. G. (editor)

    textual criticism: From Politian to Cobet: …which were Richard Porson and C.G. Cobet. Its strength lay in sound judgment and good taste rooted in minute linguistic and metrical study; its weaknesses were an excessive reliance on analogical criteria and an indifference to German science and method. Its influence may still be seen in the empiricism that…

  • Cobéua (people)

    dance: Tribal dance: …the fertility dance of the Cobéua Indians of Brazil:

  • Cobh (Ireland)

    Cobh, seaport and naval station, County Cork, Ireland, on the south side of Great Island and on a hill above the harbour of Cork city. The Cathedral of St. Colman crowns the hill. In 1838 the steamer Sirius set out from Cobh to become the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean, taking 18 12

  • Cobham, Richard Temple, Viscount (British statesman)

    William Pitt, the Elder: Background and education: …politically powerful millionaire nobleman, Lord Cobham, who lived in splendour in a palatial mansion and vast park at Stowe, in Buckinghamshire, to which William and his friends paid visits. Cobham sent William abroad on “The Grand Tour” of Europe (only France and Switzerland were visited, however) and later bought him…

  • Cobham, Sir Alan J. (British aviator)

    Sir Alan J. Cobham, British aviator and pioneer of long-distance flight who promoted “air-mindedness” in the British public. Cobham entered the Royal Flying Corps in 1917 and in 1921 joined Geoffrey de Havilland’s new aircraft company, for which he undertook a succession of long-distance flights:

  • Cobham, Sir Alan John (British aviator)

    Sir Alan J. Cobham, British aviator and pioneer of long-distance flight who promoted “air-mindedness” in the British public. Cobham entered the Royal Flying Corps in 1917 and in 1921 joined Geoffrey de Havilland’s new aircraft company, for which he undertook a succession of long-distance flights:

  • cobia (fish)

    Cobia, (species Rachycentron canadum), swift-moving, slim marine game fish, the only member of the family Rachycentridae (order Perciformes). The cobia is found in most warm oceans. A voracious, predatory fish, it may be 1.8 m (6 feet) long and weigh 70 kg (150 pounds) or more. It has a jutting

  • Cobija (Bolivia)

    Cobija, town and river port, northwestern Bolivia. Cobija, founded in 1906, lies on the Acre River in the hot, humid Amazon River basin across from the town of Brasiléia, Brazil, 380 miles (612 km) north of La Paz, Bolivia’s administrative capital. The town trades in Brazil nuts (its main economic

  • cobiron

    andiron: Plain andirons, called cobirons, with ratcheted guards holding brackets for spits, were used in the kitchen.

  • Cobitidae (fish)

    Loach, any of the small, generally elongated freshwater fishes of the family Cobitidae. More than 200 species are known; most are native to central and southern Asia, but three are found in Europe and one in northern Africa. A typical loach has very small scales and three to six pairs of

  • coble (watercraft)

    boat: Northern Europe and Britain: …many distinctive small boats; the coble, a square-sterned beach boat with deep forefoot, still survives as a motor fishing boat, as does the caravel-built Thames bawley. An extinct beach boat is the Yarmouth beach yawl, a long, narrow, lapstrake double-ender with sharp ends, built for salvage work and rigged with…

  • Coblentz, William W. (American scientist)

    William W. Coblentz, American physicist and astronomer whose work lay primarily in infrared spectroscopy. Coblentz developed more accurate infrared spectrometers and extended their measurements to longer wavelengths. In 1905 he published a lengthy study of the infrared emission and absorption

  • Coblentz, William Weber (American scientist)

    William W. Coblentz, American physicist and astronomer whose work lay primarily in infrared spectroscopy. Coblentz developed more accurate infrared spectrometers and extended their measurements to longer wavelengths. In 1905 he published a lengthy study of the infrared emission and absorption

  • Coblenz (Germany)

    Koblenz, city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), western Germany. It lies at the junction of the Rhine and Moselle (Mosel) rivers (hence its Roman name, Confluentes) and is surrounded by spurs from the Eifel, Hunsrück, Westerwald, and Taunus mountains. A Roman town founded in 9 bc, it was a

  • cobnut (plant)
  • cobnut (tree and nut)

    Hazelnut, (genus Corylus), genus of about 15 species of shrubs and trees in the birch family (Betulaceae) and the edible nuts they produce. The plants are native to the north temperate zone. Several species are of commercial importance for their nuts, and a number are valuable hedgerow and

  • COBOL (computer language)

    COBOL, High-level computer programming language, one of the first widely used languages and for many years the most popular language in the business community. It developed from the 1959 Conference on Data Systems Languages, a joint initiative between the U.S. government and the private sector.

  • cobordant manifolds (mathematics)

    René Frédéric Thom: …Pontryagin on the concept of cobordism. Cobordism is a tool for classifying differentiable manifolds. Two manifolds of dimension n are cobordant if there exists a manifold-with-boundary of dimension n + 1, whose boundary is their disjoint union.

  • cobordism (mathematics)

    René Frédéric Thom: …Pontryagin on the concept of cobordism. Cobordism is a tool for classifying differentiable manifolds. Two manifolds of dimension n are cobordant if there exists a manifold-with-boundary of dimension n + 1, whose boundary is their disjoint union.

  • cobordism theory (mathematics)

    René Frédéric Thom: …Pontryagin on the concept of cobordism. Cobordism is a tool for classifying differentiable manifolds. Two manifolds of dimension n are cobordant if there exists a manifold-with-boundary of dimension n + 1, whose boundary is their disjoint union.

  • Cobourg Peninsula (peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Cobourg Peninsula, northwestern extremity of Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. The peninsula consists of a narrow neck of land extending about 60 miles (100 km) to Cape Don on Dundas Strait, which separates it from Melville Island in the Timor Sea. The island encloses Van Diemen Gulf on

  • COBRA (art group)

    COBRA, Expressionist group of painters whose name is derived from the first letters of the three northern European cities—Copenhagen, Brussels, Amsterdam—that were the homes of its members. The first of the group’s two large exhibitions, organized by the Danish painter Asger Jorn, was held in 1949

  • Cobra (work by Sarduy)

    Severo Sarduy: Cobra), where the setting is a transvestite theatre and some episodes occur in India and China. His novel Maitreya (1978; Eng. trans. Maitreya) opens in Tibet, but the characters, in search of a messiah, travel to Cuba and the United States, then end up in…

  • cobra (snake)

    Cobra, any of various species of highly venomous snakes, most of which expand the neck ribs to form a hood. While the hood is characteristic of cobras, not all of them are closely related. Cobras are found from southern Africa through southern Asia to islands of Southeast Asia. Throughout their

  • cobra family (snake)

    Elapid, any of about 300 venomous species of the snake family Elapidae, characterized by short fangs fixed in the front of the upper jaw. Terrestrial elapids generally resemble the more abundant colubrids, whereas aquatic elapids may possess paddle-shaped tails and other structures adapted to

  • cobra lily (plant, Arisaema species)

    Arisaema: The curious cobra lily (A. speciosum), from Nepal and Sikkim state of India, has a slightly drooping spathe and a spadix decorated by a long threadlike extension. A. fimbriatum, from the Malay Peninsula, has a tasseled spadix.

  • cobra lily (botany)

    Cobra plant, (Darlingtonia californica), the only species of the genus Darlingtonia of the New World pitcher plant family (Sarraceniaceae). The cobra plant is native to swamps in mountain areas of northern California and southern Oregon and uses its carnivorous pitfall traps to supplement its

  • cobra plant (botany)

    Cobra plant, (Darlingtonia californica), the only species of the genus Darlingtonia of the New World pitcher plant family (Sarraceniaceae). The cobra plant is native to swamps in mountain areas of northern California and southern Oregon and uses its carnivorous pitfall traps to supplement its

  • Cobra, Operation (United States military strategy)

    Normandy Invasion: Operation Cobra: By July 25, with most of the German tanks drawn westward by the British Goodwood offensive, the Americans faced a front almost denuded of armour. Reinforcement gave them a clear superiority in tank and infantry divisions, while the Allied Expeditionary Force had the bombardment…

  • Cobre (Cuba)

    Santiago de Cuba: …from Santiago de Cuba is Cobre, an old copper-mining town that houses Cuba’s most important shrine—dedicated to the Virgen de la Caridad (Virgin of Charity), proclaimed to be the protectress of Cuba. It attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors per year seeking blessings and healings. Pop. (2002) 423,392; (2011 est.)…

  • Cobre Canyon (canyon, Mexico)

    Chihuahua: Copper Canyon (Barranca del Cobre), in the western part of the state, reaches depths of 4,600 feet (1,400 metres) in places. It is larger and more spectacular than the Grand Canyon but is virtually inaccessible, though a railway traverses part of it. Among the other…

  • Coburg (Germany)

    Coburg, city, northern Bavaria Land (state), central Germany. It lies on the Itz River, in the foothills of the Thuringian Forest, some 80 miles (130 km) west of the Czech border. Coburg was an imperial possession in the 10th century, and it was first mentioned in a document of 1056. The counts of

  • Coburg Peninsula (peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia)

    Cobourg Peninsula, northwestern extremity of Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. The peninsula consists of a narrow neck of land extending about 60 miles (100 km) to Cape Don on Dundas Strait, which separates it from Melville Island in the Timor Sea. The island encloses Van Diemen Gulf on

  • Coburgotski, Simeon (prime minister and former king of Bulgaria)

    Simeon Saxecoburggotski, the last king of Bulgaria, reigning as a child from 1943 to 1946 as Simeon II. He later served as the country’s prime minister (2001–05). On Aug. 28, 1943, his father, Boris III, died under mysterious circumstances—the cause of death being reported variously as heart attack

  • Coburn, Alvin Langdon (American photographer)

    Alvin Langdon Coburn, American-born British photographer and the maker of the first completely nonobjective photographs. Coburn began taking photographs when he received a camera as a gift on his eighth birthday, but it was not until 1899, when he met the photographer Edward Steichen, that he

  • Coburn, Charles (American actor)

    George Stevens: Swing Time, Gunga Din, and Woman of the Year: …keep the marriage a secret; Charles Coburn and Beulah Bondi provided comic support. A box-office hit, the screwball comedy ended Stevens’s slump.

  • Coburn, Charles Douville (American actor)

    George Stevens: Swing Time, Gunga Din, and Woman of the Year: …keep the marriage a secret; Charles Coburn and Beulah Bondi provided comic support. A box-office hit, the screwball comedy ended Stevens’s slump.

  • Coburn, D. L. (American dramatist)

    The Gin Game: …two-act play by American dramatist D.L. Coburn, produced in 1976. It was Coburn’s first play, and it won the Pulitzer Prize for drama in 1978, the year it was published.

  • Coburn, James (American actor)

    James Coburn, American actor (born Aug. 31, 1928, Laurel, Neb.—died Nov. 18, 2002, Beverly Hills, Calif.), had a powerful screen presence that was made more commanding by his deep voice, wry delivery, toothy grin, and satanic laugh. His more than 70 films ranged from the one that brought him p

  • Coburn, the Rev. John Bowen (American clergyman)

    The Rev. John Bowen Coburn, American clergyman (born Sept. 27, 1914, Danbury, Conn.—died Aug. 8, 2009, Bedford, Mass.), led the Episcopal Church during a period of change, in which a new Book of Common Prayer was adopted and women were officially ordained. Coburn attended an Episcopal school

  • Coburn, Tom (United States senator)

    James Lankford: …special Senate election to replace Tom Coburn, who was retiring. He easily defeated a Tea Party challenger in the primary and was victorious in the general election. As a senator, Lankford continued to advance conservative causes.

  • cobweb cycle (economics)

    Cobweb cycle, in economics, fluctuations occurring in markets in which the quantity supplied by producers depends on prices in previous production periods. The cobweb cycle is characteristic of industries in which a large amount of time passes between the decision to produce something and its

  • cobweb houseleek (plant)

    houseleek: Major species: Cobweb houseleek (S. arachnoideum), with leaf tips connected by weblike strands, has also yielded many desirable varieties. Job’s beard (S. heuffelii) is a perennial with a rosette of leaves that range from gray to purple-green. Teneriffe houseleek (S. ciliosum) is noted for its attractive wooly…

  • cobweb weaver (arachnid)

    Comb-footed spider, any member of the spider family Theridiidae (order Araneida). The more than 1,000 species of comb-footed spiders are distributed around the world, and they include the black widow. The webs of theridiids consist of an irregular network of threads from which the spider often

  • Cobweb, The (film by Minnelli [1955])

    Vincente Minnelli: Films of the later 1950s: Lust for Life, Gigi, and Some Came Running: …film was the psychological drama The Cobweb (1955), which starred Richard Widmark, Lauren Bacall, Gloria Grahame, Lillian Gish, and Oscar Levant. In a private mental institution, the selection of new drapes for the library becomes the flashpoint for simmering tensions among the doctors and patients. Half an hour was cut…

  • COC (European organization)

    gay rights movement: The gay rights movement since the mid-20th century: …Cultuur en Ontspannings Centrum (“Culture and Recreation Centre”), or COC, was founded in 1946 in Amsterdam. In the United States the first major male organization, founded in 1950–51 by Harry Hay in Los Angeles, was the Mattachine Society (its name reputedly derived from a medieval French society of masked…

  • coca (plant)

    Coca, (Erythroxylum coca), tropical shrub, of the family Erythroxylaceae, the leaves of which are the source of the drug cocaine. The plant, cultivated in Africa, northern South America, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan, grows about 2.4 metres (8 feet) tall. The branches are straight, and the lively

  • coca family (plant family)

    Malpighiales: Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae: Erythroxylaceae and Rhizophoraceae are very close, having similar distinctive chemistry and cell microstructure.

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