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  • Clinidae (fish family)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Clinidae (clinids) Eocene to present. Percoidlike fishes, some moderately elongated, rather flat-sided, usually with somewhat pointed snouts and fleshy lips; dorsal and anal fins rather high and long-based, with fin membranes conspicuously supported by thin, riblike fin rays; caudal fin fanlike, not large; pelvic fins ahead…

  • clinker (lava fragments)

    lava: …very irregular fragments commonly called clinkers. Aa lava flows are fed principally by rivers of liquid lava flowing in open channels. Typically, such a feeding river forms a narrow band that is 8 to 15 metres (25 to 50 feet) wide along the centre line of the flow, with broad…

  • clinker construction (naval architecture)

    Clinker construction, method of shipbuilding characteristic in north European waters during ancient and medieval times, in which the planks were overlapped and, in earlier times, usually joined by sewing. The earliest-known specimen, found in Als, Denmark, dates from about ad 300. The Viking ships

  • Clinker, Humphry (fictional character)

    Humphry Clinker, fictional character, a poor, naive young man encountered by Matthew Bramble in the epistolary novel The Expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771) by Tobias

  • clinochlore (mineral)

    chlorite: The accepted names are: clinochlore (Mg-rich chlorite), chamosite (Fe-rich), nimite (Ni-rich), and pennantite (Mn-rich). Adjectival modifiers are used to indicate compositional variations. Cookeite (with lithium substituted for aluminum) is also a member of the chlorite group.

  • clinoenstatite (mineral)

    enstatite: …right angles to each other); clinoenstatite crystallizes in the monoclinic (three unequal axes with one oblique intersection). Clinoenstatite forms a series with clinoferrosilite that is analogous to the enstatite–ferrosilite series.

  • clinograde

    lake: Lake extinction: …the vertical distribution is called clinograde.

  • clinoptilolite (mineral)

    Clinoptilolite, hydrated alkali aluminosilicate that is one of the most abundant minerals in the zeolite family. Its structure consists of an outer framework of silica and alumina tetrahedra, within which water molecules and exchangeable cations (e.g., calcium, potassium, sodium) migrate freely.

  • clinopyroxene (mineral)

    pyroxene: Crystal structure: …and monoclinic pyroxenes are called clinopyroxenes. The essential feature of all pyroxene structures is the linkage of the silicon-oxygen (SiO4) tetrahedrons by sharing two of the four corners to form continuous chains. The chains, which extend indefinitely parallel to the ccrystallographic axis, have the composition of (SiO3)n(Figure 1). A repeat…

  • clinostat (scientific instrument)

    Julius von Sachs: …this study he invented the clinostat, which measures the effects of such external agents as light and gravity on the movement of growing plants.

  • Clinostomus (fish)

    dace: …redside and rosyside daces (Clinostomus), which are black-banded fishes about 12 cm (4 34 inches) long found in the eastern and central United States; and several species of the genus Rhinichthys, among them the black-nosed dace (R. atratulus), a fine-scaled, black-banded, 7.5-centimetre-long fish found from New England to Minnesota,…

  • clinozoisite (mineral)

    zoisite: …the same chemical formula as clinozoisite but has a different crystal structure. All varieties of zoisite have an orthorhombic crystalline structure, which is characterized by three mutually perpendicular axes that are unequal in length. For detailed physical properties, see silicate mineral (table).

  • Clinton (Massachusetts, United States)

    Clinton, town (township), Worcester county, central Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along the south branch of the Nashua River, just north of Wachusett Reservoir, 13 miles (21 km) north of Worcester. Settled in 1654 as part of Lancaster, it was separately incorporated in 1850 and named for the

  • Clinton (California, United States)

    Oakland: History: …town of Clinton (later named Brooklyn). In 1851 Horace W. Carpentier started a trans-bay ferry service to San Francisco and acquired a town site (1852) to the west of Brooklyn, naming it Oakland for the oak trees on the grassy plain. Carpentier and his associates extended the area and incorporated…

  • Clinton (New York, United States)

    Clinton, village in the town (township) of Kirkland, Oneida county, central New York, U.S. Clinton lies along Oriskany Creek, just southwest of Utica. It was settled in 1786 and named for George Clinton, then governor of New York. Samuel Kirkland founded Hamilton-Oneida Academy there in 1793 as a

  • Clinton (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Clinton, county, north-central Pennsylvania, U.S., located on the Allegheny Plateau. It is drained mainly by the West Branch Susquehanna River, which winds in a deep valley through the centre of the county, and Sinnemahoning, Kettle, Beech, Bald Eagle, Fishing, and Pine creeks. Recreation areas

  • Clinton (county, New York, United States)

    Clinton, county, extreme northeastern New York state, U.S., bordered by Quebec, Canada, to the north, Vermont to the east (Lake Champlain constituting the boundary), and the Ausable River to the southeast. The terrain rises from lowlands in the northeast to the Adirondack Mountains in the

  • Clinton (Oklahoma, United States)

    Clinton, city, Custer county, west-central Oklahoma, U.S., on the Washita River. It was founded in 1903 at Washita Junction after a protracted dispute over the right to purchase Indian land and was named for Judge Clinton Irwin, who had been instrumental in the city’s founding. A processing and

  • Clinton (Iowa, United States)

    Clinton, city, seat (1869) of Clinton county, eastern Iowa, U.S. It lies along the Mississippi River (there bridged to Fulton and East Clinton, Illinois), about 40 miles (65 km) north-northeast of Davenport. The original settler, Joseph M. Bartlett, operated a trading store for Native Americans in

  • Clinton Engineer Works (Tennessee, United States)

    Oak Ridge, city, Anderson and Roane counties, eastern Tennessee, U.S. It lies in a valley between the Cumberland and Great Smoky mountains, about 20 miles (30 km) west of Knoxville, and is a part of that city’s metropolitan area. A tract of land covering about 94 square miles (243 square km) was

  • Clinton Group (geological region, United States)

    Silurian Period: Clastic wedges: Collectively attributed to the Clinton Group, a variety of Upper Llandovery rocks with high iron content subsequently were deposited from New York to Alabama. These strata often contain marine fossils, but their iron was derived from Taconica. Tiny pellets, or oolites (rock composed of small calcium grains), coated with…

  • Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (New Mexico, United States)

    linear accelerator: …proton linac is at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility in Los Alamos, N.M., U.S.; it is 875 m (2,870 feet) long and accelerates protons to 800 million electron volts (800 megaelectron volts). For much of its length, this machine utilizes a structural variation, known as the side-coupled cavity…

  • Clinton Pharmaceutical Company (American company)

    Bristol-Myers Squibb Company: The original firm, Clinton Pharmaceutical Co., was founded in Clinton, N.Y., in 1887 by William McLaren Bristol, Sr., and John R. Myers. It was incorporated as Bristol-Myers Company in 1900 and by then had moved from Clinton to Syracuse and then to Brooklyn. The company first made drugs…

  • Clinton, Bill (president of United States)

    Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), who oversaw the country’s longest peacetime economic expansion. In 1998 he became the second U.S. president to be impeached; he was acquitted by the Senate in 1999. Bill Clinton’s father was a traveling salesman who died in an

  • Clinton, Chelsea (daughter of President Clinton)

    Hillary Clinton: Secretary of state and 2016 presidential candidate: …she wrote (with her daughter, Chelsea) The Book of Gutsy Women: Favorite Stories of Courage and Resilience. The four-part documentary Hillary (2020) chronicles Clinton’s life and career.

  • Clinton, DeWitt (American politician)

    DeWitt Clinton, American political leader who promulgated the idea of the Erie Canal, which connects the Hudson River to the Great Lakes. DeWitt Clinton was the nephew of Governor George Clinton of New York. A Republican (Jeffersonian) attorney, he served as state senator (1798–1802, 1806–11), U.S.

  • Clinton, George (vice president of United States)

    George Clinton, fourth vice president of the United States (1805–12) in the administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Clinton was the son of Charles Clinton, a farmer and surveyor, and Elizabeth Denniston. He served in the last French and Indian War (1756–63) and was a member of the

  • Clinton, George (American musician)

    Parliament-Funkadelic: …name of its founding father, Clinton.

  • Clinton, Hillary (United States senator, first lady, and secretary of state)

    Hillary Clinton, American lawyer and politician who served as a U.S. senator (2001–09) and secretary of state (2009–13) in the administration of Pres. Barack Obama. She had served as first lady (1993–2001) during the administration of her husband, Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States.

  • Clinton, Hillary Rodham (United States senator, first lady, and secretary of state)

    Hillary Clinton, American lawyer and politician who served as a U.S. senator (2001–09) and secretary of state (2009–13) in the administration of Pres. Barack Obama. She had served as first lady (1993–2001) during the administration of her husband, Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States.

  • Clinton, Sir Henry (British military officer)

    Sir Henry Clinton, British commander in chief in America during the Revolutionary War. The son of George Clinton, a naval officer and administrator, Henry joined the New York militia in 1745 as a lieutenant. He went to London in 1749 and was commissioned in the British army in 1751. He was wounded

  • Clinton, William J. (president of United States)

    Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), who oversaw the country’s longest peacetime economic expansion. In 1998 he became the second U.S. president to be impeached; he was acquitted by the Senate in 1999. Bill Clinton’s father was a traveling salesman who died in an

  • Clinton, William Jefferson (president of United States)

    Bill Clinton, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), who oversaw the country’s longest peacetime economic expansion. In 1998 he became the second U.S. president to be impeached; he was acquitted by the Senate in 1999. Bill Clinton’s father was a traveling salesman who died in an

  • Clinton-type iron deposit

    mineral deposit: Iron deposits: …and chamosite and are called Clinton-type deposits. The geologic setting of Clinton-type deposits is very similar to Minette types, the most obvious difference being the presence of goethite in the Minettes and hematite in the Clintons. Clinton-type deposits are found in the Appalachians from Newfoundland to Alabama, and they are…

  • clintonite (mineral)

    Clintonite, mica mineral, a basic aluminosilicate of calcium, magnesium, and iron. It occurs in chlorite schist (with talc) and in altered limestones. Clintonite is the primary member of a group of micas (also including margarite) in which calcium substitutes for potassium and the silicon content i

  • Clio (Greek Muse)

    Clio, in Greek mythology, one of the nine Muses, patron of history. Traditionally Clio, after reprimanding the goddess Aphrodite for her passionate love for Adonis, was punished by Aphrodite, who made her fall in love with Pierus, king of Macedonia. From that union, in some accounts, was born

  • Clio, The (novel by Myers)

    L.H. Myers: His next novel, The Clio (1925), reflected the then-fashionable ideas of Aldous Huxley. His major work, an Indian tetralogy set in the late 16th century at the time of Akbar the Great, consists of The Near and the Far (1929), Prince Jali (1931), The Root and the Flower…

  • cliometrics (economic analysis)

    Cliometrics, Application of economic theory and statistical analysis to the study of history, developed by Robert W. Fogel (b. 1926) and Douglass C. North (b. 1920), who were awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1993 for their work. In Time on the Cross (1974), Fogel used statistical analysis

  • Cliona sulphurea (sponge)

    clionid: Cliona sulphurea, common in coastal waters from New England to South Carolina, is bright yellow and lives on the shells of both dead and living mollusks.

  • clionasterol (biochemistry)

    sponge: Biochemical aspects: , clionasterol, poriferasterol) are found only in sponges; others (e.g., cholesterol) are common in other animals. Numerous carotenoid pigments occur in sponges, and melanin, chlorophyll, and phycoerythrin derived from algal symbionts and from the diet also occur. Sponges accumulate silicon, calcium, and considerable quantities of metals.…

  • clionid (sponge)

    Clionid, any member of the sponge family Clionidae (class Demospongiae, phylum Porifera), noted for its ability to dissolve and bore into calcium-containing substances, such as limestone, coral, and mollusk shells. Clionid sponges occur in all oceans. The microscopic clionid larva attaches itself

  • Clionidae (sponge)

    Clionid, any member of the sponge family Clionidae (class Demospongiae, phylum Porifera), noted for its ability to dissolve and bore into calcium-containing substances, such as limestone, coral, and mollusk shells. Clionid sponges occur in all oceans. The microscopic clionid larva attaches itself

  • clip (small arms)

    small arm: Magazine repeaters: …by a device called a clip, a light metal openwork box that held five cartridges and fed them up into the chamber through the action of a spring as each spent case was ejected. Other magazine rifles, such as the Mauser, used a different loading device, called a charger. This…

  • Clip of Steel, A (work by Blackburn)

    Thomas Blackburn: In his autobiographical novel, A Clip of Steel (1969), he depicts a childhood tormented by a tense and repressive father, his own breakdown in his early twenties, and his successful psychoanalysis. Blackburn’s first notable volume of verse was The Holy Stone (1954). His later volumes include A Smell of…

  • clipper (aircraft)

    airport: Evolution of airports: …the large seaplanes known as flying boats or clippers. These aircraft, though slow and of limited range, offered a level of comfort that was necessary for long-distance travel. Air terminal facilities were necessarily constructed close to large open stretches of water. La Guardia Airport and Santos Dumont Airport in Rio…

  • clipper ship (sailing vessel)

    Clipper ship, classic sailing ship of the 19th century, renowned for its beauty, grace, and speed. Apparently starting from the small, swift coastal packet known as the Baltimore clipper, the true clipper evolved first in American and later in British yards. In its ultimate form it was a long,

  • Clipperton Fracture Zone (geological feature, Pacific Ocean)

    Clipperton Fracture Zone, submarine fracture zone, 4,500 miles (7,240 km) in length, defined by one of the major transform faults dissecting the northern part of the East Pacific Rise in the floor of the Pacific Ocean. Discovered and delineated by expeditions of the Scripps Institution of

  • Clipperton Island (island, Pacific Ocean)

    Clipperton Island, uninhabited French island in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 1,800 miles (2,900 km) west of Panama and 1,300 miles (2,090 km) southwest of Mexico. It is a roughly circular coral atoll (2 square miles [5 square km]), barely 10 feet (3 m) high in most places but with a promontory 70

  • Clisson, Olivier de (French military commander)

    Olivier de Clisson, military commander who served England, France, and Brittany during the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453) and ultimately did much to keep Brittany within the French sphere of influence. Brought up in England, Clisson fought on the English side for the Breton duke John IV (or V; John

  • Clisthenes of Athens (Greek statesman)

    Cleisthenes of Athens, statesman regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy, serving as chief archon (highest magistrate) of Athens (525–524). Cleisthenes successfully allied himself with the popular Assembly against the nobles (508) and imposed democratic reform. Perhaps his most important

  • Clisthenes of Sicyon (tyrant of Sicyon)

    Cleisthenes Of Sicyon, tyrant of the ancient Greek city of Sicyon. He belonged to the non-Dorian family of Orthagoras, who had established the tyranny in Sicyon with the support of the Ionian section of the inhabitants. Cleisthenes emphasized the destruction of Dorian predominance by giving

  • clitellum (anatomy)

    animal reproductive system: Annelids and mollusks: Sexually mature oligochaetes have a clitellum, which is a modification of a section of the body wall consisting of a glandular, saddlelike thickening near the gonopores. During copulation, the clitellum secretes a mucus that keeps the worms paired while sperm are being exchanged. Following copulation, the clitellum secretes substance for…

  • Clitherow, Saint Margaret (English martyr)

    Saint Margaret Clitherow, ; canonized 1970; feast day March 25), one of the 40 British martyrs who were executed for harbouring priests during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. She married (1571) a widower, John Clitherow, a butcher twice her age. Brought up in a Protestant England, she

  • clitic (grammar)

    Dravidian languages: Particles, adjectives, and onomatopoeia: ’ Two clitics can be reconstructed for Proto-Dravidian—namely, interrogative *-ā and emphatic *-ē. Each language and subgroup has evolved many clitics or particles, mostly representing contraction of certain finite verbs.

  • Clitocybe (fungus)

    Agaricales: Other families and genera: Omphalotus contains several species capable of bioluminescence, including the poisonous jack-o-lantern (O. illudens). This orange-yellow fungus of woods and stumps resembles the unrelated, edible chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius; order Cantharellales); the similarity emphasizes the need for careful identification by the mushroom gatherer. The small

  • Clitocybe illudens (fungus)

    bioluminescence: The range and variety of bioluminescent organisms: …lampas) of Australia and the jack-o’-lantern (O. olearius, also known as Clitocybe illudens) of the United States, which reach approximately 13 cm (about 5 inches) in diameter.

  • Clitomachus (Greek philosopher)

    Cleitomachus, Greek philosopher, originally from Carthage, who was head of the New Academy of Athens from 127/126 bc. He characterized the wise man as one who suspends judgment about the objectivity of man’s knowledge. He was the pupil and literary exponent of Carneades and asserted, against other

  • clitoridectomy (ritual surgical procedure)

    female genital cutting: The procedure: …defined four categories of FGC:

  • clitoris (anatomy)

    Clitoris, female erogenous organ capable of erection under sexual stimulation. A female homologue of the male penis, the clitoris develops (as does the penis) from the genital tubercle of the fetus, and it plays an important role in female sexual response. The body of the clitoris is suspended from

  • Clitumnus River (river, Italy)

    Clitunno River, river in Umbria regione, central Italy, rising from an abundant spring between Spoleto and Trevi and flowing 37 miles (60 km) northwest to join the Timia, a tributary of the Tiber (Tevere) River. The spring was described by the Roman writers Virgil and Pliny the Younger and was v

  • Clitunno River (river, Italy)

    Clitunno River, river in Umbria regione, central Italy, rising from an abundant spring between Spoleto and Trevi and flowing 37 miles (60 km) northwest to join the Timia, a tributary of the Tiber (Tevere) River. The spring was described by the Roman writers Virgil and Pliny the Younger and was v

  • Clive, Colin (British actor)

    Bride of Frankenstein: Henry Frankenstein (Colin Clive). Initially refusing to help, Frankenstein relents after Pretorius has the monster kidnap Frankenstein’s wife, Elizabeth (Valerie Hobson). However, once the two scientists have animated their new creation (Elsa Lanchester), a grotesque beauty with a frizzled shock of hair, even she rejects the monster…

  • Clive, Kitty (English actress)

    Kitty Clive, one of David Garrick’s leading ladies, the outstanding comedic actress of her day in England. About 1728 Clive began to play at Drury Lane Theatre under the actor and dramatist Colley Cibber, and she soon became a favourite. She married George Clive, a barrister, but they separated by

  • Clive, Robert (British colonial administrator)

    Robert Clive, soldier and first British administrator of Bengal, who was one of the creators of British power in India. In his first governorship (1755–60) he won the Battle of Plassey and became master of Bengal. In his second governorship (1764–67) he reorganized the British colony. Young Clive

  • Clive, Robert, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (British colonial administrator)

    Robert Clive, soldier and first British administrator of Bengal, who was one of the creators of British power in India. In his first governorship (1755–60) he won the Battle of Plassey and became master of Bengal. In his second governorship (1764–67) he reorganized the British colony. Young Clive

  • Cliveden set (British organization)

    Nancy Witcher Astor, Viscountess Astor: …group were called the “Cliveden set.”

  • Clivia miniata (plant)

    Amaryllidaceae: Natal lily, or Kaffir lily (Clivia miniata), a South African perennial, is cultivated as a houseplant for its orange flowers lined with yellow.

  • Clivus Capitolinus (street, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The Capitoline: The antique pavings of the Clivus Capitolinus, the road leading up the hill from the Forum, survive today. In this centre of divine guidance, the Roman Senate held its first meeting every year. Centuries later, in 1341, the Italian poet Petrarch was crowned with laurel among the ruins of this…

  • CLL (pathology)

    blood disease: Leukemia: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) occurs most often in people over age 50 and worsens gradually over time. It is mainly characterized by an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood and bone marrow, often accompanied by more or less generalized enlargement of lymph…

  • CLN (Italian political organization)

    Italy: The partisans and the Resistance: …normally worked together in local Committees of National Liberation (CLNs), which coordinated strategy, cooperated with the Allies, administered liberated areas, and appointed new officials. Above all, they organized the uprisings in the northern and central cities, including Milan in April 1945, which fell to the partisans before Allied troops arrived.…

  • cloaca (anatomy)

    Cloaca, (Latin: “sewer”), in vertebrates, common chamber and outlet into which the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts open. It is present in amphibians, reptiles, birds, elasmobranch fishes (such as sharks), and monotremes. A cloaca is not present in placental mammals or in most bony fishes.

  • Cloaca Maxima (ancient structure, Rome, Italy)

    Cloaca Maxima, ancient Roman sewer, one of the oldest monuments in the Roman Forum. Originally an open channel constructed in the 6th century bc by lining an existing stream bed with stone, it was enclosed, beginning in the 3rd century bc, with a stone barrel (semicircular) vault. Its primary

  • cloak and dagger theatre (Spanish literature)

    Cloak and sword drama, 17th-century Spanish plays of upper middle class manners and intrigue. The name derives from the cloak and sword that were part of the typical street dress of students, soldiers, and cavaliers, the favourite heroes. The type was anticipated by the plays of Bartolomé de Torres

  • cloak and sword drama (Spanish literature)

    Cloak and sword drama, 17th-century Spanish plays of upper middle class manners and intrigue. The name derives from the cloak and sword that were part of the typical street dress of students, soldiers, and cavaliers, the favourite heroes. The type was anticipated by the plays of Bartolomé de Torres

  • Cloak, The (opera by Puccini)

    Giacomo Puccini: Mature work and fame: …operas—the melodramatic Il tabarro (The Cloak), the sentimental Suor Angelica, and the comic Gianni Schicchi. His last opera, based on the fable of Turandot as told in the play Turandot by the 18th-century Italian dramatist Carlo Gozzi, is the only Italian opera in the Impressionistic style. Puccini did not…

  • cloaked knotty-horn beetle (insect)

    long-horned beetle: …lepturids (subfamily Lepturinae) include the elderberry longhorn (Desmocerus palliatus), also called the cloaked knotty-horn beetle because it looks as if it has a yellow cloak on its shoulders and has knotted antennae. It feeds on leaves and flowers of the elderberry bush, and its larvae bore into the pithy stems.

  • Clochán an Aifir (geological formation, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Giant’s Causeway, promontory of basalt columns along 4 miles (6 km) of the northern coast of Northern Ireland. It lies on the edge of the Antrim plateau between Causeway Head and Benbane Head, some 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Londonderry. There are approximately 40,000 of these stone pillars,

  • cloche (horticulture)

    horticulture: Temperature control: …past small glass sash called cloches were placed over rows to help keep them warm. Polyethylene tunnels supported by wire hoops that span the plants are now used for the same purpose. As spring advances the tunnels are slashed to prevent excessive heat buildup. In some cases the plastic tunnels…

  • cloche (musical instrument)

    Bell, hollow vessel usually of metal, but sometimes of horn, wood, glass, or clay, struck near the rim by an interior clapper or exterior hammer or mallet to produce a ringing sound. Bells may be categorized as idiophones, instruments sounding by the vibration of resonant solid material, and more

  • Cloche, Maurice (French director, producer, and writer)
  • Cloches de Corneville, Les (work by Planquette)

    Robert Planquette: , The Chimes of Normandy), in which he showed his talent for melody. His music contains a touch of pathos and romantic feeling, which, had he cultivated it, would have placed him far above his contemporaries who wrote opéra bouffe; but he had a tendency to…

  • clock (measurement device)

    Clock, mechanical or electrical device other than a watch for displaying time. A clock is a machine in which a device that performs regular movements in equal intervals of time is linked to a counting mechanism that records the number of movements. All clocks, of whatever form, are made on this

  • clock arithmetic

    Modular arithmetic, in its most elementary form, arithmetic done with a count that resets itself to zero every time a certain whole number N greater than one, known as the modulus (mod), has been reached. Examples are a digital clock in the 24-hour system, which resets itself to 0 at midnight (N =

  • Clock Dance (novel by Tyler)

    Anne Tyler: Tyler’s 22nd novel, Clock Dance, was released in 2018.

  • clock paradox (physics)

    Twin paradox, an apparent anomaly that arises from the treatment of time in German-born physicist Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity. The counterintuitive nature of Einstein’s ideas makes them difficult to absorb and gives rise to situations that seem unfathomable. For example, suppose

  • Clock Tower (tower, Bern, Switzerland)

    Bern: The famous Clock Tower (Zeitglockenturm), with a 16th-century clock and mechanical puppets that perform four minutes before every hour, and the Cage Tower (Käfigturm) are the two remaining towers of the old walls that once protected the city. A favourite decorative motif is the bear (Old High…

  • clock tower (tower, Graz, Austria)

    Graz: The clock tower (1559) and the belfry (1588) survive as prominent landmarks. The most notable buildings are in the old section—designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999—and include the Renaissance Landhaus (the meetinghouse of the Styrian estates); the armoury (1643–45), with a unique historical collection…

  • Clock Tower (tower, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: The Piazza San Marco: …Old Procurators’ building stands the Clock Tower, a late 14th-century structure where the hours are struck by two Moorish figures.

  • clock vine (plant)

    Acanthaceae: …ornamentals as bear’s-breech (Acanthus mollis), clockvine (Thunbergia), shrimp plant (Justicia brandegeana), and caricature-plant (Graptophyllum pictum). The largest genera include Justicia (600 species; now comprising former segregate genera such as Jacobinia and Beloperone), Reullia (355),

  • Clock, The (work by Marclay)

    Christian Marclay: …apex with the completion of The Clock, a 24-hour video made up of cinematic clips—at least one for every minute of the day—that reference the current diegetic time, primarily through dialogue or visual depictions of timepieces. Marclay arranged the clips in order of the minute each one marked, and in…

  • Clock, The (film by Minnelli [1945])

    Vincente Minnelli: Films of the later 1940s: Meet Me in St. Louis, The Clock, and The Pirate: …then asked to take over The Clock (1945), his first nonmusical picture. This wartime homefront romance originally was to have been directed by Jack Conway and then, when Conway took ill, Fred Zinnemann. But Garland insisted that Minnelli—who was not dating her at that moment—replace Zinnemann. A corporal (Robert Walker)…

  • Clockmaker; or, The Savings and Doings of Samuel Slick of Slickville, The (work by Haliburton)

    Canadian literature: From settlement to 1900: and Thomas Chandler Haliburton, in The Clockmaker (1835–36), featuring the brash Yankee peddler Sam Slick, adroitly brought their region to life and helped found the genre of folk humour.

  • clockvine (plant)

    Acanthaceae: …ornamentals as bear’s-breech (Acanthus mollis), clockvine (Thunbergia), shrimp plant (Justicia brandegeana), and caricature-plant (Graptophyllum pictum). The largest genera include Justicia (600 species; now comprising former segregate genera such as Jacobinia and Beloperone), Reullia (355),

  • Clockwatchers (film by Sprecher [1997])

    Toni Collette: …in films, including Emma (1996), Clockwatchers (1997), and Velvet Goldmine (1998), followed. Her performance in The Sixth Sense (1999)—in which she evinced the distress of a mother whose son can see ghosts—brought her an Academy Award nomination for best supporting actress. She received a Tony Award nomination for The Wild…

  • Clockwise (film by Morahan [1986])

    John Cleese: …as Privates on Parade (1982); Clockwise (1986); A Fish Called Wanda (1988), perhaps his best-known film; and The Naked Wanderer (2019). In 1999 he first appeared in the recurring roles of R the gadget master and Nick the Nearly Headless Ghost in the James Bond and Harry Potter film series,…

  • clockwork fuse (military technology)

    artillery: Projectile, powder, and fuze: …Krupp firm set about developing clockwork fuzes that were not susceptible to atmospheric variations. These clockwork fuzes were also used for long-range shrapnel firing; inevitably, an undamaged specimen was recovered by the British, and the secret was out. By 1939 clockwork fuzes of various patterns, some using spring drive and…

  • clockwork fuze (military technology)

    artillery: Projectile, powder, and fuze: …Krupp firm set about developing clockwork fuzes that were not susceptible to atmospheric variations. These clockwork fuzes were also used for long-range shrapnel firing; inevitably, an undamaged specimen was recovered by the British, and the secret was out. By 1939 clockwork fuzes of various patterns, some using spring drive and…

  • Clockwork Orange, A (film by Kubrick [1971])

    Stanley Kubrick: Films of the 1970s: Kubrick’s next film was A Clockwork Orange (1971), which he adapted himself from the 1963 novel of the same name by Anthony Burgess, set in England’s not-too-distant future. Kubrick’s rendering of this world was visually stunning, and he cast Malcolm McDowell as the violence-addicted teenage hoodlum who is caught…

  • Clockwork Orange, A (novel by Burgess)

    A Clockwork Orange, novel by Anthony Burgess, published in 1962. Set in a dismal dystopian England, it is the first-person account of a juvenile delinquent who undergoes state-sponsored psychological rehabilitation for his aberrant behaviour. The novel satirizes extreme political systems that are

  • Clodia (Roman courtesan)

    Clodia, profligate Roman beauty and sister of the demagogue Publius Clodius. She was married in 63 bc to Quintus Metellus Celer and was suspected of responsibility for his death in 59 bc. She was mistress to the poet Catullus, who wrote of her as Lesbia, and was the most important influence in his

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