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  • cloudburst (meteorology)

    Cloudburst, a sudden, very heavy rainfall, usually local in nature and of brief duration. Most so-called cloudbursts occur in connection with thunderstorms. In these storms there are violent uprushes of air, which at times prevent the condensing raindrops from falling to the ground. A large amount

  • Cloudbursts (short stories by McGuane)

    Thomas McGuane: … (2006), Crow Fair (2015), and Cloudbursts (2018). In addition, he penned screenplays, several of which were adaptations of his novels. His essay collections—An Outside Chance (1980; rev. ed., 1990), Some Horses (1999), and The Longest Silence: A Life in Fishing (1999)—reflect mostly on leisure and the outdoors, especially his passion…

  • clouded leopard (mammal)

    Clouded leopard, strikingly marked cat, very similar in colouring and coat pattern to the smaller, unrelated marbled cat (Felis marmorata). There are two species of clouded leopard, which are genetically distinct from one another. Neofelis nebulosa, found on the mainland of southeastern Asia,

  • clouded tiger (mammal)

    Clouded leopard, strikingly marked cat, very similar in colouring and coat pattern to the smaller, unrelated marbled cat (Felis marmorata). There are two species of clouded leopard, which are genetically distinct from one another. Neofelis nebulosa, found on the mainland of southeastern Asia,

  • Cloudgate (sculpture by Kapoor)

    Anish Kapoor: In 2004 Kapoor unveiled Cloud Gate in Chicago’s Millennium Park; the 110-ton elliptical archway of highly polished stainless steel—nicknamed “The Bean”—was his first permanent site-specific installation in the United States. For just over a month in 2006, Kapoor’s Sky Mirror, a concave stainless-steel mirror 35 feet (11 metres) in…

  • cloudless sulfur (insect)

    sulfur butterfly: …of sulfur butterfly is the cloudless sulfur (Phoebis sennae); its wingspan ranges from about 5.7 to 8.0 cm (2.2 to 3.1 inches). Males are often solid bright yellow, whereas females are yellow with black wing margins. The cloudless sulfur is found in the Americas and is especially common in the…

  • cloudrunner (rodent)

    Cloud rat, any of six species of slow-moving, nocturnal, tree-dwelling rodents found only in Philippine forests. Giant cloud rats belong to the genus Phloeomys (two species), whereas bushy-tailed cloud rats are classified in the genus Crateromys (four species). Also called slender-tailed cloud

  • Clouds (album by Mitchell)

    Joni Mitchell: …gained a larger following, from Clouds (which in 1969 won a Grammy Award for best folk performance) to the mischievous euphoria of Ladies of the Canyon (1970) to Blue (1971), which was her first million-selling album. By the early 1970s Mitchell had branched out from her acoustic base to experiment…

  • Clouds (play by Aristophanes)

    Clouds, comedy by Aristophanes, produced in 423 bce. The play attacks “modern” education and morals as imparted and taught by the radical intellectuals known as the Sophists. The main victim of the play is the leading Athenian thinker and teacher Socrates, who is purposely (and unfairly) given many

  • Clouds of Sils Maria (film by Assayas [2014])

    Juliette Binoche: …notices for her performance in Clouds of Sils Maria (2014), in which she portrayed an actress who is asked to appear in a restaging of the play that made her famous, this time as the elder of the two women around whose romantic entanglement the drama centres. She later played…

  • Cloudsplitter (work by Banks)

    Russell Banks: In 1998 Banks published Cloudsplitter, the fictional response of John Brown’s unhappy son to the actions of his father and the racism that precipitated them.

  • Cloudster (American plane)

    McDonnell Douglas Corporation: In 1920 he designed the Cloudster, the first aerodynamically streamlined plane, and founded his company to fill an order for three of the planes for the U.S. Navy.

  • Cloudstreet (novel by Winton)

    Tim Winton: …Award three more times: for Cloudstreet (1992), Dirt Music (2002), and Breath (2009). He also wrote several children’s books, including Lockie Leonard, Human Torpedo (1990), The Bugalugs Bum Thief (1991), and The Deep (1998).

  • Clouet, François (French painter)

    François Clouet, French painter who immortalized in his portraits the society of the court of the royal house of Valois. The son of Jean Clouet, he was known also under his father’s byname, Janet, a circumstance that created a persistent confusion between the works of these two painters. François

  • Clouet, Jean (French painter)

    Jean Clouet, Renaissance painter of portraits celebrated for the depth and delicacy of his characterization. Although he lived in France most of his life, records show that he was not French by origin and was never naturalized. He was one of the chief painters to Francis I as early as 1516 and was

  • Clough, Anne Jemima (British educator)

    Anne Jemima Clough, English educator and feminist who was the first principal of Newnham College, Cambridge. She was the sister of poet Arthur Hugh Clough. Clough, whose father was a cotton merchant, spent many of her early years in Charleston, S.C. She returned with her family to England in 1836

  • Clough, Arthur Hugh (British poet)

    Arthur Hugh Clough, poet whose work reflects the perplexity and religious doubt of mid-19th century England. He was a friend of Matthew Arnold and the subject of Arnold’s commemorative elegy “Thyrsis.” While at Oxford, Clough had intended to become a clergyman, but his increasing religious

  • Clough, Brian Howard (British athlete)

    Brian Howard Clough, British association football (soccer) player and manager (born March 21, 1935, Middlesbrough, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Sept. 20, 2004, Derby, Eng.), was a brilliant and charismatic but abrasive and egocentric club manager who twice transformed a Second Division football club into t

  • Clouseau, Jacques (fictional character)

    Jacques Clouseau, fictional French police detective inspector, most memorably portrayed by the English comic actor Peter Sellers, in a popular series of slapstick comedies beginning with The Pink Panther (1963). Inspector Clouseau is a bumbling, accident-prone Parisian detective who lurches from

  • clout shooting (archery)

    Clout shooting, in archery, long-distance shooting at a circular target laid out on the ground, a form of competition practiced for centuries. The target was formerly a patch of cloth (clout). As practiced by the Royal Company of Archers (the British sovereign’s bodyguard in Scotland, formally o

  • Cloutier, Réal (Canadian hockey player)

    Colorado Avalanche: …in 1977 behind high-scoring forwards Réal Cloutier and Marc Tardif. The Nordiques joined the NHL along with three other WHA franchises when the two leagues merged before the 1979–80 season.

  • Clouzot, Henri-Georges (French writer and director)

    Les Diaboliques: Director Henri-Georges Clouzot ably handles the story’s suspenseful plot and increasing sense of dread, strengthened by atmospheric black-and-white cinematography. Les Diaboliques is commonly compared to the films of Alfred Hitchcock, who reportedly tried to acquire movie rights to Boileau and Narcejac’s book. A sexualized 1996 remake,…

  • Clouzot, Vera (French actress)

    Les Diaboliques: …of both his wife (Véra Clouzot) and his mistress (Simone Signoret), both teachers at the school, drives them to conspire in his murder, which they disguise as an accidental drowning. When his body goes missing, however, and a ragtag detective (Charles Vanel) is assigned to the case, the women…

  • clove (plant and spice)

    Clove, (Syzygium aromaticum), tropical evergreen tree of the family Myrtaceae and its small reddish brown flower buds used as a spice. Cloves were important in the earliest spice trade and are believed to be indigenous to the Moluccas, or Spice Islands, of Indonesia. Strong of aroma and hot and

  • clove currant (shrub)

    Ribes: speciosum); golden, or clove, currant (R. aureum), bearing spicy-fragrant yellow flowers; and R. viburnifolium, a sprawling evergreen. Because all Ribes species are alternative hosts of the destructive blister rust fungus, which also attacks white pines, there are local prohibitions to growing Ribes near any white pine…

  • clove hitch (knot)

    knot: The clove hitch, also called a builder’s knot or a ratline hitch, is made by passing the rope’s end around an object and then crossing it over the rope’s standing part to form a loop, then passing the end around the object again to form a…

  • clove pink (plant)

    Carnation, (Dianthus caryophyllus), herbaceous plant of the pink, or carnation, family (Caryophyllaceae), native to the Mediterranean area. It is widely cultivated for its fringe-petaled flowers, which often have a spicy fragrance. There are two general groups, the border, or garden, carnations and

  • clove tree

    Clove tree, tropical tree, a species of the genus Eugenia

  • cloven-lip toadflax (plant)

    toadflax: From North Africa come the cloven-lip toadflax (L. bipartita) and purple-net toadflax (L. reticulata), both of which have purple and orange bicoloured flowers.

  • clover (plant)

    Clover, (genus Trifolium), genus of about 300 annual and perennial species in the pea family (Fabaceae). Clovers occur in most temperate and subtropical regions of the world, except Southeast Asia and Australia; cultivated species have become naturalized in temperate regions worldwide. The plants

  • Clover (American socialite and photographer)

    Marian Adams, American social arbiter who was widely acknowledged for her wit, as an accomplished photographer in the early 1880s, and as the wife of historian Henry Adams. Marian Hooper—called Clover by family and friends—was the youngest child of Boston Brahmins. Her mother, Ellen Sturgis Hooper,

  • Cloverfield Paradox, The (film by Onah [2018])

    Zhang Ziyi: In The Cloverfield Paradox (2018), the third installment in the Cloverfield horror series, Zhang was cast as an engineer aboard a space station. She then appeared in the action adventure Godzilla: King of the Monsters (2019).

  • Clovio, Giulio (Italian painter and priest)

    Giulio Clovio, Italian miniature painter and priest. Clovio is said to have studied at Rome under Giulio Romano and at Verona under Girolamo de’ Libri. His book of 26 pictures representing the procession of Corpus Domini, in Rome, was the work of nine years, and the covers were executed by

  • Clovis (New Mexico, United States)

    Clovis, city, seat (1909) of Curry county, eastern New Mexico, U.S., in the High Plains (4,260 feet [1,298 metres] above sea level) near the Texas state line. It was founded in 1906 as a division point for the Santa Fe Railway. Centre of an irrigated farm and ranch area, it has extensive

  • Clovis complex (ancient North American culture)

    Clovis complex, ancient culture that was widely distributed throughout North America. It is named for the first important archaeological site found, in 1929, near Clovis, N.M. Clovis sites were long believed to have dated to about 9500 to 9000 bc, although early 21st-century analyses suggest the

  • Clovis et Clotilde (work by Bizet)

    Georges Bizet: …Rome, awarded for his cantata Clovis et Clotilde in 1857. This prize carried with it a five-year state pension, two years of which musicians were bound to spend at the French Academy in Rome.

  • Clovis I (Merovingian king)

    Clovis I, king of the Franks and ruler of much of Gaul from 481 to 511, a key period during the transformation of the Roman Empire into Europe. His dynasty, the Merovingians, survived more than 200 years, until the rise of the Carolingians in the 8th century. While he was not the first Frankish

  • Clovis II (Merovingian king)

    Clovis II, Merovingian Frankish king of Neustria and Burgundy from 639, the son of Dagobert I. He was dominated successively by Aega and by Erchinoald, Neustrian mayors of the palace. In about 648 he married Balthild, who played a dominant role in his administration

  • Clovis III (Merovingian king)

    Clovis III, Merovingian king of the Franks from 690/691, the son of Theuderic III. During his reign actual power was held by his mother Chrodichild and, especially, by the Carolingian Pippin II of Herstal, mayor of the palace of

  • Clovis point (stone tool)

    Clovis complex: The typical Clovis point is leaf-shaped, with parallel or slightly convex sides and a concave base. The edges of the basal portions are ground somewhat, probably to prevent the edge from severing the hafting cord. Clovis points range in length from 1.5 to 5 inches (4 to…

  • Clown (work by Kelly)

    Emmett Kelly: Kelly wrote an autobiography, Clown (1954), and in 1956 he retired from regular circus work, though he continued to work sporadically thereafter until the year of his death. He was a mascot in spring training for the Brooklyn Dodgers (now Los Angeles Dodgers) in 1957. He also made several…

  • clown

    Clown, familiar comic character of pantomime and circus, known by distinctive makeup and costume, ludicrous antics, and buffoonery, whose purpose is to induce hearty laughter. The clown, unlike the traditional fool or court jester, usually performs a set routine characterized by broad, graphic

  • clown anemone fish

    Common clown fish, (Amphiprion ocellaris), species of anemone fish best known for its striking orange and white coloration and its mutualism with certain species of sea anemones. The common clown fish is found on coral reefs in the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans from northwestern Australia,

  • clown barb (fish)

    barb: Clown barb (B. everetti), large, to 13 cm (5 inches); pinkish with red fins and several large, dark spots on each side.

  • Clown College (school, Venice, Florida, United States)

    circus: Circus schools: …was the Ringling organization’s “Clown College,” located in Venice, Florida, which was established in 1968 and closed in 1997. Other American institutions that feature the circus include Florida State University’s Flying High Circus (begun in 1947) at Tallahassee, whose performers are drawn exclusively from the student body; Circus Smirkus…

  • clown fish

    cnidarian: Associations: …anemone fish (such as the clown fish). These fishes live within the protective field of anemone tentacles, where they take refuge when a predator threatens. Immunity of the fishes to the stings of the nematocytes results from the thin layer of mucus that covers their bodies. It is unclear whether…

  • clown loach (fish)

    loach: Among these are the clown loach (Botia macracanthus), an orange fish about 13–30 centimetres (5–12 inches) long and marked with three vertical black bands, and the kuhli loach (Pangio kuhlii), a pinkish, eel-like species about 8 centimetres long, marked with many vertical black bands. Other loaches include the stone…

  • clown, sacred (religion)

    Sacred clown, ritual or ceremonial figure, in various preliterate and ancient cultures throughout the world, who represents a reversal of the normal order, an opening to the chaos that preceded creation, especially during New Year festivals. The reversal of normality that is the distinguishing

  • Clown, The (film by Leonard [1953])

    Robert Z. Leonard: Later films: The Clown (1953) cast Red Skelton as a former vaudeville star whose career is destroyed by alcohol, but his loving son encourages him to stage a comeback; the drama was a clever recycling of The Champ, a 1931 tearjerker directed by King Vidor. Skelton returned…

  • Clown, The (novel by Boll)

    The Clown, novel by Heinrich Böll, published in 1963 as Ansichten eines Clowns. Set in West Germany during the period of recovery following World War II, the novel examines the hypocrisy of contemporary German society in repressing memory of the historical past in order to concentrate on material

  • clozapine (pharmacology)

    tranquilizer: Another drug, clozapine, whose exact mode of action remains unclear relieves schizophrenic symptoms in some patients who are not helped by phenothiazines. Clozapine lacks the side effects of the phenothiazines but tends to induce an infectious disease known as agranulocytosis. The rauwolfia alkaloids, such as reserpine, are…

  • CLP (political organization, United Kingdom)

    Labour Party: Policy and structure: These organizations include the constituency Labour parties (CLPs), which are responsible for recruiting and organizing members in each of the country’s parliamentary constituencies; affiliated trade unions, which traditionally have had an important role in party affairs; the Parliamentary Labour Party (PLP), comprising Labour members of Parliament; and a variety…

  • CLP (technology)

    pipeline: Capsule pipelines: …of HCP being developed is coal-log pipeline (CLP), which transports compressed coal logs. The system eliminates the use of capsules to enclose coal and the need for having a separate pipeline to return empty capsules. Compared with a coal-slurry pipeline of the same diameter, CLP can transport more coal using…

  • CLS (American movement)

    critical race theory: …1989 marked its separation from critical legal studies (CLS; the theory established at a conference in 1977 that rethinks and overturns accepted norms and standards in legal practice and theory). Instead of drawing theories of social organization and individual behaviour from continental European thinkers such as G.W.F. Hegel and Karl…

  • Cluain Meala (Ireland)

    Clonmel, municipal borough and seat of County South Tipperary, Ireland. It lies on the River Suir. A noted sporting centre, it has fine scenery, with the Comeragh Mountains to the south and the Slievenamon peak to the northeast. Clonmel received its charter in the reign of Edward I (1239–1307). The

  • Cluain Mhic Nóis (Ireland)

    Clonmacnoise, early Christian centre on the left bank of the River Shannon, County Offaly, central Ireland. It lies about 70 miles (110 km) west of Dublin. Clonmacnoise was the earliest and foremost Irish monastic city after the foundation of an abbey there by St. Ciaran about 545. It had become an

  • Cluain Moccu Nóis (Ireland)

    Clonmacnoise, early Christian centre on the left bank of the River Shannon, County Offaly, central Ireland. It lies about 70 miles (110 km) west of Dublin. Clonmacnoise was the earliest and foremost Irish monastic city after the foundation of an abbey there by St. Ciaran about 545. It had become an

  • club (weapon)

    Club, a heavy stick, sometimes with a stone or metal head, used as a hand or throwing weapon and usually shaped or selected with an outer end wider and heavier than its handle. Among traditional societies, special designs often characterize particular tribes. Police continue to employ narrow clubs

  • Club Atlético Boca Juniors (Argentine football club)

    Boca Juniors, Argentine professional football (soccer) club based in the Buenos Aires neighbourhood of Boca. Boca Juniors has proved to be one of Argentina’s most successful teams, especially in international club competitions. The club was founded in 1905 by a group of Italian immigrants in

  • club cheese

    dairy product: Pasteurized process cheese: …slight variation, cold pack or club cheese is made by grinding and mixing together one or more varieties of cheese without heat. This cheese food may contain added flavours or ingredients.

  • Club des Feuillants (French political club)

    Club of the Feuillants, conservative political club of the French Revolution, which met in the former monastery of the Feuillants (Reformed Cistercians) near the Tuileries, in Paris. It was founded after Louis XVI’s flight to Varennes (June 20, 1791), when a number of deputies, led by Antoine

  • Club du Cirque, Société du (French organization)

    circus: Associations and museums: …and the United States), the Club du Cirque (France), the Society of Friends of the Circus (Germany and Austria), the Circus Historical Society, the Circus Model Builders Association, the Windjammers, the Ringling Museum of the Circus, and the International Clown Hall of Fame (all United States). At Baraboo, Wisconsin, the…

  • club fungus (biology)

    mushroom: …Ramaria), are shrublike, clublike, or coral-like in growth habit. One club fungus, the cauliflower fungus (Sparassis crispa), has flattened clustered branches that lie close together, giving the appearance of the vegetable cauliflower. The cantharelloid fungi (Cantharellus and its relatives) are club-, cone-, or trumpet-shaped mushroomlike forms with an expanded top…

  • club moss (plant)

    Club moss, (family Lycopodiaceae), order of a single family (Lycopodiaceae), comprising some 400 species of seedless vascular plants. The taxonomy of the family has been contentious, with the number of genera varying depending on the source. The plants are mainly native to tropical mountains but

  • club movement (American social movement)

    Club movement, American women’s social movement founded in the mid-19th century to provide women an independent avenue for education and active community service. Before the mid-1800s most women’s associations, with some notable exceptions, were either auxiliaries of men’s groups or

  • club sandwich (food)

    sandwich: …the most successful being the club sandwich of sliced chicken or turkey, bacon, lettuce, and tomato, and the Reuben sandwich of corned beef, Swiss cheese, sauerkraut, and Russian dressing served grilled on black bread. Hot sandwiches, notably the ubiquitous hamburger on a bun, are a staple of the American

  • Club War (Finnish history)

    Finland: The 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries: …revolt in Europe, the so-called Club War, in 1596–97. The hopes of the Finnish peasants were crushed, and, even when Charles IX, whom the peasants had supported, became king (1604–11), the social conditions did not improve. In the course of the administrative reforms of Gustav II Adolf (1611–32), Finland became…

  • club wheat (plant)

    wheat: …as spaghetti and macaroni; and club wheat (T. compactum), a softer type, used for cake, crackers, cookies, pastries, and flours. Additionally, some wheat is used by industry for the production of starch, paste, malt, dextrose, gluten, alcohol, and other products.

  • Club, The (British intellectual group)

    Edward Gibbon: Life: …he was elected to the Club, the brilliant circle that the painter Sir Joshua Reynolds had formed round the writer and lexicographer Dr. Samuel Johnson. Although Johnson’s biographer, James Boswell, openly detested Gibbon, and it may be inferred that Johnson disliked him, Gibbon took an active part in the Club…

  • club-tooth escapement (watchmaking)

    watch: Mechanical watches: …its modern form with the club-tooth escape wheel at the beginning of the 19th century but was not universally adopted until the early 20th century. In good-quality watches the club-tooth escape wheel is made of hardened steel, with the acting surfaces ground and polished. An improved form of the lever…

  • clubbing (physiology)

    respiratory disease: Signs and symptoms: …of the toes) called “clubbing.” Clubbing may be a feature of bronchiectasis (chronic inflammation and dilation of the major airways), diffuse fibrosis of the lung from any cause, and lung cancer. In the case of lung cancer, this unusual sign may disappear after surgical removal of the tumour. In…

  • clubfoot (pathology)

    Clubfoot, congenital twisting of the foot. In the most common type, called talipes equinovarus, the heel bends upward and the front part of the foot is turned inward and bent toward the heel. The frequency of the disorder is equal in males and females. A mild form, possibly caused by poor p

  • Clubionidae (arachnid)

    Sac spider, (family Clubionidae), any member of a relatively common, widespread family of spiders (order Araneida) that range in body length from 3 to 15 mm (about 0.12 to 0.6 inch) and build silken tubes under stones, in leaves, or in grass. Chiracanthium inclusum, found throughout the United

  • clubroot (plant disease)

    Clubroot, disease of plants of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) caused by the funguslike soil pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. Affected plants are stunted and yellowed; they wilt during hot sunny days and partially recover at night. In the early stages roots are greatly distorted by a mass of

  • Clues in the Calico (work by Brackman)

    Barbara Brackman: Her Clues in the Calico (1989) was one of the first studies to use a historical approach for dating quilts and other vintage textiles based on their colour and design.

  • Cluj (county, Romania)

    Cluj, județ (county), northwestern Romania, occupying an area of 2,577 square mi (6,674 square km). The Western Carpathians rise above settlement areas in the valleys. The county is drained by the Borșa, Someșul Mic, Someșu Rece, Someșu and Cald tributaries of the Somes River. Cluj-Napoca is the

  • Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    Cluj-Napoca, city, capital of Cluj județ (county), northwestern Romania. The historic capital of Transylvania, it is approximately 200 mi (320 km) northwest of Bucharest in the Someșul Mic River valley. The city stands on the site of an ancient Dacian settlement, Napoca, which the Romans made a

  • Clumber spaniel (breed of dog)

    Clumber spaniel, breed of sporting dog, the heaviest of the spaniel family, said to have originated in France before the French Revolution. The breed takes its name from Clumber Park in Nottingham, England, then the seat of the dukes of Newcastle. Developed by the British, the Clumber spaniel

  • clump (population distribution)

    colony: A colony differs from an aggregation, which is a group whose members have no interaction. Small, functionally specialized, attached organisms called polyps in cnidarians and zooids in bryozoans form colonies and may be modified for capturing prey, feeding, or reproduction. Colonies of social insects (e.g., ants, bees) usually include castes…

  • Clune et al. v. United States (law case)

    criminal law: Attempt: Supreme Court in Clune et al. v. U.S. (1895) affirmed a sentence of two years’ imprisonment for conviction of conspiracy to obstruct the passage of the mails, although the maximum sentence for the crime of obstructing the mails itself would have been a fine only, not to exceed…

  • Clunies-Ross family (British family)

    Clunies-Ross Family, first settlers, of the Cocos, or Keeling, Islands in the eastern Indian Ocean. John Clunies-Ross, a Scotsman, settled (1827) with his family in the Cocos and set about developing the islands’ natural coconut groves. Although the islands became a British possession in 1857, the

  • Clunies-Ross, George (British settler)

    Christmas Island: …at Flying Fish Cove by George Clunies-Ross of Cocos (Keeling) Islands. A 99-year lease, granted in 1891 to Clunies-Ross and Murray, to mine phosphate and cut timber was transferred six years later to the Christmas Island Phosphate Company, Ltd., which was largely owned by the former lessees. In 1900 Christmas…

  • Clunies-Ross, John (British settler)

    Cocos Islands: History: In 1827 John Clunies-Ross settled there with his family, improved the natural coconut groves, and brought in additional numbers of Malays to assist in harvesting the coconuts for copra. The English naturalist Charles Darwin made observations of the coral reefs there in 1836.

  • clunker (vehicle)

    bicycle: Basic types: Mountain bikes have wide low-pressure tires with knobs for traction, flat handlebars, wide-range derailleur gearing with up to 27 speeds, and powerful brakes. Their flat handlebars allow an upright riding position. Many mountain bikes have front suspension similar to motorcycles. Full-suspension mountain bikes have unconventional…

  • Cluny (France)

    Cluny, town, east-central France, Saône-et-Loire département, Burgundy (Bourgogne) région, northwest of Mâcon. It owed its early importance to its celebrated Benedictine abbey, founded in 910 by Duke William the Pious of Aquitaine. The newly founded order introduced reform in a period of general

  • Cluny Abbey (abbey, Cluny, France)

    Western architecture: Burgundy: …greatness of Burgundian federative monasticism: Cluny and Cîteaux. Cluny ultimately had about 1,400 dependencies under centralized rule, of which about 200 were important establishments. The Cistercians had a ramified system that ultimately included 742 monasteries and about 900 nunneries.

  • Cluny guipure (lace)

    Cluny guipure, French bobbin lace first made in the mid-19th century. It is called Cluny because it was inspired by examples of 16th- and 17th-century scalloped lace with geometric patterns displayed in the Cluny Museum, Paris. Cluny guipure was made from about 1862 in Lorraine. It was also made

  • Cluny III (church, Cluny, France)

    Burgundian Romanesque style: …great abbey church at Cluny (the third abbey church built on that site), which was constructed from 1088 to about 1130 and was the largest church built during the European Middle Ages. It represented a huge elaboration of the early Christian basilica plan and served as a close model for…

  • Cluny Museum (museum, Paris, France)

    Cluny Museum, in Paris, museum of medieval arts and crafts housed in the Hôtel de Cluny, a Gothic mansion built about 1490 as the town residence of the abbots of Cluny. The collection assembled by Alexandre du Sommerard, owner of the mansion from 1833, was the basis of the museum. The French

  • Clupea harengus (fish)

    migration: Oceanodromous fish: Herring (Clupea harengus), extensively studied because of their economic importance, are the best known of the oceanodromous type and can be classified into several populations, or local races, which do not mix freely. In addition, each has a particular migratory behaviour. In the North Sea, distinct…

  • Clupea harengus harengus (fish)

    herring: …herring refers to either the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus harengus) or the Pacific herring (C. harengus pallasii); although once considered separate species, they are now believed to be only subspecifically distinct. Herrings are small-headed, streamlined, beautifully coloured fish with silvery iridescent sides and deep blue, metallic-hued backs. Adults range from…

  • Clupea harengus pallasii (fish)

    herring: … (Clupea harengus harengus) or the Pacific herring (C. harengus pallasii); although once considered separate species, they are now believed to be only subspecifically distinct. Herrings are small-headed, streamlined, beautifully coloured fish with silvery iridescent sides and deep blue, metallic-hued backs. Adults range from 20 to 38 centimetres (8 to 15…

  • Clupea pilchardus (fish)

    Pilchard, a species of sardine (q.v.) found in Europe. It is the local name in Great Britain and

  • Clupea sprattus (fish)

    Bristling, (Sprattus sprattus), edible fish of the herring family Clupeidae (order Clupeiformes). Bristlings are silver-coloured marine fishes that form enormous schools in western European waters. They contribute to the worldwide fishing industry. They are smaller than Atlantic herrings (Clupea

  • Clupeidae (fish family)

    clupeiform: Annotated classification: Family Clupeidae (herrings, sardines, pilchards, shads, menhadens, and allies) Teeth usually absent in mouth or very weakly developed; minute in jaw. Keel scales well developed, except in round herrings (subfamily Dussumieriinae), in which they are absent and the ventral part of body is

  • clupeiform (fish)

    Clupeiform, (order Clupeiformes), any member of the superorder Clupeomorpha, a group of bony fishes with one living order, the Clupeiformes, that contains some of the world’s most numerous and economically important fishes. The order includes more than 400 species, about 20 of which provide more

  • Clupeiformes (fish)

    Clupeiform, (order Clupeiformes), any member of the superorder Clupeomorpha, a group of bony fishes with one living order, the Clupeiformes, that contains some of the world’s most numerous and economically important fishes. The order includes more than 400 species, about 20 of which provide more

  • Clupeoidei (fish suborder)

    clupeiform: Annotated classification: Suborder Clupeoidei Characteristic caudal skeleton: the second hypural bone lacks any connection with the urostyle (tail support) and is separated from it by a distinct gap. Lateral line pores completely lacking on trunk. Keeled scutes (projecting scales) usually present along the ventral midline of the abdomen.…

  • Clupeomorpha (fish superorder)

    fish: Annotated classification: Superorder Clupeomorpha Special type of ear–swim bladder connection present, consisting of a diverticulum of the swim bladder, forming bulla (cavity) within the ear capsule; head lateral line canals on operculum. A diverse group of mostly oceanic, silvery, compressed fishes, many of great commercial importance. Order Clupeiformes…

  • Clupisudis (fish genus)

    bony tongue: …African Clupisudis (also known as Heterotis), the South American arawana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), and two species of the East Indian genus Scleropages.

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