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  • CNE (Canadian fair)

    Canadian National Exhibition (CNE), fair held annually since 1879 in Toronto. Generally lasting 18 days and ending on Labour Day (the first Monday in September), the event has historically showcased Canadian commercial and technological innovations, in addition to providing a wide variety of

  • Cnemidophorus (lizard)

    Racerunner, (genus Cnemidophorus), any of about 60 species of lizards in the family Teiidae. The genus is common in North America, particularly in the southwestern deserts, and its range extends through Central America and across South America to Argentina. Species also occur on some islands,

  • Cnemophilus macgregorii (bird)

    bird-of-paradise: Among them are the sickle-crested, or mocha-breasted, bird-of-paradise (Cnemophilus macgregorii); the wattle-billed, or golden-silky, bird-of-paradise (Loboparadisea sericea); and Loria’s, or Lady Macgregor’s, bird-of-paradise (Loria loriae)—three species formerly classified as bowerbirds.

  • Cneoglossidae (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Cneoglossidae 1 genus (Cneoglossa); small; neotropical distribution. Family Dryopidae (long-toed water beetles) Small, downy; crawl on stream bottoms; few species; widely distributed. Family Elmidae (riffle beetles)

  • Cneoraceae (plant family)

    Rutaceae, the rue family of flowering plants (order Sapindales), composed of 160 genera and about 2,070 species. Rutaceae includes woody shrubs and trees (and a few herbaceous perennials) and is distributed throughout the world, especially in warm temperate and tropical regions. The largest numbers

  • Cnephia pecuarum (insect)

    black fly: …spring along the Mississippi River, Cnephia pecuarum is a serious livestock pest. There are records of this species killing horses and mules either with bloodsucking bites or by smothering, which may occur when the animals’ nostrils become blocked by large numbers of black flies. Also appearing in the spring is…

  • CNES (French government agency)

    space exploration: Europe: …government of France created the French Space Agency (CNES), which grew to become the largest national organization of its kind in Europe. Gradually other European countries formed government or government-sponsored organizations for space, among them the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the U.K. Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency (ASI).…

  • Cnestis polyphylla (plant)

    Connaraceae: glabra, and Cnestis polyphylla). Others have properties that make them useful as folk medicines—e.g., to induce vomiting (Aglaea emetica leaves, in Madagascar), as a dysentery treatment (A. villosa leaves, in West Africa), and as an agent against gonorrhea (A. lamarckii leaves, in Madagascar). The bark of R.…

  • CNG

    automobile: Fuel: Vehicle fleets fueled by natural gas have been in operation for several years. Carbon monoxide and particulate emissions are reduced by 65 to 90 percent. Natural-gas fuel tanks must be four times larger than gasoline tanks for equivalent vehicles to have the same driving range. This compromises cargo capacity.

  • cnida (biology)

    nematocyst: Nematocysts are a type of cnidae, and it is the presence of cnidae that separates jellyfish and other cnidarians from other animals. Cnidae are among the most complex intracellular secretion products known.

  • cnidae (biology)

    nematocyst: Nematocysts are a type of cnidae, and it is the presence of cnidae that separates jellyfish and other cnidarians from other animals. Cnidae are among the most complex intracellular secretion products known.

  • Cnidaria (invertebrate)

    Cnidarian, any member of the phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata), a group made up of more than 9,000 living species. Mostly marine animals, the cnidarians include the corals, hydras, jellyfish, Portuguese men-of-war, sea anemones, sea pens, sea whips, and sea fans. The phylum Cnidaria is made up of four

  • cnidarian (invertebrate)

    Cnidarian, any member of the phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata), a group made up of more than 9,000 living species. Mostly marine animals, the cnidarians include the corals, hydras, jellyfish, Portuguese men-of-war, sea anemones, sea pens, sea whips, and sea fans. The phylum Cnidaria is made up of four

  • cnidoblast (biology)

    nematocyst: …a special cell called a cnidoblast and contains a coiled, hollow, usually barbed thread, which quickly turns outward (i.e., is everted) from the capsule upon proper stimulation. The purpose of the thread, which often contains poison, is to ward off enemies or to capture prey.

  • Cnidosculos (plant genus)

    jatropha: The closely related genus Cnidosculos is distinguished from Jatropha by the absence of petals in the flowers, though the sepals form a corolla-like bloom.

  • Cnidospora (protozoan)

    Cnidosporidian, any protozoan parasite of the subphylum Cnidospora. The approximately 1,100 known species are characterized by walled spores with one to four hollow polar filaments. The spore has a multicellular origin—i.e., the cells that produce the spore capsule and the polar filaments before

  • cnidosporidian (protozoan)

    Cnidosporidian, any protozoan parasite of the subphylum Cnidospora. The approximately 1,100 known species are characterized by walled spores with one to four hollow polar filaments. The spore has a multicellular origin—i.e., the cells that produce the spore capsule and the polar filaments before

  • Cnidus (ancient city, Turkey)

    Cnidus, ancient Greek city on the Carian Chersonese, on the southwest coast of Anatolia. The city was an important commercial centre, the home of a famous medical school, and the site of the observatory of the astronomer Eudoxus. Cnidus was one of six cities in the Dorian Hexapolis and hosted the

  • Cnidus, Battle of (Persian history)

    Anatolia: The Anatolian Greeks in the Achaemenian period: …lost at sea in the Battle of Cnidus (394). Later in the 4th century, however, Persian rule in Anatolia was severely shaken by an insurrection of the Persian satraps of the west (362–359), which subsequently resulted in a considerable measure of local autonomy for the area.

  • CNIP (political party, France)

    National Centre of Independents and Peasants, French political party founded in 1949. It grew out of the National Centre of Independents, formed in 1948 by Roger Duchet, who, by the following year, had accomplished a coalition of various parliamentarians of the right and had absorbed the small

  • CNIT Exhibition Hall (building, Paris, France)

    construction: Concrete structures: …of the latter is the CNIT Exhibition Hall in Paris, which consists of six intersecting double-shell parabolic vaults built to span a triangular space 216 metres (708 feet) on a side with supports only at the apexes of the triangle. Reinforced concrete domes, which are usually also of parabolic section,…

  • CNN (American company)

    CNN, television’s first 24-hour all-news service, a subsidiary of Time Warner Inc. CNN’s headquarters are in Atlanta. CNN was created by maverick broadcasting executive Ted Turner as part of his Turner Broadcasting System (TBS), allegedly because industry professionals had told him it could not be

  • CNO cycle (nuclear fusion)

    CNO cycle, sequence of thermonuclear reactions that provides most of the energy radiated by the hotter stars. It is only a minor source of energy for the Sun and does not operate at all in very cool stars. Four hydrogen nuclei are in effect converted into one helium nucleus, a fraction of the mass

  • Cnossus (ancient city, Crete)

    Knossos, city in ancient Crete, capital of the legendary king Minos, and the principal centre of the Minoan, the earliest of the Aegean civilizations (see Minoan civilization). The site of Knossos stands on a knoll between the confluence of two streams and is located about 5 miles (8 km) inland

  • CNPC (Chinese corporation)

    Peter Voser: …Russia’s OAO Gazprom and China’s CNPC and big-ticket investments in Canada. Under Voser’s direction, Shell also began investing in various exploration and production projects at a time when declining oil and gas prices were reducing profits throughout the energy sector. Voser justified his strategy by estimating that energy demand would…

  • CNRP (political party, Cambodia)

    Cambodia: Tensions between the CPP and the opposition: …another party to form the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) in advance of the 2013 legislative elections. Rainsy was again pardoned and returned to Cambodia to vigorously campaign just before polling took place. The CPP was able to secure only a basic majority of seats, and although the remainder were…

  • CNSA (Chinese space agency)

    China National Space Administration (CNSA), Chinese government organization founded in 1993 to manage national space activities. The organization is composed of four departments: General Planning; System Engineering; Science, Technology, and Quality Control; and Foreign Affairs. The chief executive

  • CNT (Spanish labour union)

    anarchism: Anarchism in Spain: …in 1910, which founded the National Confederation of Labour (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo; CNT).

  • CNT (Guinean government)

    Guinea: Constitutional framework: The National Transitional Council (Conseil National de Transition; CNT), a legislative-like body, was formed in February 2010. One of the duties of the CNT was drafting a new constitution, which was promulgated in May 2010. It was succeeded by a new constitution that was passed by…

  • CNTNAP2 (genetics)

    autism: Neuropathology: …in a gene known as contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2), which normally is expressed in the frontal lobe during development and facilitates neuronal connectivity. Because the frontal lobe is associated with higher cognitive functions, such as reasoning and processing of emotions, CNTNAP2 variants resulting in a lack of neuronal connectivity may…

  • CNV (physiology)

    attention: Electrical changes: …stimulus, has been termed the contingent negative variation (CNV). It appears as a correlate of focal attention, and it has been suggested that one of its functions may be to prime the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex for the expected stimuli. The expectation must be focal—i.e., in the forefront…

  • CO (American orchestra)

    Cleveland Orchestra (CO), American symphony orchestra based in Cleveland, Ohio. It was founded by Adella Prentiss Hughes in 1918 and was one of the last major American orchestras to be created. Nikolai Sokoloff (1918–33), the first music director, was succeeded by Artur Rodzinski (1933–43), Erich

  • Co (chemical element)

    Cobalt (Co), chemical element, ferromagnetic metal of Group 9 (VIIIb) of the periodic table, used especially for heat-resistant and magnetic alloys. The metal was isolated (c. 1735) by Swedish chemist Georg Brandt, though cobalt compounds had been used for centuries to impart a blue colour to

  • CO insertion (chemistry)

    organometallic compound: Simple alkyl ligands: …reaction frequently referred to as CO insertion leads to carbon-carbon bond formation between the carbon atom of a carbonyl ligand and the carbon atom of an alkyl ligand, which is the methyl group in the following example.

  • Co Loa citadel (monument, Hanoi, Vietnam)

    Hanoi: The contemporary city: Historical sites include the Co Loa citadel, dating from the 3rd century bce; the Temple of Literature (1070), dedicated to Confucius; the Mot Cot (“One-Pillar”) Pagoda (1049); and the Temple of the Trung Sisters (1142). In addition, the Central Sector of the Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, built in…

  • co-conscious (psychology)

    Morton Prince: …of psychological behaviour, and the coconscious, a parallel, possibly rival, well-organized system of awareness comparable to the ordinary, familiar consciousness.

  • co-op (organization)

    Cooperative, organization owned by and operated for the benefit of those using its services. Cooperatives have been successful in a number of fields, including the processing and marketing of farm products, the purchasing of other kinds of equipment and raw materials, and in the wholesaling,

  • Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (political party, Canada)

    Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), left-wing political party prominent in Canada from the 1930s to the 1960s. Founded at Calgary, Alta., on Aug. 1, 1932, by a federation of various farmer, labour, and socialist parties in western Canada plus one labour union (the Canadian Brotherhood of

  • Co-operative Movement in Great Britain, The (book by Webb)

    Sidney and Beatrice Webb: Early life of Beatrice Potter Webb.: In 1891 she published The Co-operative Movement in Great Britain, a small book based on her experiences in Lancashire, which later became a classic. It was not long before she realized that in order to find any solution to the problem of poverty she would have to learn more…

  • Co-operative Republic of Guyana

    Guyana, country located in the northeastern corner of South America. Indigenous peoples inhabited Guyana prior to European settlement, and their name for the land, guiana (“land of water”), gave the country its name. Present-day Guyana reflects its British and Dutch colonial past and its reactions

  • Co-operative Wholesale Society (British organization)

    John Thomas Whitehead Mitchell: …shaped the policy of the Co-operative Wholesale Society, established in 1863, and was its chairman from 1874 until his death. Mitchell emphasized the fundamental importance of the consumer in the economy. His ideas provided the theoretical and practical basis of the cooperative movement in Great Britain. An essential feature of…

  • co-orbital satellite (astronomy)

    Saturn: Orbital and rotational dynamics: co-orbital moons—they share the same average orbit. Every few years they make a close approach, interacting gravitationally in such a way that one transmits angular momentum to the other, which forces the latter into a slightly higher orbit and the former into a slightly lower…

  • co-ownership (law)

    family law: Co-ownership: Some marital property systems that are basically separation of property have modifications for the situation in which, for example, an asset has been acquired by contributions from both spouses with the intention that both will benefit from its purchase—as with a home, furnishings, an…

  • Co-We-Nit (warp-knitting machine)

    textile: Special effects in warp knits: …conventional warp knitting is the Co-We-Nit warp-knitting machine, producing fabrics with the properties of both woven and knitted fabrics. The machines need have only two warp-forming warps and provision for up to eight interlooped warp threads between each chain of loops. These warp threads are interlaced with a quasiweft, forming…

  • CO2 emission (pollution)

    Paris Agreement: Background: …for the peaking of its carbon dioxide emissions “around 2030 and making best efforts to peak early.” Chinese officials also endeavoured to lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60–65 percent from the 2005 level.

  • CoA (biochemistry)

    carboxylic acid: Saturated aliphatic acids: …a large biochemical molecule called coenzyme A; the entire compound is known as acetyl coenzyme A. In the metabolism of food materials (the body’s conversion of food to energy), the carbon atoms of carbohydrates, fats, and, to some degree, proteins are converted to acetyl groups that are bonded to coenzyme…

  • coaccretion hypothesis (astronomy)

    Moon: Origin and evolution: Coaccretion suggests that the Moon and Earth were formed together from a primordial cloud of gas and dust. This scenario, however, cannot explain the large angular momentum of the present system. In fission theories a fluid proto-Earth began rotating so rapidly that it flung off…

  • coacervate (biology)

    abiogenesis: The Oparin-Haldane theory: …believed that life developed from coacervates, microscopic spontaneously formed spherical aggregates of lipid molecules that are held together by electrostatic forces and that may have been precursors of cells. Oparin’s work with coacervates confirmed that enzymes fundamental for the biochemical reactions of metabolism functioned more efficiently when contained within membrane-bound…

  • coach (railroad vehicle)

    Coach, railroad passenger car. In early railroad operation, passenger and freight cars were often intermixed, but that practice very soon gave way to running separate freight and passenger trains. The flexible gangway between coaches, introduced about 1880, made the entire train accessible to

  • coach (horse-drawn vehicle)

    Coach, four-wheeled, horse-drawn carriage, popularly thought to have originated in Hungary in the 15th century. The word coach often is used interchangeably with “carriage,” but a coach is generally either a public carriage—such as a stagecoach, Concord coach, mail coach, or the modern railway

  • coach horn (musical instrument)

    post horn: The coach horn, which was like a straight post horn, though longer, was made of copper and was of conical bore. It was used on the London–Oxford mail coach until 1914.

  • Coach Museum (museum, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: Cultural life: …the Azulejo Museum and the National Museum of Coaches. The former, located in the convent of Madre de Deus, boasts a large and varied collection of the painted tiles (azulejos) for which the Iberian Peninsula is famous. The National Museum of Coaches occupies a wing of the Portuguese president’s official…

  • Coachella Valley (valley, California, United States)

    Coachella Valley, valley, part of the Colorado Desert, extending northwestward for 45 miles (70 km) from the Salton Sea (a shallow saline lake) through Riverside county to the San Gorgonio Pass, southern California, U.S. It is 15 miles (25 km) wide and lies between the Little San Bernardino

  • Coachella Valley Festival (music festival, Indio, California, United States)

    Coachella Valley Festival, annual rock festival held at the Empire Polo Club in Indio, Calif., U.S., featuring music on multiple stages. The Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival began in October 1999 as a two-day festival. Beck and Rage Against the Machine headlined, and more than 25,000 people

  • Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival (music festival, Indio, California, United States)

    Coachella Valley Festival, annual rock festival held at the Empire Polo Club in Indio, Calif., U.S., featuring music on multiple stages. The Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival began in October 1999 as a two-day festival. Beck and Rage Against the Machine headlined, and more than 25,000 people

  • coaching (sports)

    gridiron football: Knute Rockne and the influence of coaches: A distinguishing mark of American football is the renown and status granted to the most successful and innovative coaches. The first innovators were men such as Walter Camp (not literally a coach but an adviser), Amos Alonzo Stagg at the University of Chicago, George…

  • coaching (horsemanship)

    Driving and coaching, art or sport of controlling and directing draft animals from a coach or other conveyance to which they are harnessed. The animal most commonly employed is the horse, but the mule, ass, ox, reindeer, and dog have been, and still are, used in some areas of the world. Only at

  • Coaching Club (American horse club)

    driving and coaching: The Coaching Club was founded in 1870 and survives; in 1958 the British Driving Society was formed to encourage people who wish to drive horses for pleasure. In the United States, the Coaching Club, founded in 1875, held its last extended drive in 1916 but continued…

  • Coaching Club American Oaks (American horse race)

    driving and coaching: …continued in existence, establishing the Coaching Club American Oaks, an annual stake race for three-year-old fillies, at Belmont Park, first held in 1917. Driving and coaching exhibitions are included in many horse shows such as the Richmond Royal and Royal International horse shows in England, and in some of the…

  • coaching inn clock

    Act of Parliament clock, weight-driven wall clock with a large wooden, painted or lacquered dial. More correctly, it is called a tavern clock. Clocks of this type were displayed by innkeepers and got their name from the passage of a five-shilling duty on clocks in Great Britain, introduced in 1797

  • Coachman, Alice (American athlete)

    Alice Coachman, American athlete who was the first black woman to win an Olympic gold medal. Coachman first attracted attention in 1939 by breaking Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) high school and college women’s high-jump records while barefoot. She won the AAU outdoor high-jump championship for the

  • Coachman, Alice Marie (American athlete)

    Alice Coachman, American athlete who was the first black woman to win an Olympic gold medal. Coachman first attracted attention in 1939 by breaking Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) high school and college women’s high-jump records while barefoot. She won the AAU outdoor high-jump championship for the

  • coachwhip (snake)

    Coachwhip, (Masticophis, sometimes Coluber, flagellum), nonvenomous snake of the family Colubridae that ranges from the southern half of the United States to west central Mexico. It averages 1.2 metres (4 feet) long, but it is occasionally twice that length. It is slender, and its tail is marked

  • coachwhip (plant)

    Ocotillo, (Fouquieria splendens), flowering spiny shrub characteristic of rocky deserts from western Texas to southern California and southward into Mexico. It is a member of the candlewood family (Fouquieriaceae), which belongs to the order Ericales. Near the plant’s base the stem divides into

  • coachwhipbird (bird)

    Whipbird, either of the four songbird species of the Australian genus Psophodes, assigned to various families depending on the classification used. They are named for the voice of the eastern whipbird (P. olivaceus): the male gives a long whistle and a loud crack, and the female answers instantly

  • coagulation (chemistry)

    water purification: Other purification steps: That process includes coagulation, a step in which chemicals are added that cause small particles suspended in the water to clump together. Flocculation follows, which mixes the water with large paddles so that coagulated particles can be brought together into larger clumps (or “floc”) that slowly settle on…

  • coagulation (of liquids)

    dairy product: Physical and biochemical properties: The coagulation of milk is an irreversible change of its protein from a soluble or dispersed state to an agglomerated or precipitated condition. Its appearance may be associated with spoilage, but coagulation is a necessary step in many processing procedures. Milk may be coagulated by rennin…

  • coagulation (of blood)

    Coagulation, in physiology, the process by which a blood clot is formed. The formation of a clot is often referred to as secondary hemostasis, because it forms the second stage in the process of arresting the loss of blood from a ruptured vessel. The first stage, primary hemostasis, is

  • coagulation factor (physiology)

    therapeutics: Plasma: …of whole blood including the coagulation factors, immunoglobulins and other proteins, and electrolytes. When frozen, the coagulation factors remain stable for up to one year but are usually transfused within 24 hours after thawing. However, some of the clotting factors, such as factor VIII (or antihemophilic factor, AHF) and factor…

  • coagulative necrosis (biology)

    death: Cell death: …which affect aggregates of adjacent cells or functionally related cohorts of cells, are seen in a variety of contexts produced by accident, injury, or disease. Among the environmental perturbations that may cause cell necrosis are oxygen deprivation (anoxia), hyperthermia, immunological attack, and exposure to various toxins that inhibit crucial intracellular…

  • coagulogen (protein)

    horseshoe crab: Biomedical applications: …very primitive clotting agent called coagulogen in its blood.

  • Coahuila (state, Mexico)

    Coahuila, estado (state), northern Mexico. It is bounded by the United States (Texas) to the north and northeast and by the states of Nuevo León to the east, San Luis Potosí and Zacatecas to the south, and Durango and Chihuahua to the west. Saltillo is the capital. The state straddles the Sierra

  • Coahuiltecan languages

    Mesoamerican Indian languages: Proposals of distant genetic (genealogical) relationship: The “Amerind” hypothesis, proposed by Joseph…

  • Coakley, Martha (American politician)

    Tea Party movement: Origins of the Tea Party: …presumptive successor, Massachusetts attorney general Martha Coakley, in a race that shifted the balance in the Senate, depriving the Democrats of the 60-vote filibuster-proof majority they had held since July 2009. In May 2010 the Tea Party exerted its influence again, this time in Kentucky, where Rand Paul, son of…

  • coal (fossil fuel)

    Coal, one of the most important primary fossil fuels, a solid carbon-rich material that is usually brown or black and most often occurs in stratified sedimentary deposits. Coal is defined as having more than 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the

  • Coal (poetry by Lorde)

    Audre Lorde: Coal (1976), a compilation of earlier works, was Lorde’s first release by a major publisher, and it earned critical notice. Most critics consider The Black Unicorn (1978) to be her finest poetic work. In the collection she turned from the urban themes of her early…

  • Coal and Iron Police (American police)

    police: English and American policing in the late 19th century: The Coal and Iron Police of Pennsylvania was a company police force that later became notorious for its antilabour vigilantism. The most famous independent police force was the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. Created in 1850 by Allan Pinkerton, a political fugitive from Scotland whose father was…

  • coal ball (paleobotany)

    Coal ball, a lump of petrified plant matter, frequently spheroid, found in coal seams of the Upper Carboniferous Period (from 325,000,000 to 280,000,000 years ago). Coal balls are important sources of fossil information relating to the forests preceding the Coal Age. As a result of a variety of

  • coal classification

    Coal classification, any of various ways in which coal is grouped. Most classifications are based on the results of chemical analyses and physical tests, but some are more empirical in nature. Coal classifications are important because they provide valuable information to commercial users (e.g.,

  • Coal Exchange (building, London, United Kingdom)

    Western architecture: Construction in iron and glass: Visitors were admitted to the Coal Exchange in London (1846–49, J.B. Bunning) through a round towered Classical porch at the corner of two Renaissance palaces to a magnificent rotunda hall, which was surrounded by three tiers of ornamental iron balconies and roofed by a lacelike dome of iron and glass.…

  • Coal Flat (work by Pearson)

    New Zealand literature: Fiction: …Bill Pearson, whose one novel, Coal Flat (1963), gives a sober, faithful, strongly written account of life in a small mining town on the West Coast of the South Island; David Ballantyne (Sydney Bridge Upside Down [1968] and The Talkback Man [1978]), the “lost man” of those decades whose work…

  • coal gas (chemical compound)

    Coal gas, gaseous mixture—mainly hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide—formed by the destructive distillation (i.e., heating in the absence of air) of bituminous coal and used as a fuel. Sometimes steam is added to react with the hot coke, thus increasing the yield of gas. Coal tar and coke

  • coal gasification (coal processing)

    Coal gasification, any process of converting coal into gas for use in illuminating and heating. The first illuminating gas was manufactured from coal in England in the late 18th century by the process of carbonization or destructive distillation, heating coal in the absence of air, leaving a

  • coal geology

    geology: Coal: The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and 19th centuries was fueled by coal. Though it has been supplanted by oil and natural gas as the primary source of energy in most modern industrial nations, coal nonetheless remains an important fuel.

  • Coal Harbour Penal Settlement (New South Wales, Australia)

    Newcastle, city and port, eastern New South Wales, Australia. It lies at the mouth of the Hunter River, approximately 105 miles (170 km) northeast of Sydney. Newcastle originated as the small Coal Harbour Penal Settlement in 1801 and developed as an outlet for coal (from the Newcastle-Cessnock

  • Coal Hill Park (park, Beijing, China)

    Beijing: Recreation: Jingshan (Prospect Hill) Park, also known as Meishan (Coal Hill) Park, is a man-made hill, more than a mile (1.6 km) in circumference, located north of the Forbidden City. The hill, offering a spectacular panorama of Beijing from its summit, has five ridges, with a…

  • coal liquefaction

    Coal liquefaction, any process of turning coal into liquid products resembling crude oil. The two procedures that have been most extensively evaluated are carbonization—heating coal in the absence of air—and hydrogenation—causing coal to react with hydrogen at high pressures, usually in the

  • Coal Measures (geology)

    Coal Measures, major division of Upper Carboniferous rocks and time in Great Britain (the Upper Carboniferous Period began about 318,000,000 years ago and lasted about 19,000,000 years). The Coal Measures, noted for the great amounts of coal they contain, account for the major portion of England’s

  • Coal Miner’s Daughter (song by Lynn)

    Loretta Lynn: …released her signature song, “Coal Miner’s Daughter”; it provided the title of a best-selling autobiography and a popular film (1980).

  • Coal Miner’s Daughter (film by Apted [1980])

    Tommy Lee Jones: …featured as the killer; and Coal Miner’s Daughter (1980), a biographical film about country singer Loretta Lynn, in which he played her husband.

  • coal mining

    Coal mining, extraction of coal deposits from the surface of Earth and from underground. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel on Earth. Its predominant use has always been for producing heat energy. It was the basic energy source that fueled the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th

  • coal processing

    coal mining: Coal preparation: As explained above, during the formation of coal and subsequent geologic activities, a coal seam may acquire mineral matter, veins of clay, bands of rock, and igneous intrusions. In addition, during the process of mining, a portion of the roof and floor material…

  • Coal Question, The (work by Jevons)

    William Stanley Jevons: …not until the publication of The Coal Question (1865), in which Jevons called attention to the gradual exhaustion of Britain’s coal supplies, that he received public recognition. He feared that as the supply of coal was exhausted, its price would rise. That conclusion was wrong, however, because it failed to…

  • coal rock type

    coal: Coal rock types: Coals may be classified on the basis of their macroscopic appearance (generally referred to as coal rock type, lithotype, or kohlentype). Four main types are recognized:

  • coal scuttle (container)

    fireplace: Coal scuttles appeared early in the 18th century and were later adapted into usually ornamental wood boxes or racks for fire logs. The fire screen was developed early in the 19th century to prevent sparks from flying into the room, and it also has been…

  • coal seam (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Coal: …into the various kinds of coal: initially brown coal or lignite, then soft or bituminous coal, and finally, with metamorphism, hard or anthracite coal. In the geologic record, coal occurs in beds, called seams, which are blanketlike coal deposits a few centimetres to metres or hundreds of metres thick.

  • coal shovel (tool)

    Power shovel, digging and loading machine consisting of a revolving deck with a power plant, driving and controlling mechanisms, sometimes a counterweight, and a front attachment, such as a boom or crane, supporting a handle with a digger at the end. The whole mechanism is mounted on a base

  • coal slurry (fuel)

    coal utilization: Coal-water slurry fuel: Pulverized coal can be mixed with water and made into a slurry, which can be handled like a liquid fuel and burned in a boiler designed to burn oil. Coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) normally consists of 50–70 percent pulverized or micronized coal,…

  • coal tar (chemical compound)

    Coal tar, principal liquid product resulting from the carbonization of coal, i.e., the heating of coal in the absence of air, at temperatures ranging from about 900 to 1,200 °C (1,650 to 2,200 °F). Many commercially important compounds are derived from coal tar. Low-temperature tars result when

  • coal tar naphtha (chemical compound)

    naphtha: …obtained by the distillation of coal tar. Shale naphtha is obtained by the distillation of oil produced from bituminous shale by destructive distillation. Petroleum naphtha is a name used primarily in the United States for petroleum distillate containing principally aliphatic hydrocarbons and boiling higher than gasoline and lower than kerosene.…

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