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  • closed-face-wheel mole (tunnel machine)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Soft-ground moles: The closed-faced-wheel mole partly offsets this problem, since it can be kept pressed against the face while taking in muck through slots. Since the cutters are changed from the face, changing must be done in firm ground. This kind of mole performed well, beginning in the…

  • closed-loop feedback control system (technology)

    automation: Feedback controls: The term closed-loop feedback control is often used to describe this kind of system.

  • closed-source system (computer science)

    e-book: How e-books are distributed: …distribution would occur within closed, proprietary systems, where e-book buyers or library patrons would have to get their books directly from a small number of owners of e-book files.

  • closed-system framework (organization)
  • closed-system pingo (geology)

    pingo: Closed-system pingos, in contrast, form in regions with limited groundwater availability, such as river deltas, shallow lakes, and other flat areas, when advancing permafrost generates upward pressure. The confined mass of saturated soil freezes, pushing the overlying material upward as it expands.

  • Closely Watched Trains (work by Hrabal)

    Bohumil Hrabal: …novel Ostře sledované vlaky (1964; Closely Watched Trains), in which a youth’s comic problems end with heroic martyrdom. Hrabal subsequently adapted the work as a screenplay, which won the 1967 Academy Award for best foreign film.

  • Closely Watched Trains (film by Menzel [1966])

    Czech Republic: Film: …a Blonde) and Jiří Menzel’s Closely Watched Trains (1967), which won an Academy Award. Jan Svěrák’s Kolya (1997) also received international attention. There is a strong Czech tradition in producing animated films, with the work of Jiří Trnka and Jan Švankmajer being perhaps the most revered.

  • closer (baseball pitcher)

    baseball: Pitching: ” Closers are usually used only when a team has a lead late in the game and have the job of “saving” the victory for the team by collecting the remaining outs.

  • Closer (album by Groban)

    Josh Groban: …public TV series Great Performances; Closer (2003), which featured more original compositions, as well as performances by such guest artists as classical violinist Joshua Bell; and Awake (2006), which included collaborations with the South African group Ladysmith Black Mambazo and jazz pianist Herbie Hancock. In 2007 Groban’s Noël, a

  • Closer (album by Joy Division)

    Joy Division/New Order: …and the band’s second album, Closer, made the top 10 and top 20, respectively, in the United Kingdom.

  • Closer (film by Nichols [2004])

    Natalie Portman: …the Mike Nichols relationship drama Closer. The latter role earned her a Golden Globe for best supporting actress and an Academy Award nomination in the same category.

  • Closer, The (American television series)

    J.K. Simmons: …in the crime drama series The Closer (2005–12), and he headlined the short-lived sitcom Growing Up Fisher (2014). In Counterpart (2017–19), a sci-fi drama involving parallel worlds, he played both a UN bureaucrat and a deadly spy. He also had recurring roles on such shows as Brockmire and Veronica Mars.…

  • closet (architecture)

    wardrobe: …the architectural structure, often called closets.

  • Closet (sculpture by Whiteread)

    Rachel Whiteread: …Islington, she showed four sculptures: Closet, Mantle, Shallow Breath, and Torso. Each was a plaster cast of some interior space, an effect roughly comparable to the casts made of those who died at Pompeii. Torso embodies the interior of a hot-water bottle; Mantle casts the space directly below and outlined…

  • closet drama (literature)

    Closet drama, a drama suited primarily for reading rather than production. Examples of the genre include John Milton’s Samson Agonistes (1671) and Thomas Hardy’s The Dynasts (three parts, 1903–08). Closet drama is not to be confused with readers’ theatre, in which actors read or recite without

  • Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today’s Students, The (work by Bloom)

    Allan Bloom: …remembered for his provocative best-seller The Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today’s Students (1987). He was also known for his scholarly volumes of interpretive essays and translations of works by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Plato.

  • Closing Time (novel by Heller)

    American literature: Realism and metafiction: A sequel, Closing Time (1994), was an elegy for the World War II generation. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., in Slaughterhouse-Five (1969), described the Allied firebombing of the German city of Dresden with a mixture of dark fantasy and numb, loopy humour. Later this method was applied brilliantly to…

  • closo-borane

    borane: Structure and bonding of boranes: …employs characteristic structural prefixes: (1) closo- (a corruption of “clovo,” from Latin clovis, meaning “cage”), deltahedrons of n boron atoms; (2) nido- (from Latin nidus, meaning “nest”), nonclosed structures in which the Bn cluster occupies n corners of an (n + 1)-cornered polyhedron—i.e., a closo-polyhedron with one missing vertex; (3)…

  • closo-carborane

    carborane: Reactions and synthesis of carboranes: The three isomeric icosahedral closo-carboranes of formula C2B10H12 are unusual both in their ease of preparation and their stability in air. Not only has their chemistry been the most extensively studied of all carboranes, but their discovery ushered in the rapid development of the field. Although their systematic International…

  • Closser, Louise (American actress and author)

    Louise Closser Hale, successful American character actress who was also the author of popular novels. Louise Closser studied at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City and at Emerson College of Oratory in Boston. She made her theatrical debut in 1894 in a Detroit, Michigan,

  • Closterium (genus of green algae)

    desmid: …common desmid genera, the sickle-shaped Closterium, often contains gypsum crystals in cell vacuoles.

  • Closterman, Johann Baptist (German artist)

    John Closterman, portrait painter who painted in Paris, England, and at the Spanish court. Closterman was the son of an artist, who taught him the elements of painting. In 1679 he went to Paris, where he studied under the Rococo painter Jean-Francois de Troy. In 1681 he moved to England, where he

  • Closterman, John (German artist)

    John Closterman, portrait painter who painted in Paris, England, and at the Spanish court. Closterman was the son of an artist, who taught him the elements of painting. In 1679 he went to Paris, where he studied under the Rococo painter Jean-Francois de Troy. In 1681 he moved to England, where he

  • clostridial infection (pathology)

    Clostridial infection, any of several infectious conditions in animals and humans resulting from Clostridium species, bacteria that are found in soil and that enter the body via puncture wounds or contaminated food. These bacteria synthesize and release poisonous substances called exotoxins. There

  • Clostridium (bacteria)

    Clostridium, genus of rod-shaped, usually gram-positive bacteria, members of which are found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals. Most species grow only in the complete absence of oxygen. Dormant cells are highly resistant to heat, desiccation, and toxic chemicals

  • Clostridium botulinum (bacteria)

    botulism: …called botulinum toxin, produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. This poisoning results most frequently from the eating of improperly sterilized home-canned foods containing the toxin. Botulism also may result from wound infection. C. botulinum bacteria—which cannot survive in the presence of oxygen—normally live in the soil, where they form heat-resistant spores…

  • Clostridium butyricum (bacteria)

    Clostridium: A typical species, C. butyricum, ranges from 0.6 micrometre across by 3 to 7 micrometres long. The toxins produced by C. botulinum, the causative agent of botulism, are the most potent poisons known. The toxin of C. tetani causes tetanus when introduced into damaged or dead tissue.

  • Clostridium difficile (bacterium)

    human microbiome: The role of the human microbiota: Clostridium difficile infection serves as a useful example for illustrating the significance of the relationship between the human microbiome and health and disease. C. difficile infection, which is characterized by severe recurrent diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and nausea, occurs most often in persons who receive a…

  • Clostridium novyi (bacteria)

    Clostridium: perfringens, C. novyi, and C. septicum can cause gangrene in humans. Other forms of acute clostridial infection commonly occur in livestock and waterfowl.

  • Clostridium pasteurianum (bacteria)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Winogradsky: In 1893–95 he also discovered Clostridium pasteurianum, an anaerobic bacterium (i.e., able to grow in the absence of oxygen) that is able to utilize free nitrogen from the atmosphere in metabolic processes.

  • Clostridium perfringens (bacteria)

    clostridial infection: Enterotoxins produced by C. perfringens cause several gastrointestinal diseases in sheep, including lamb dysentery, struck, and pulpy kidney. Exotoxins produced by C. perfringens also cause disease in humans, including gas gangrene, enteritis necroticans, and food poisoning. Botulism, a type of poisoning arising from improperly sterilized foods or from…

  • Clostridium septicum (bacteria)

    Clostridium: novyi, and C. septicum can cause gangrene in humans. Other forms of acute clostridial infection commonly occur in livestock and waterfowl.

  • Clostridium tetani (bacteria)

    Clostridium: The toxin of C. tetani causes tetanus when introduced into damaged or dead tissue. C. perfringens, C. novyi, and C. septicum can cause gangrene in humans. Other forms of acute clostridial infection commonly occur in livestock and waterfowl.

  • closure (parliamentary procedure)

    Cloture, in parliamentary procedure, a method for ending debate and securing an immediate vote on a measure that is before a deliberative body, even when some members wish to continue the debate. Provision for invoking cloture was made in the British House of Commons in 1882, with the requirement

  • closure (packaging)

    packaging: Package closures must provide adequate sealing, and they must be sanitary and mechanically safe. Labeling for packages must be easy to print and to affix to the container material.

  • closure (logic)

    formal logic: The lower predicate calculus: …is said to be a closed wff of LPC. If a wff of LPC is considered as a proposition form, instances of it are obtained by replacing all free variables in it by predicates or by names of individuals, as appropriate. A bound variable, on the other hand, indicates not…

  • closure (psychology)

    perception: Gestalt principles: The principle of closure often operates in the service of Prägnanz; for example, a circular figure with small gaps in it will be seen as a complete or closed circle. Similarly, if a portion of the image of a figure falls on the blind spot of the retina,…

  • closure density (cosmology)

    cosmology: Bound and unbound universes and the closure density: …criterion for the critical, or closure, density (in mass equivalent of matter and radiation) that separates closed or bound universes from open or unbound ones. If Hubble’s constant at the present epoch is denoted as H0, then the closure density (corresponding to an Einstein–de Sitter model) equals 3H02/8πG, where G…

  • clot retraction (physiology)

    coagulation: This process, called clot retraction, is the final step in coagulation. It yields a resilient, insoluble clot that can withstand the friction of blood flow.

  • Clotaire I (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar I, Merovingian king of Soissons from 511 and of the whole Frankish kingdom from 558, who played an important part in the extension of Frankish hegemony. The youngest of Clovis I’s sons, Chlotar shared in the partition of his father’s kingdom in 511, receiving the old heartlands of the

  • Clotaire II (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar II, Merovingian king of Neustria and sole ruler of the Franks from 613. An infant when his father, Chilperic I, was assassinated in 584, he was assured the succession by the power of his mother, Fredegund, and by the protection of his uncle, Guntram, king of Burgundy. Fighting off an attack

  • Clotaire III (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar III, Merovingian king of Neustria and Burgundy, who succeeded his father, Clovis II, in 657. After the retirement of his mother, Balthild, to a monastery in 664 or 665, he came—and remained—under the domination of the Neustrian mayor of the palace,

  • Clotaire IV (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar IV, allegedly the Merovingian king of Austrasia, placed on the throne by the mayor of the palace, Charles Martel, in 718/719 in order to check the pretensions of the Neustrian Chilperic II. His exact genealogy is

  • clotbur (plant)

    Cocklebur, weedy annual plant of the genus Xanthium of the family Asteraceae, distributed throughout much of Europe and parts of North America. Some authorities consider that the genus contains about 15 species, others say from 2 to 4. All species have round, short clusters of male flowers, above

  • Clotel (novel by Brown)

    Clotel, novel by William Wells Brown, first published in England in 1853. Brown revised it three times for publication in the United States—serially and in book form—each time changing the plot, the title, and the names of characters. The book was first published in the United States in 1864 as

  • Clotel; or, The President’s Daughter1 (novel by Brown)

    Clotel, novel by William Wells Brown, first published in England in 1853. Brown revised it three times for publication in the United States—serially and in book form—each time changing the plot, the title, and the names of characters. The book was first published in the United States in 1864 as

  • Cloten (fictional character)

    Cymbeline: …must marry his horrid stepson Cloten. When Cymbeline learns that Imogen is secretly married to Posthumus, he banishes Posthumus, who heads for Rome. In a conversation with a villainous Italian, Iachimo, Posthumus finds himself drawn unwisely into betting Iachimo that Imogen’s fidelity to her marriage is unassailable. Journeying to England,…

  • cloth (textiles)

    textile: Production of fabric: Fabric construction involves the conversion of yarns, and sometimes fibres, into a fabric having characteristics determined by the materials and methods employed. Most fabrics are presently produced by some method of interlacing, such as weaving or knitting. Weaving, currently the major method of fabric production,…

  • Cloth of Gold, Field of (British and French history)

    Field of Cloth of Gold, in European history, the meeting place, between Guînes and Ardres near Calais in France, where Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France and their entourages gathered between June 7 and 24, 1520. The castles at both villages were in decay, and therefore splendid

  • Cloth of Saint Gereon (tapestry)

    tapestry: Early Middle Ages in western Europe: The Cloth of Saint Gereon is thematically ornamental, but an early series of three tapestries woven in the Rhineland for the Halberstadt Cathedral were narrative. Dating from the late 12th and early 13th centuries, these wool and linen hangings are highly stylized and schematic in their…

  • clothes (clothing)

    Dress, clothing and accessories for the human body. The variety of dress is immense. The style that a particular individual selects is often linked to that person’s sex, age, socioeconomic status, culture, geographic area, and historical era. This article considers the chronological development of

  • clothes dryer (laundry equipment)

    home appliance: Appliances for cleaning.: …automatic electric or gas clothes dryers (sometimes incorporated in a combination machine with an automatic washer) that were programmable by push button to supply either heat alone or hot or cold circulating air for a predetermined period or until the laundry inside was dry. Electric mangles and other ironing machines…

  • Clothes Make the Man (film by Käutner)

    Helmut Käutner: …as Kleider machen Leute (1940; “Clothes Make the Man”), the tale of a humble tailor mistaken for a Russian prince, and Auf Wiedersehen, Franziska! (1941; “Goodbye, Franziska!”), which concerns the marital troubles between a reporter and his neglected wife. When the authorities forced Käutner to add an illogical upbeat ending…

  • clothes moth

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: …feeding on debris and fungi; clothes moths (Tineola, Tinea, Trichophaga) often serious household pests; related family: Acrolophidae (burrowing sod webworms). Family Psychidae (bagworms) Almost 1,000 species worldwide; larvae live and pupate in often elaborate cases; adult males with broad, thin scaled wings; females wingless,

  • clothespin (fastening device)

    Shaker: …circular saw, and the common clothespin. They were the first to package and market seeds and were once the largest producers of medicinal herbs in the United States.

  • clothing (clothing)

    Dress, clothing and accessories for the human body. The variety of dress is immense. The style that a particular individual selects is often linked to that person’s sex, age, socioeconomic status, culture, geographic area, and historical era. This article considers the chronological development of

  • clothing and footwear industry

    Clothing and footwear industry, factories and mills producing outerwear, underwear, headwear, footwear, belts, purses, luggage, gloves, scarfs, ties, and household soft goods such as drapes, linens, and slipcovers. The same raw materials and equipment are used to fashion these different end

  • clothing industry

    Clothing and footwear industry, factories and mills producing outerwear, underwear, headwear, footwear, belts, purses, luggage, gloves, scarfs, ties, and household soft goods such as drapes, linens, and slipcovers. The same raw materials and equipment are used to fashion these different end

  • Clotho (Greek mythology)

    Fate: Their names were Clotho (Spinner), Lachesis (Allotter), and Atropos (Inflexible). Clotho spun the “thread” of human fate, Lachesis dispensed it, and Atropos cut the thread (thus determining the individual’s moment of death). The Romans identified the Parcae, originally personifications of childbirth, with the three Greek Fates. The Roman…

  • Clotilda (Frankish princess)

    Amalaric: He married Clotilda, daughter of Clovis, but his disputes with her, he being an Arian and she a Catholic, brought on a Frankish invasion, in which he lost his life.

  • Clotilda, Saint (queen of the Franks)

    Saint Clotilda, ; feast day June 3), queen consort of Clovis I, king of the Franks, in whose momentous conversion to Christianity she played a notable part. Clotilda was the granddaughter of Gundioc, king of Burgundy, who was related to the Visigothic kings and shared their Arian Christian faith.

  • Clotilde, Saint (queen of the Franks)

    Saint Clotilda, ; feast day June 3), queen consort of Clovis I, king of the Franks, in whose momentous conversion to Christianity she played a notable part. Clotilda was the granddaughter of Gundioc, king of Burgundy, who was related to the Visigothic kings and shared their Arian Christian faith.

  • Clottes, Jean (French archaeologist)

    Chauvet–Pont d'Arc: Discovery of the site: …Ministry of Culture, French archaeologist Jean Clottes visited the cave and applied his scientific expertise to assess the nature and quality of the discovery. The following February he took tiny samples of charcoal from the ground, from torch marks on the walls, and from a few drawings in order to…

  • Clottey, Joshua (Ghanaian boxer)

    Manny Pacquiao: …Texas, by defeating Ghanaian boxer Joshua Clottey in 12 rounds. He increased his weight-class titles record to eight when, on November 13, 2010, he soundly defeated WBC super welterweight champion Antonio Margarito, who outweighed Pacquiao by 17 pounds at the time of the fight.

  • clotting (of blood)

    Coagulation, in physiology, the process by which a blood clot is formed. The formation of a clot is often referred to as secondary hemostasis, because it forms the second stage in the process of arresting the loss of blood from a ruptured vessel. The first stage, primary hemostasis, is

  • clotting factor IX (biochemistry)

    vitamin K: IX, and X. A form of vitamin K known as phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is synthesized by plants. A second form of vitamin K known as menaquinone (vitamin K2) is synthesized by bacteria, including bacteria in the intestines of mammals. These bacteria produce the majority of…

  • clotting factor VII (biochemistry)

    vitamin K: including prothrombin and factors VII, IX, and X. A form of vitamin K known as phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is synthesized by plants. A second form of vitamin K known as menaquinone (vitamin K2) is synthesized by bacteria, including bacteria in the intestines of mammals. These bacteria produce the majority…

  • clotting factor VIII (biochemistry)

    human genetic disease: Sex-linked inheritance: …mutation in the gene encoding clotting factor VIII. Because of this mutation, affected males cannot produce functional factor VIII, so that their blood fails to clot properly, leading to significant and potentially life-threatening loss of blood after even minor injuries. Bleeding into joints commonly occurs as well and may be…

  • clotting factor X (biochemistry)

    vitamin K: and factors VII, IX, and X. A form of vitamin K known as phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is synthesized by plants. A second form of vitamin K known as menaquinone (vitamin K2) is synthesized by bacteria, including bacteria in the intestines of mammals. These bacteria produce the majority of vitamin K…

  • cloture (parliamentary procedure)

    Cloture, in parliamentary procedure, a method for ending debate and securing an immediate vote on a measure that is before a deliberative body, even when some members wish to continue the debate. Provision for invoking cloture was made in the British House of Commons in 1882, with the requirement

  • cloud (architecture)

    acoustics: Acoustic problems: Large reflectors called clouds, suspended over the performers, can be of such a size as to reflect certain frequency regions while allowing others to pass, thus affecting the mixture of the sound.

  • Cloud (work by Tawney)

    Lenore Tawney: …example of her work is Cloud. It was created for the Federal Building in Santa Rosa, Calif., where its 16-foot (5-metre) blue linen strands seem to drop like threads of rain over the immense lobby. In 1965 Tawney began to make assemblages, and she also produced highly refined multimedia collages.

  • cloud (meteorology)

    Cloud, any visible mass of water droplets, ice crystals, or a mixture of both that is suspended in the air, usually at a considerable height (see video). Fog is a shallow layer of cloud at or near ground level. Clouds are formed when relatively moist air rises. As a mass of air ascends, the lower

  • Cloud 9 (play by Churchill)

    Caryl Churchill: Cloud 9 (1979), a farce about sexual politics, was successful in the United States as well as in Britain, winning an Obie Award in 1982 for playwriting. The next year she won another Obie with Top Girls (1982), which deals with women’s losing their humanity…

  • Cloud Atlas (work by Mitchell)

    Cloud Atlas, novel by David Mitchell, published in 2004. Cloud Atlas is a glittering compendium of interlacing parables. Divided into six different accounts spanning several centuries, Mitchell ranges from the journal of a 19th-century American notary to the post-apocalyptic memoir of a herdsman,

  • Cloud Atlas (film by Tykwer, Wachowski, and Wachowski [2012])

    Halle Berry: In the elaborately structured epic Cloud Atlas (2012), she performed multiple roles, including a 1970s journalist and a futuristic island tribeswoman. Berry later starred in the thrillers The Call (2013) and Kidnap (2017), portraying an emergency call-centre operator attempting to thwart a serial killer and a mother whose son is…

  • cloud band (motif)

    rug and carpet: Individual motifs: …are the cloud knot and cloud band, or ribbon—both in use by the Han period at least and with a continuous history thereafter. The cloud knot, a feature of the Persian court carpets of the time of Shāh ʿAbbās, was continued to the end of the 18th century. The cloud…

  • cloud brightening (geoengineering)

    Cloud whitening, untested geoengineering technique designed to increase the reflectance of Earth’s cloud cover to reduce the amount of incoming solar radiation striking Earth’s surface. This technique would rely upon towering spraying devices placed on land and mounted on oceangoing vessels. These

  • cloud chamber (instrument)

    Cloud chamber, radiation detector, originally developed between 1896 and 1912 by the Scottish physicist C.T.R. Wilson, that has as the detecting medium a supersaturated vapour that condenses to tiny liquid droplets around ions produced by the passage of energetic charged particles, such as alpha

  • cloud computing (computer science)

    Cloud computing, method of running application software and storing related data in central computer systems and providing customers or other users access to them through the Internet. The origin of the expression cloud computing is obscure, but it appears to derive from the practice of using

  • cloud condensation nuclei (meteorology)

    atmosphere: Condensation: The concentration of cloud condensation nuclei in the lower troposphere at a supersaturation of 1 percent ranges from around 100 per cubic centimetre (approximately 1,600 per cubic inch) in size in oceanic air to 500 per cubic centimetre (8,000 per cubic inch) in the atmosphere over a continent.…

  • cloud forest (ecology)

    Cloud forest, vegetation of tropical mountainous regions in which the rainfall is often heavy and persistent condensation occurs because of cooling of moisture-laden air currents deflected upward by the mountains. The trees in a cloud forest are typically short and crooked. Mosses, climbing ferns,

  • Cloud Forest: A Chronicle of the South American Wilderness, The (work by Matthiessen)

    Peter Matthiessen: …of wildlife in North America; The Cloud Forest: A Chronicle of the South American Wilderness (1961); and Under the Mountain Wall: A Chronicle of Two Seasons in the Stone Age (1962), about his experiences as a member of a scientific expedition to New Guinea. Blue Meridian: The Search for the…

  • cloud formation (meteorology)

    atmosphere: Cloud formation within the troposphere: The region above the planetary boundary layer is commonly known as the free atmosphere. Winds at this volume are not directly retarded by surface friction. Clouds occur most frequently in this portion of the troposphere, though fog and clouds that…

  • Cloud Gate (sculpture by Kapoor)

    Anish Kapoor: In 2004 Kapoor unveiled Cloud Gate in Chicago’s Millennium Park; the 110-ton elliptical archway of highly polished stainless steel—nicknamed “The Bean”—was his first permanent site-specific installation in the United States. For just over a month in 2006, Kapoor’s Sky Mirror, a concave stainless-steel mirror 35 feet (11 metres) in…

  • Cloud Howe (work by Gibbon)

    Lewis Grassic Gibbon: …published under the collective title A Scots Quair (1946) made him a significant figure in the 20th-century Scottish Renaissance.

  • cloud knot (decorative arts)

    rug and carpet: Individual motifs: …traceable to China are the cloud knot and cloud band, or ribbon—both in use by the Han period at least and with a continuous history thereafter. The cloud knot, a feature of the Persian court carpets of the time of Shāh ʿAbbās, was continued to the end of the 18th…

  • Cloud Nine (album by Harrison)

    George Harrison: …Mind Set on You”, on Cloud Nine (1987). In 1971 Harrison staged two concerts to raise money to fight starvation in Bangladesh, which later became the prototype for star-studded fund-raising events. In 1979 he ventured into film production as a founder of Handmade Films. Among the company’s efforts were the…

  • Cloud of Unknowing, The (English text)

    Christianity: Western Catholic Christianity: …Perfection; the anonymous author of The Cloud of Unknowing; and his contemporary, the visionary recluse Julian of Norwich, whose Revelations of Divine Love is unsurpassed in English mystical literature. Julian’s meditations on the inner meaning of her revelations of the crucified Christ express the mystical solidarity of all humanity in…

  • Cloud Peak (mountain, Wyoming)

    Bighorn Mountains: …and the highest point is Cloud Peak (13,165 feet [4,013 metres]) in Wyoming. In addition to the unique geologic formations, the scenic beauty of the mountain slopes is enhanced by the pine, fir, and spruce of the Bighorn National Forest. Hunting, camping, and fishing are popular in the area. The…

  • cloud physics (meteorology)

    Earth sciences: Cloud physics: Studies of cloud physics have shown that the nuclei around which water condenses vary widely in their degree of concentration and areal distribution, ranging from six per cubic centimetre over the oceans to more than 4 million per cubic centimetre in the polluted…

  • cloud rat (rodent)

    Cloud rat, any of six species of slow-moving, nocturnal, tree-dwelling rodents found only in Philippine forests. Giant cloud rats belong to the genus Phloeomys (two species), whereas bushy-tailed cloud rats are classified in the genus Crateromys (four species). Also called slender-tailed cloud

  • cloud ribbon (motif)

    rug and carpet: Individual motifs: …are the cloud knot and cloud band, or ribbon—both in use by the Han period at least and with a continuous history thereafter. The cloud knot, a feature of the Persian court carpets of the time of Shāh ʿAbbās, was continued to the end of the 18th century. The cloud…

  • cloud seeding (atmospheric science)

    Cloud seeding, deliberate introduction into clouds of various substances that act as condensation nuclei or ice nuclei in an attempt to induce precipitation. Although the practice has many advocates, including national, state, and provincial government officials, some meteorologists and atmospheric

  • cloud whitening (geoengineering)

    Cloud whitening, untested geoengineering technique designed to increase the reflectance of Earth’s cloud cover to reduce the amount of incoming solar radiation striking Earth’s surface. This technique would rely upon towering spraying devices placed on land and mounted on oceangoing vessels. These

  • Cloud, Preston (American paleontologist)

    geologic history of Earth: Formation of the secondary atmosphere: …formulated by the American paleontologist Preston Cloud has been widely accepted as an answer to this question. The earliest primitive organisms produced free oxygen as a by-product, and in the absence of oxygen-mediating enzymes it was harmful to their living cells and had to be removed. Fortunately for the development…

  • Cloud, The (poem by Shelley)

    internal rhyme: …of Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “The Cloud”:

  • cloud-and-thunder fret (decorative arts)

    pottery: China: The leiwen, however, which resembles the Greek key fret (an ornament consisting of small, straight bars intersecting one another in right angles) and is sometimes used on the later ceramic wares, appears on bronzes as early as the Shang and Zhou dynasties, where it is called…

  • cloud-scraper (bird)

    Cloud-scraper, any of certain birds of the genus Cisticola. See

  • cloudberry (plant)

    Cloudberry, (Rubus chamaemorus), creeping herbaceous plant in the rose family (Rosaceae), native to the Arctic and subarctic regions of the north temperate zone, and its edible raspberry-like fruit. Eskimos and Sami collect the sweet juicy fruits in autumn to freeze for winter food. In markets of

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