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  • Clifton (New Jersey, United States)

    Clifton, city, Passaic county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S. It lies along the Passaic River, between Paterson and Passaic cities. Settled in 1685, it was part of the Acquackanock Tract bought in 1679 by the Dutch from the Delaware Indians. It was a part of Passaic until 1917, when it was

  • Clifton (Arizona, United States)

    Clifton, town, seat (1909) of Greenlee county, southeastern Arizona, U.S. It lies near the New Mexico border. Copper was discovered in 1865 at nearby Morenci (unincorporated) and was first mined there in 1872. In 1937 the Phelps Dodge Corporation began excavating an open-pit mine, now one of the

  • Clifton, George Leonard, Baron Carey of (archbishop of Canterbury)

    George Carey, archbishop of Canterbury from 1991 to 2002, theologian noted for his evangelical beliefs. Carey left school at age 15 and served as a radio operator in the Royal Air Force from 1954 to 1956. By 20 he had undergone a religious conversion—not Paul’s experience on the road to Damascus,

  • Clifton, George Leonard, Baron Carey of (archbishop of Canterbury)

    George Carey, archbishop of Canterbury from 1991 to 2002, theologian noted for his evangelical beliefs. Carey left school at age 15 and served as a radio operator in the Royal Air Force from 1954 to 1956. By 20 he had undergone a religious conversion—not Paul’s experience on the road to Damascus,

  • Clifton, Lucille (American poet)

    Lucille Clifton, American poet whose works examine family life, racism, and gender. Born of a family that was descended from slaves, she attended Howard University from 1953 to 1955 and graduated from Fredonia State Teachers College (now State University of New York College at Fredonia) in 1955.

  • Cliftonia monophylla (plant)

    Buckwheat tree, (Cliftonia monophylla), evergreen shrub or small tree of the family Cyrillaceae, native to southern North America. It grows to about 15 m (50 feet) tall and has oblong or lance-shaped leaves about 4–5 cm (1.5–2 inches) long. Its fragrant white or pinkish flowers, about 1 cm across,

  • cliftonite (mineral)

    graphite: …in meteoritic iron are called cliftonite.

  • Cligès (romance by Chrétien de Troyes)

    Chrétien de Troyes: …husband by disobeying his commands; Cligès, that of the victim of a marriage made under constraint who feigns death and wakens to a new and happy life with her lover; Lancelot, an exaggerated but perhaps parodic treatment of the lover who is servile to the god of love and to…

  • Clijsters, Kim (Belgian tennis player)

    Jennifer Capriati: …defeat, she rallied to overcome Kim Clijsters in a three-set thriller (1–6, 6–4, 12–10) to take the title. Her bid for a Grand Slam (winning all four major events in one year), however, ended with a semifinal loss at Wimbledon. Capriati successfully defended her Australian Open title in 2002 with…

  • Climacium (plant)

    Tree moss, any of the plants of the genus Climacium (order Bryales), which resemble small evergreen trees and are found in damp, shady places throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The most common species are the European tree moss (C. dendroides), which is also found in North America, and the

  • Climacium americanum (plant)

    tree moss: …in North America, and the American tree moss (C. americanum). Both are about 5 to 10 centimetres (2 to 4 inches) high, with the branches clustered at the top of the shoot. The reddish-brown capsules (spore cases), borne on the female plant, have lids with long beaks and mature in…

  • Climacium dendroides (plant)

    tree moss: …most common species are the European tree moss (C. dendroides), which is also found in North America, and the American tree moss (C. americanum). Both are about 5 to 10 centimetres (2 to 4 inches) high, with the branches clustered at the top of the shoot. The reddish-brown capsules (spore…

  • Climacium kindbergii (plant)

    tree moss: …less common North American species, C. kindbergii, can be found growing in very wet, swampy places. It is very dark green, almost black, in colour, and its tendency to form dense tufts or cushions obscures the treelike appearance of the small individual plants.

  • Climacograptus (graptolite genus)

    Climacograptus, genus of graptolites, extinct colonial animals related to the primitive chordates, found as fossils in marine rocks of the Middle and Late Ordovician Period (about 472 million to 444 million years ago). Climacograptus is characterized by a single, serrated branch suspended from a

  • Climacteridae (bird)

    passeriform: Annotated classification: Climacteridae (Australian treecreepers) Small, creeperlike climbing birds, 12.5 to 17.5 cm (5 to 7 inches); of uncertain ancestry and affinities. Legs short; toes long, claws long, curved, strong, especially that of hallux; tail rounded, soft; bill long, somewhat downcurved. Grayish brown to black above, streaked below,…

  • climate (astrolabe)

    astrolabe: …one or more plates (called climates) that were engraved with coordinate lines for different latitudes and were placed between the mater and the rete.

  • climate (meteorology)

    Climate, conditions of the atmosphere at a particular location over a long period of time; it is the long-term summation of the atmospheric elements (and their variations) that, over short time periods, constitute weather. These elements are solar radiation, temperature, humidity, precipitation

  • Climate and Evolution (work by Matthew)

    William Diller Matthew: Most important among them was “Climate and Evolution” (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 24, 1915). In this work, Matthew argued for a relative permanency of the great ocean basins and continental masses and against the existence of former land bridges across what are now abyssal depths.…

  • climate change

    Climate change, periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about as a result of changes in the atmosphere as well as interactions between the atmosphere and various other geologic, chemical, biological, and geographic factors within the Earth system. The atmosphere is a dynamic fluid that is

  • Climate Change, Framework Convention on (international agreement)

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or Global Warming Convention, is a binding treaty that requires nations to reduce their emission of carbon dioxide, methane, and other “greenhouse” gases thought to be responsible for global warming; the treaty stopped short of setting

  • Climate Change, United Nations Framework Convention on (international treaty)

    Antarctica: Post-IGY research: …Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Representatives of member nations attend business meetings and biennial open science conferences to bring scientists together across disciplines. Disciplinary groups and subgroups under SCAR also meet regularly for international symposia, with a timetable dependent upon progress…

  • Climate Change—The Global Effects

    In 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released its Fourth Assessment Report. Previous assessments (1990, 1995, 2001) had provided strong indications that by various measures the Earth’s climate was becoming warmer, but with the latest report the picture had become clearer:

  • climate envelope (ecology)

    conservation: Global warming: …suitable conditions, or the species’ climate envelope, may shrink to nothing as conditions change—i.e., there may be no suitable conditions for a species in the future.

  • climate model (climatology)

    global warming: Theoretical climate models: Theoretical models of Earth’s climate system can be used to investigate the response of climate to external radiative forcing as well as its own internal variability. Two or more models that focus on different physical processes may be coupled or linked together through…

  • Climate near the Ground, The (work by Geiger)

    Rudolf Oskar Robert Williams Geiger: …Klima der bodennahen Luftschicht (1927; The Climate near the Ground), a comprehensive survey of microclimatological observations and of the effects of microclimate on plants, animals, and humans. This book remains a valuable basic reference source in the study of climate.

  • climate sensitivity (climatology)

    global warming: Feedback mechanisms and climate sensitivity: There are a number of feedback processes important to Earth’s climate system and, in particular, its response to external radiative forcing. The most fundamental of these feedback mechanisms involves the loss of longwave radiation to space from the surface. Since this radiative loss…

  • climate variation

    Climate change, periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about as a result of changes in the atmosphere as well as interactions between the atmosphere and various other geologic, chemical, biological, and geographic factors within the Earth system. The atmosphere is a dynamic fluid that is

  • climate-ocean interaction

    climate: Circulation, currents, and ocean-atmosphere interaction: The circulation of the ocean is a key factor in air temperature distribution. Ocean currents that have a northward or southward component, such as the warm Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic or the cold Peru (Humboldt) Current off South America, effectively exchange…

  • climatic adaptation (physical anthropology)

    Climatic adaptation, in physical anthropology, the genetic adaptation of human beings to different environmental conditions. Physical adaptations in human beings are seen in response to extreme cold, humid heat, desert conditions, and high altitudes. Cold adaptation is of three types: adaptation

  • climatic bubo (pathology)

    Lymphogranuloma venereum, infection of lymph vessels and lymph nodes by the microorganism Chlamydia trachomatis. Like chlamydia, which is also a disease caused by C. trachomatis, lymphogranuloma venereum is usually sexually transmitted. The disease produces swollen lymph nodes, ulcerations,

  • climatic change

    Climate change, periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about as a result of changes in the atmosphere as well as interactions between the atmosphere and various other geologic, chemical, biological, and geographic factors within the Earth system. The atmosphere is a dynamic fluid that is

  • Climatic Change and World Affairs (work by Tickell)

    climate: Climate, humans, and human affairs: …and environmentalist Crispin Tickell titled Climatic Change and World Affairs. Tickell sounded a warning:

  • climatic fluctuation

    Climate change, periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about as a result of changes in the atmosphere as well as interactions between the atmosphere and various other geologic, chemical, biological, and geographic factors within the Earth system. The atmosphere is a dynamic fluid that is

  • climatic geomorphology

    continental landform: Morphogenetic area: …ago understood how distinctive the geomorphic mechanisms of humid and arid lands were. It was, however, the new evidence of wide geographic mobility for such environments that forced the recognition of the morphogenetic, or geomorphic, system. Such a system is defined as a group of agencies and processes interacting under…

  • climatic map

    Climatic map, chart that shows the geographic distribution of the monthly or annual average values of climatic variables—i.e., temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, percentage of possible sunshine, insolation, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, and atmospheric pressure over regions

  • climatic morphogenesis

    continental landform: Climatic morphogenesis: Notions that climate plays a major dynamic role in landform evolution were in evidence during the first decade of the 20th century but did not emerge in formalized theory until the mid-1900s. At that time German geographer Julius Büdel and several…

  • Climatic Optimum (geology)

    global warming: Climatic variation since the last glaciation: …sometimes referred to as the Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. The relative warmth of average near-surface air temperatures at this time, however, is somewhat unclear. Changes in the pattern of insolation favoured warmer summers at higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, but these changes also produced cooler winters in the Northern Hemisphere…

  • Climatic Research Unit (University of East Anglia, Norwich, England, United Kingdom)

    WikiLeaks: …e-mails from East Anglia University’s Climatic Research Unit. Global warming skeptics seized on them as proof of a conspiracy to silence debate on the subject or conceal data. A subsequent series of investigations found shortcomings in the peer review process but cleared the scientists of intentional wrongdoing.

  • climatic variation

    Climate change, periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about as a result of changes in the atmosphere as well as interactions between the atmosphere and various other geologic, chemical, biological, and geographic factors within the Earth system. The atmosphere is a dynamic fluid that is

  • Climatius (fossil spiny shark genus)

    Climatius, genus of extinct, primitive jawed vertebrates common as fossils in Devonian rocks in Europe and North America (the Devonian period began 408 million years ago and ended about 360 million years ago). Climatius is representative of the acanthodians, spiny fishlike vertebrates related to

  • climato-genetic geomorphology

    valley: Role of climatic change: …landscape changes is sometimes called climato-genetic geomorphology. Some researchers in the field, notably Büdel, have maintained that little of the extant relief in humid temperate regions of the Earth results from modern relief-forming processes. Rather, they believe, much of the familiar humid temperate landscape is inherited from past climatic conditions,…

  • climatology (meteorology)

    Climatology, branch of the atmospheric sciences concerned with both the description of climate and the analysis of the causes of climatic differences and changes and their practical consequences. Climatology treats the same atmospheric processes as meteorology, but it seeks as well to identify the

  • Climatron (greenhouse, Missouri, United States)

    Missouri Botanical Garden: …is most notable for its Climatron, a geodesic-dome greenhouse in which 1,200 species of plants are grown under computer-controlled conditions simulating a rainforest. The 79-acre (32-hectare) garden also has the largest traditional Japanese garden in North America. The herbarium contains about 4.5 million specimens, some dating from the 18th century.…

  • Climats (work by Maurois)

    André Maurois: …Quesnay (1926) and Climats (1928; Whatever Gods May Be), focus on middle-class provincial life, marriage, and the family. As a historian he demonstrated his interest in the English-speaking world with his popular histories: Histoire de l’Angleterre (1937; “History of England”) and Histoire des États-Unis (1943; “History of the United States”).…

  • climax (literature)

    Climax, (Greek: “ladder”), in dramatic and nondramatic fiction, the point at which the highest level of interest and emotional response is achieved. In rhetoric, climax is achieved by the arrangement of units of meaning (words, phrases, clauses, or sentences) in an ascending order of importance.

  • Climax (Colorado, United States)

    Climax, former company mining town, Lake county, central Colorado, U.S. It lies in the Park Range of the Rocky Mountains at Fremont Pass (elevation 11,318 feet [3,450 metres]), 12 miles (19 km) northeast of Leadville. Much of the world’s supply of molybdenum (a steel-toughening alloy) was produced

  • climax (ecology)

    Climax, in ecology, the final stage of biotic succession attainable by a plant community in an area under the environmental conditions present at a particular time. For example, cleared forests in the eastern United States progress from fields to old fields with colonizing trees and shrubs to

  • climax (physiology)

    Orgasm, climactic physiological state of heightened sexual excitement and gratification that is followed by relaxation of sexual tensions and the body’s muscles. Orgasm is marked by a feeling of sudden and intense pleasure, an abrupt increase in pulse rate and blood pressure, and spasms of the p

  • climax community (ecology)

    Climax, in ecology, the final stage of biotic succession attainable by a plant community in an area under the environmental conditions present at a particular time. For example, cleared forests in the eastern United States progress from fields to old fields with colonizing trees and shrubs to

  • Climax tou paradeisou (work by John Climacus)

    Saint John Climacus: …Byzantine monk and author of Climax tou paradeisou (Greek: “The Ladder of Divine Ascent,” the source of his name “John of the Ladder”), a handbook on the ascetical and mystical life that has become a Christian spiritual classic.

  • climber (plant)

    Vine, Plant whose stem requires support and that climbs by tendrils or twining or creeps along the ground, or the stem of such a plant. Examples include bittersweet, most grapes, some honeysuckles, ivy, lianas, and

  • Climbié (work by Dadié)

    Bernard Binlin Dadié: The autobiographical novel Climbié (1956) re-creates the social milieu of colonial Côte d’Ivoire. Un Nègre à Paris (1959), his examination of Parisian society, is presented in epistolary form. Dadié’s love of Africa’s oral traditions caused him to collect and publish several more volumes of legends, fables, folktales, and…

  • climbing

    mountaineering: Techniques: Rock climbing, like hiking, is a widely practiced sport in its own right. The essentials of rock climbing are often learned on local cliffs, where the teamwork of mountaineering, the use of the rope, and the coordinated prerequisites of control and rhythm are mastered. The…

  • climbing (arboreal locomotion)

    amphibian: Anurans: …allow them to burrow or climb trees. These structures primarily involve modifications in limb proportions and iliosacral articulation. Arboreal (tree-dwelling) anurans have long limbs and digits with large, terminal, adhesive pads; anurans that burrow have short sturdy limbs and large spatulate tubercles made of keratin on their feet. The pipids,…

  • climbing (sport)

    Mountaineering, the sport of attaining, or attempting to attain, high points in mountainous regions, mainly for the pleasure of the climb. Although the term is often loosely applied to walking up low mountains that offer only moderate difficulties, it is more properly restricted to climbing in

  • Climbing and Exploration in the Kamkomm-Himalayas (book by Conway of Allington)

    William Martin Conway, Baron Conway: He chronicled his feat in Climbing and Exploration in the Karakoram-Himalayas (1894). His traverse of the Alpine range from Monte Viso to Gross Glockner in 1894 was described in The Alps from End to End (1895), and The First Crossing of Spitsbergen (1897) records his exploration of the island in…

  • climbing cactus

    Caryophyllales: Cactaceae: Climbing cacti, such as some leaf cacti (Epiphyllum) and some Rhipsalis species, are found in forests and develop few internal structural supports but support themselves with spines and aerial roots. In addition, cacti show an overall gradient in design from flattened, nonbranching discs to globes…

  • climbing catfish (fish)

    ostariophysan: Annotated classification: Family Astroblepidae (climbing catfishes) Mouth and fins modified for adhesion to rocks in mountain streams. Skin naked. Panama and South America. 1 genus, up to 54 species. Family Claroteidae (claroteids) Africa. 7 genera, up to 59 species. Ostariophysans

  • climbing corydalis (plant)

    Corydalis: The climbing corydalis (Ceratocapnos claviculata) of Great Britain is an annual with short sprays of cream-coloured tubular flowers. The plant was formerly placed in the genus Corydalis.

  • climbing fern (plant)

    fern: Distribution and abundance: …the giant polypody (Microsorum scolopendrium), climbing ferns (Lygodium japonicum and L. microphyllum), green cliff brake (Cheilanthes viridis), silver fern (Pityrogramma calomelanos), Japanese holly fern (Cyrtomium falcatum), rosy maidenhair (Adiantum hispidulum), Cretan brake (Pteris cretica), and ladder brake (P. vittata). Two Old World species (Cyclosorus dentatus and Macrothelypteris torresiana) were introduced…

  • climbing fern family (fern family)

    Schizaeaceae, fern family (order Filicales), which contains two genera (Schizaea and Actinostachys) and about 46 species. The family has a long fossil record, with records dating back to the Late Cretaceous Epoch (about 100.5 to 66.0 million years ago). The genera are usually found in tropical and

  • climbing fig (plant)

    Ficus: Major species: …climbing species such as the climbing fig (F. pumila) are also popular ornamentals.

  • climbing fumitory (plant)

    fumitory: The related climbing fumitory (Adlumia fungosa), also known as Allegheny vine or mountain fringe, is a sprawling herbaceous biennial that coils its long leafstalks around supports. It reaches 3.5 metres (11.5 feet) in height and has clusters of white or pinkish tubular flowers borne among delicately cut…

  • climbing hydrangea (plant)

    hydrangea: The climbing hydrangea (H. anomala petiolaris, or H. petiolaris), can reach up to 15 metres, clinging to any solid support by means of aerial rootlets.

  • Climbing Jacob’s Ladder (play by Anderson)

    Regina M. Anderson: …1931 produced Anderson’s one-act play Climbing Jacob’s Ladder, about a lynching that happened while people prayed in church. The next year the theatre produced her one-act play Underground, about the Underground Railroad. Both plays were written under her pseudonym. The Negro Experimental Theatre served as an inspiration to little-theatre groups…

  • climbing lily (plant genus)

    Gloriosa, genus of tuberous-rooted plants of the family Colchicaceae, native to tropical Africa and Asia. There are about six species, from about 1 to 2.4 m (3 to 8 feet) tall. These plants, variously known as climbing lilies or glory-lilies, are grown in greenhouses or outdoors in the summer. They

  • Climbing Mount Improbable (work by Dawkins)

    Richard Dawkins: …Darwinian natural selection entailed in Climbing Mount Improbable (1996). Stressing the gradual nature of response to selective pressures, Dawkins took care to point out that intricate structures such as the eye do not manifest randomly but instead successively increase in sophistication. He also released The Evolution of Life (1996), an…

  • climbing perch (fish)

    Climbing perch, (Anabas testudineus), small Asian freshwater fish of the family Anabantidae (order Perciformes) noted for its ability to live and walk about out of water. The climbing perch is an air-breathing labyrinth fish. Rather oblong, brownish or green, it grows to about 25 cm (10 inches). I

  • climbing plant (plant)

    Vine, Plant whose stem requires support and that climbs by tendrils or twining or creeps along the ground, or the stem of such a plant. Examples include bittersweet, most grapes, some honeysuckles, ivy, lianas, and

  • climbing rose (plant)

    rose: Major species and hybrids: …classes of modern roses are climbing roses, whose slender stems can be trained to ascend trellises; shrub roses, which develop into large bushes; and miniature roses, which are pygmy-sized plants bearing tiny blossoms. Altogether there are thousands of identifiable varieties of roses in those and other classes.

  • climosequence (pedology)

    soil: Climate: …array of soils called a climosequence. One typical climosequence occurs along a 1,000-km (600-mile) north-south transect through the foothills of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada mountains in California. There soils that have formed on landscapes of similar topography vary continuously in their profile characteristics with variations in annual precipitation. Soils…

  • Clinard, Marshall B. (American sociologist and criminologist)

    Marshall B. Clinard, American sociologist and criminologist known for his research on the sociology of deviant behaviour, corporate crime, and gang formation. Clinard was one of the first to follow the white-collar crime research of American criminologist Edwin Sutherland. In the early 1950s

  • Clinard, Marshall Barron (American sociologist and criminologist)

    Marshall B. Clinard, American sociologist and criminologist known for his research on the sociology of deviant behaviour, corporate crime, and gang formation. Clinard was one of the first to follow the white-collar crime research of American criminologist Edwin Sutherland. In the early 1950s

  • Clinch Mountain Boys (American bluegrass band)

    Ralph Stanley: …a five-piece string band, the Clinch Mountain Boys, one of the first bands to play in the new bluegrass style, a form of country music invented by Bill Monroe. The brothers’ sound was distinctive—Carter played guitar and sang lead, while Ralph played banjo and sang a mournful tenor harmony. Both…

  • Clinch River (river, United States)

    Clinch River, river rising in Tazewell county, southwestern Virginia, U.S., and flowing about 300 miles (480 km), generally southwest, through the Great Appalachian Valley into eastern Tennessee. There it passes through Norris Lake (impounded by Norris Dam) near the junction with the Powell River

  • Clinch, Fort (fort, Florida, United States)

    Fernandina Beach: …Island in 1821 and built Fort Clinch (begun 1847) at its northern tip. The fort was seized by Confederate troops in 1861 at the beginning of the American Civil War and became a centre for blockade-running until its capture by Union forces in 1862. In the late 19th century Fernandina…

  • Clinch, Lawrence (British actor)

    Richard Brinsley Sheridan: Theatrical career: …due to the acting of Lawrence Clinch as Sir Lucius. Sheridan showed his gratitude by writing the amusing little farce St. Patrick’s Day; Or, The Scheming Lieutenant for the benefit performance given for Clinch in May 1775. Another example of his ability to weave an interesting plot from well-worn materials…

  • clincher (tire)

    bicycle: Wheels: … with wire beads are called clinchers, though the proper technical name is wired-on or hook-bead. Clincher tires have a wearing surface of synthetic rubber vulcanized onto a two-ply cotton or nylon casing. Air pressure is contained by a butyl rubber inner tube with either a Presta or a Schrader valve.…

  • cline (biology)

    insect: Continuing evolution: Another example of this cline type of evolution is the development of insect strains resistant to an insecticide that has been applied heavily in an area for several years. In many parts of the world houseflies became highly resistant to DDT.

  • Cline, Henry (British surgeon)

    Edward Jenner: …of others, particularly the surgeon Henry Cline, to whom Jenner had given some of the inoculant, and the doctors George Pearson and William Woodville. Difficulties arose, some of them quite unpleasant; Pearson tried to take credit away from Jenner, and Woodville, a physician in a smallpox hospital, contaminated the cowpox…

  • Cline, Maggie (American singer)

    Maggie Cline, American singer whose vigorous persona and hearty performances of Irish songs made her an immensely popular figure in the heydey of the vaudeville stage. Cline, the daughter of Irish immigrant parents, went to work at age 12 in a local shoe factory. Five years later she determined to

  • Cline, Margaret (American singer)

    Maggie Cline, American singer whose vigorous persona and hearty performances of Irish songs made her an immensely popular figure in the heydey of the vaudeville stage. Cline, the daughter of Irish immigrant parents, went to work at age 12 in a local shoe factory. Five years later she determined to

  • Cline, Patsy (American singer)

    Patsy Cline, American country music singer whose talent and wide-ranging appeal made her one of the classic performers of the genre, bridging the gap between country music and more mainstream audiences. Known in her youth as “Ginny,” she began to sing with local country bands while a teenager,

  • clingfish (fish family)

    Clingfish, any of more than 150 species of small fishes of the family Gobiesocidae (order Perciformes). Clingfishes are characterized by a strong suction disk located on the undersurface and formed by the pelvic fins and adjacent folds of flesh. They are scaleless fishes and have wide, flattened

  • Clingmans Dome (mountain, Tennessee, United States)

    Clingmans Dome, peak in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, U.S., near the Tennessee–North Carolina border, 35 miles (56 km) southeast of Knoxville, Tennessee. The highest point in Tennessee, it rises to an elevation of 6,643 feet (2,025 metres) and is also the highest point along the Appalachian

  • clinic

    Clinic, an organized medical service offering diagnostic, therapeutic, or preventive outpatient services. Often, the term covers an entire medical teaching centre, including the hospital and the outpatient facilities. The medical care offered by a clinic may or may not be connected with a hospital.

  • clinical biomechanics (science)

    biomechanics: Another development was clinical biomechanics, which employs mechanical facts, methodologies, and mathematics to interpret and analyze typical and atypical human anatomy and physiology.

  • clinical death

    death: Clinical death: At the opposite end of the spectrum from cell death lies the death of a human being. It is obvious that the problems of defining human death cannot be resolved in purely biological terms, divorced from all ethical or cultural considerations. This is…

  • clinical decision making (medicine)

    diagnosis: Formulating a diagnosis: …formulating a diagnosis is called clinical decision making. The clinician uses the information gathered from the medical history and physical and mental examinations to develop a list of possible causes of the disorder, called the differential diagnosis. The clinician then decides what tests to order to help refine the list…

  • clinical depression (psychology)

    diagnosis: Mental examination: Major depression and other mood disorders such as dysthymia, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymia are common and very treatable forms of psychiatric problems.

  • clinical interview (psychology)

    clinical psychology: The interview, in which the psychologist observes, questions, and interacts with a patient, is another tool of diagnosis.

  • Clinical Lectures on the Practice of Medicine (work by Graves)

    Robert James Graves: His Clinical Lectures on the Practice of Medicine, published in 1848, are responsible for establishing his enduring reputation. Among the innovations introduced in the lectures were the timing of the pulse by watch and the practice of giving food and liquids to patients with fevers instead…

  • clinical medicine

    cluster analysis: In clinical medicine, it can be used to identify patients who have diseases with a common cause, patients who should receive the same treatment, or patients who should have the same level of response to treatment. In epidemiology, cluster analysis has many uses, such as finding…

  • clinical nursing specialist (medicine)

    nursing: Clinical nursing specialists: Clinical nursing specialists are prepared in universities at the master’s level. Their clinically focused education is in particular specialties, such as neurology, cardiology, rehabilitation, or psychiatry. Clinical nursing specialists may provide direct care to patients with complex nursing needs, or they

  • clinical psychology

    Clinical psychology, branch of psychology concerned with the practical application of research methodologies and findings in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Clinical psychologists classify their basic activities under three main headings: assessment (including diagnosis),

  • clinical research (medicine)

    medicine: Clinical research: The remarkable developments in medicine that have been brought about in the 20th century, especially since World War II, have been based on research either in the basic sciences related to medicine or in the clinical field. Advances in the use of radiation,…

  • clinical thermometer (medical device)

    Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt: …the inventor of the short clinical thermometer. His investigations also led to the improved treatment of arterial diseases.

  • Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child, The (work by Rogers)

    Carl Rogers: …University of Rochester and wrote The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child (1939), based on his experience in working with troubled children. In 1940 he became a professor of clinical psychology at the Ohio State University, where he wrote Counseling and Psychotherapy (1942). In it Rogers suggested that clients, by…

  • clinical trial (medicine)

    Clinical trial, formal testing of a specific treatment or other health-related intervention to determine its role in the standard care of individuals with a corresponding medical condition. Ideally, before new drugs and other treatments, diagnostic tests, or preventive measures are accepted for

  • clinid (fish family)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Clinidae (clinids) Eocene to present. Percoidlike fishes, some moderately elongated, rather flat-sided, usually with somewhat pointed snouts and fleshy lips; dorsal and anal fins rather high and long-based, with fin membranes conspicuously supported by thin, riblike fin rays; caudal fin fanlike, not large; pelvic fins ahead…

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