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  • clay dune (geological feature)

    playa: Effects of wind action: …these features are sometimes called clay dunes. In Australia they are known as lunettes. James M. Bowler, an Australian Quaternary stratigrapher, produced a precise chronology of playa development and associated eolian activity in the desert of western New South Wales, Australia. There, numerous small lakes reached their maximum extent 32,000…

  • clay ironstone (mineral)

    nodule: Clay ironstone, a mixture of clay and siderite (iron carbonate), sometimes occurs as layers of dark-gray to brown, fine-grained nodules overlying coal seams. Phosphorites, massive phosphate rocks, often occur in phosphate deposits, in some limestones and chalks, and on the present sea bottom as black,…

  • Clay Mathematics Institute (foundation, Massachusetts, United States)

    Millennium Problem: …problems designated such by the Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) of Cambridge, Mass., U.S., each of which has a million-dollar reward for its solution. CMI was founded in 1998 by American businessman Landon T. Clay “to increase and disseminate mathematical knowledge.” The seven problems, which were announced in 2000, are the…

  • clay mineral (rock)

    Clay mineral, any of a group of important hydrous aluminum silicates with a layer (sheetlike) structure and very small particle size. They may contain significant amounts of iron, alkali metals, or alkaline earths. The term clay is generally applied to (1) a natural material with plastic

  • clay mineralogy (science)

    Clay mineralogy, the scientific discipline concerned with all aspects of clay minerals, including their properties, composition, classification, crystal structure, and occurrence and distribution in nature. The methods of study include X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopic analysis, chemical

  • clay pan (geology)

    Playa, (Spanish: shore or beach) flat-bottom depression found in interior desert basins and adjacent to coasts within arid and semiarid regions, periodically covered by water that slowly filtrates into the ground water system or evaporates into the atmosphere, causing the deposition of salt, sand,

  • Clay Pigeon, The (film by Fleischer [1949])

    Richard Fleischer: Early life and work: …who is framed for murder; The Clay Pigeon (1949), about a sailor (played by Bill Williams) who awakens from a coma only to learn that he is about to be court-martialed for treason; Follow Me Quietly (1949), a police procedural about a serial killer; and Trapped (1949), a pseudodocumentary about…

  • clay refractory (ceramics)

    refractory: Clay-based refractories: In this section the composition and properties of the clay-based refractories are described. Most are produced as preformed brick. Much of the remaining products are so-called monolithics, materials that can be formed and solidified on-site. This category includes mortars for cementing bricks and…

  • clay tablet (writing)

    Anatolian religion: Prehistoric periods: Though the Old Assyrian tablets are concerned exclusively with commercial matters, the seal impressions that they bear contain a new and elaborate system of religious symbolism (iconography) that later reached its maturity under the Hittites. Here a whole pantheon of deities, some recognizably Mesopotamian, others native Anatolian, are distinguished…

  • Clay, Cassius Marcellus (American journalist and politician)

    Cassius Marcellus Clay, American antislavery leader who served the abolition movement in spite of his Southern background. Although he was the son of a slaveholder and a relative of the Kentucky senator Henry Clay, who—true to his byname (the Great Compromiser)—favoured only gradual emancipation,

  • Clay, Cassius Marcellus, Jr. (American boxer)

    Muhammad Ali, American professional boxer and social activist. Ali was the first fighter to win the world heavyweight championship on three separate occasions; he successfully defended this title 19 times. Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., grew up in the American South in a time of segregated public

  • Clay, Henry (American statesman)

    Henry Clay, American statesman, U.S. congressman (1811–14, 1815–21, 1823–25), and U.S. senator (1806–07, 1810–11, 1831–42, 1849–52) who was noted for his American System (which integrated a national bank, the tariff, and internal improvements to promote economic stability and prosperity) and was a

  • Clay, Lucius D. (American general)

    Lucius D. Clay, U.S. Army officer who became the first director of civilian affairs in defeated Germany after World War II. Clay graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York (1918), and served in army engineer assignments before becoming head of the first national civil airport

  • Clay, Lucius DuBignon (American general)

    Lucius D. Clay, U.S. Army officer who became the first director of civilian affairs in defeated Germany after World War II. Clay graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York (1918), and served in army engineer assignments before becoming head of the first national civil airport

  • Clay, Otis (American singer)

    Otis Clay, American soul singer (born Feb. 11, 1942, Waxhaw, Miss.—died Jan. 8, 2016, Chicago, Ill.), was an enduring exponent of traditional rhythm and blues, deep soul, and gospel music who was perhaps best known for his 1972 hit “Trying to Live My Life Without You.” Clay grew up singing in the

  • clay-pigeon shooting (sport)

    Trapshooting, sport in which participants use shotguns for shooting at saucer-shaped clay targets flung into the air from a spring device called a trap. A later variant, skeet shooting, is also included in trapshooting. Trapshooting originated in England in the late 18th century when marksmen, to

  • Clayburgh, Jill (American actress)

    Jill Clayburgh, American actress (born April 30, 1944, New York, N.Y.—died Nov. 5, 2010, Lakeville, Conn.), was equally adept in dramatic and comedic roles but was especially noted for her performances as independent-minded women, notably in An Unmarried Woman (1978), as a divorcée who experiments

  • Clayhanger (novel by Bennett)

    Arnold Bennett: …Old Wives’ Tale (1908), and Clayhanger (1910; included with its successors, Hilda Lessways, 1911, and These Twain, 1916, in The Clayhanger Family, 1925)—have their setting there, the only exception being Riceyman Steps (1923), set in a lower-middle-class district of London.

  • Clayhanger Family, The (trilogy by Bennett)

    The Clayhanger Family, trilogy of semiautobiographical novels by Arnold Bennett. The first and best-known book of the three is Clayhanger (1910); it was followed by Hilda Lessways (1911) and These Twain (1915). They were published together in 1925. Set in the late 19th century in a drab potters’

  • claystone (geology)

    Claystone, hardened clay. Some geologists further restrict the term to a sedimentary rock that is composed primarily of clay-sized particles (less than 1256 millimetre in diameter) and is not laminated or easily split into thin layers; such rocks that show cleavage roughly parallel to the bedding

  • Clayton (Missouri, United States)

    Clayton, city, seat of St. Louis county and a suburb of St. Louis, eastern Missouri, U.S. Founded in 1876, it was named for Ralph Clayton, a farmer from Virginia who had settled in the area in the 1830s and donated land for the establishment of a county seat after the city of St. Louis elected to

  • Clayton Antitrust Act (United States [1914])

    Clayton Antitrust Act, law enacted in 1914 by the United States Congress to clarify and strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890). The vague language of the latter had provided large corporations with numerous loopholes, enabling them to engage in certain restrictive business arrangements that,

  • Clayton, Adam (Irish musician)

    Bono: , and Adam Clayton formed a band that would become U2. They shared a commitment not only to ambitious rock music but also to a deeply spiritual Christianity. Indeed, one of the few genuine threats to U2’s extraordinary longevity (a collaboration—with the manager, Paul McGuinness—of more than…

  • Clayton, Buck (American musician)

    Buck Clayton, African-American jazz musician who was the star trumpet soloist of the early, classic Count Basie orchestra and, thereafter, was an outstanding soloist and successful arranger. At age 21 Clayton moved to California, where he played trumpet and organized one of the first jazz bands to

  • Clayton, Henry De Lamar (United States politician)

    Celler-Kefauver Act: History of antitrust legislation: Henry De Lamar Clayton from Alabama, clarified the interpretation difficulties by amending language and added specific examples of illegal actions by companies. Local targeted price-cutting, a type of price discrimination, was outlawed by the act, along with horizontal mergers and acquisitions and exclusive dealership agreements.

  • Clayton, Jack (British director)

    Jack Clayton, British motion-picture director whose nine films ranged from the social realism of Room at the Top to the psychological ghost story The Innocents (b. March 1, 1921--d. Feb. 25,

  • Clayton, John Middleton (American politician)

    John Middleton Clayton, U.S. public official best known for his part in negotiating the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty (1850), aimed at harmonizing U.S.–British interests in Central America. Clayton entered politics as a member of the Delaware House of Representatives (1824) and served as secretary of state

  • Clayton, Sir Gilbert (British statesman)

    Saudi Arabia: Ibn Saud and the third Saʿūdī state: …and a British special envoy, Sir Gilbert Clayton, placed Saʿūdī relations with Great Britain on a permanent footing as the British fully acknowledged Saʿūdī independence. A series of Muslim conferences sponsored by the Saʿūdīs in the Hejaz legitimized their presence as rulers.

  • Clayton, Wilbur Dorsey (American musician)

    Buck Clayton, African-American jazz musician who was the star trumpet soloist of the early, classic Count Basie orchestra and, thereafter, was an outstanding soloist and successful arranger. At age 21 Clayton moved to California, where he played trumpet and organized one of the first jazz bands to

  • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (United States-United Kingdom [1850])

    Clayton–Bulwer Treaty, compromise agreement (signed April 19, 1850) designed to harmonize contending British and U.S. interests in Central America. Because of its equivocal language, it became one of the most discussed and difficult treaties in the history of Anglo-U.S. relations. It resulted f

  • Claytonia virginica (plant)

    Spring beauty, (species Claytonia virginica), small, succulent, spring-flowering perennial plant of the purslane family (Portulacaceae), native to eastern North America and often planted in moist shady areas of rock gardens. It grows to 30 cm (12 inches) from a globose corm and produces narrow

  • Clazomenae (ancient city, Turkey)

    Clazomenae, ancient Ionian Greek city, located about 20 miles west of Izmir (Smyrna) in modern Turkey. It was founded on the mainland near the base of the Erythraean peninsula; it became part of the Ionian Dodecapolis and was well known for its painted terra-cotta sarcophagi (6th century bc).

  • CLC (Canadian trade union association)

    Canadian Labour Congress (CLC), nationwide association of labour unions in Canada, comprising both wholly Canadian “national” unions and “international” unions that are Canadian branches of unions based in the United States. The CLC was formed in 1956 through the merger of the Trades and Labour

  • CLCN1 (gene)

    myotonia: …in a gene known as CLCN1 (chloride channel 1, skeletal muscle). That gene normally produces a protein that controls chloride channels in skeletal muscle fibre cells. However, defects in CLCN1 disrupt ion flow, causing muscles to contract for prolonged periods of time. Mutation of the human skeletal muscle sodium channel…

  • CLCNKA (gene)

    Bartter syndrome: Types of Bartter syndrome: …of variations in CLCNKB and CLCNKA (chloride channel Ka) or from variation of the gene called BSND (Bartter syndrome, infantile, with sensorineural deafness).

  • CLCNKB (gene)

    Bartter syndrome: Types of Bartter syndrome: …in the gene known as CLCNKB (chloride channel Kb), which functions in the reabsorption of chloride and hence sodium in the kidney tubules. Mutations underlying classic Bartter syndrome result in the loss of function of the encoded protein, thereby leading to excessive excretion of sodium in the urine. This form…

  • Cle Elum River (river, Washington, United States)

    Cle Elum River, watercourse, central Washington, U.S., rising in the Cascade Range. The river flows generally south through Cle Elum Lake, thence southeast past Cle Elum, joining the Yakima River of the Columbia River system after a course of about 28 miles (45 km). The fast-flowing river is a

  • Clea (novel by Durrell)

    The Alexandria Quartet: (1958), Mountolive (1958), and Clea (1960), is set in Alexandria, Egypt, during the 1940s. Three of the books are written in the first person, Mountolive in the third. The first three volumes describe, from different viewpoints, a series of events in Alexandria before World War II; the fourth carries…

  • CLEAN (astronomy)

    radio telescope: Radio interferometry and aperture synthesis: …Hogbom developed a technique called CLEAN, which is used to remove the spurious responses from a celestial radio image caused by the use of discrete, rather than continuous, spacings in deriving the radio image. Further developments, based on a technique introduced in the early 1950s by the British scientists Roger…

  • Clean Air Act (United States [1970])

    Clean Air Act (CAA), U.S. federal law, passed in 1970 and later amended, to prevent air pollution and thereby protect the ozone layer and promote public health. The Clean Air Act (CAA) gave the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the power it needed to take effective action to fight

  • Clean Air Act (United States [1990])

    acid rain: History: …Act of 1970 and its amendments in 1990. Work toward developing a Memorandum of Intent between the U.S. and Canada to reduce air pollution and acid deposition began in the 1970s. However, it was not formalized until the Canada–United States Air Quality Agreement in 1991, which placed permanent caps on…

  • Clean Air Acts (United Kingdom [1956, 1968])

    London: Smog and air pollution: …alleviated by parliamentary legislation (the Clean Air Acts of 1956 and 1968) outlawing the burning of coal, combined with the clearance of older housing and the loss of manufacturing.

  • clean and jerk (weightlifting)

    weightlifting: Lifts: The clean and jerk is a two-part lift. After lifting the barbell to the shoulders, the lifter jerks it overhead to arm’s length, with no restrictions on the time necessary to complete the lift or on leg movements. In both lifts, the lifter must complete the…

  • clean culture (agriculture)

    vegetable farming: Soil preparation and management: In the practice of clean culture, commonly followed in vegetable growing, the soil is kept free of all competing plants through frequent cultivation and the use of protective coverings, or mulches, and weed killers. In a clean vegetable field the possibility of attack by insects and disease-incitant organisms, for…

  • Clean Development Mechanism (international program)

    Kyoto Protocol: Background and provisions: …the international program called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which encouraged developed countries to invest in technology and infrastructure in less-developed countries, where there were often significant opportunities to reduce emissions. Under the CDM, the investing country could claim the effective reduction in emissions as a credit toward meeting its…

  • Clean Government Party (political party, Japan)

    New Kōmeitō, Japanese political party that was founded in 1964 as the political wing of the Buddhist lay movement Sōka-gakkai. It advocates “humanitarian socialism,” an open, independent foreign policy, and, among other things, the gradual abolition of the Japan-U.S. security treaty. After the 1962

  • clean hands doctrine (law)

    annulment: The so-called clean hands doctrine figures heavily in such cases, meaning that the conduct of the person seeking the annulment must be fair and above suspicion if he is to prevail. Thus, a party who knew the partner was underage but proceeded with the marriage would probably…

  • Clean Hands, Operation (Italian history)

    Italy: Emergence of the second republic: …“Bribesville” (Tangentopoli), and under “Operation Clean Hands” many leading politicians, civil servants, and prominent businessmen were arrested and imprisoned. Nearly all of Italy’s political parties were involved, but the Christian Democrats and the Socialists were the heart of the system. Craxi, the former prime minister, was eventually convicted on…

  • Clean Power Plan (United States government policy)

    Paris Agreement: Background: …accomplish that goal, the country’s Clean Power Plan was to set limits on existing and planned power plant emissions. China, the country with the largest total greenhouse gas emissions, set its target for the peaking of its carbon dioxide emissions “around 2030 and making best efforts to peak early.” Chinese…

  • clean room (manufacturing)

    Clean room, in manufacturing and research, dust-free working area with strict temperature and humidity control that is of vital importance in the manufacture of equipment sensitive to environmental contamination, such as components for electronic and aerospace systems. Seamless plastic walls and

  • Clean Water Act (United States [1972])

    Clean Water Act (CWA), U.S. legislation enacted in 1972 to restore and maintain clean and healthy waters. The CWA was a response to increasing public concern for the environment and for the condition of the nation’s waters. It served as a major revision of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of

  • Clean, Well-Lighted Place, A (story by Hemingway)

    A Clean, Well-Lighted Place, much-anthologized short story by Ernest Hemingway, first published in Scribner’s Magazine in March 1933 and later that year in the collection Winner Take Nothing. Late one night two waiters in a café wait for their last customer, an old man who has recently attempted

  • Cleander (Macedonian general)

    Alexander the Great: Campaign eastward to Central Asia: …secret message was sent to Cleander, Parmenio’s second in command, who obediently assassinated him. This ruthless action excited widespread horror but strengthened Alexander’s position relative to his critics and those whom he regarded as his father’s men. All Parmenio’s adherents were now eliminated and men close to Alexander promoted. The…

  • cleaner fish

    community ecology: Mutualism and cheaters: This subversion has occurred between cleaner fish and their hosts. Cleaner fish are highly specialized fish that pick parasites off the skin of other fish. Host fish arrive at specific sites where they present themselves to the cleaner fish that groom them. Other fish have evolved to resemble the cleaner…

  • cleaning (technology)

    art conservation and restoration: Metal sculpture: …maintenance procedures, such as regular cleaning and the application of protective coatings. Regular maintenance has proved to be highly cost-effective and successful in the preservation of outdoor sculpture over the long term. Regular cleaning and coating (with waxes or synthetic polymers or both, which sometimes contain corrosion inhibitors) have kept…

  • cleaning behaviour

    Cleaning behaviour, self-grooming, as the action of a bird in preening its feathers, or mutual grooming as part of species behaviour, as among monkeys and other mammalian groups. Mutual grooming, which is often derived from display behaviour, cements social bonds between individuals of a group or

  • Cleanness (Middle English poem)

    English literature: The revival of alliterative poetry: …homiletic poems called Patience and Purity (or Cleanness), and an elegiac dream vision known as Pearl, all miraculously preserved in a single manuscript dated about 1400. The poet of Sir Gawayne far exceeded the other alliterative writers in his mastery of form and style, and, though he wrote ultimately as…

  • cleansing rite (anthropology)

    Purification rite, any of the ceremonial acts or customs employed in an attempt to reestablish lost purity or to create a higher degree of purity in relation to the sacred (the transcendental realm) or the social and cultural realm. They are found in all known cultures and religions, both ancient

  • Cleanthes (Greek philosopher)

    Cleanthes, Stoic philosopher who became head of the Stoic school (263–232 bc) after the death of Zeno of Citium. Among his pupils were his successor, Chrysippus, and Antigonus II, king of Macedonia. Although Cleanthes produced little that is original, he brought a religious fervour to the teachings

  • Clear Air Force Station (military base, Alaska, United States)

    Alaska: Services, labour, and taxation: …missile early warning system at Clear Air Force Station (southwest of Fairbanks), the expansion of the military bases at Anchorage and Fairbanks, and the construction of missile sites at Fort Greely (southeast of Fairbanks).

  • clear and distinct idea (Cartesianism)

    rationalism: Epistemological rationalism in modern philosophies: The clearness and distinctness upon which he insisted was not that of perception but of conception, the clearness with which the intellect grasps an abstract idea, such as the number three or its being greater than two.

  • clear and present danger (law)

    Gitlow v. New York: …the court rejected the “clear and present danger” test established in Schenck v. U.S. (1919) and instead used the “bad (or dangerous) tendency” test. The New York state law was constitutional because the state “cannot reasonably be required to defer the adoption of measures for its own peace and…

  • Clear and Present Danger (novel by Clancy)

    Tom Clancy: >Clear and Present Danger (1989; film 1994), The Sum of All Fears (1991; film 2002), Rainbow Six (1998), The Bear and the Dragon (2000), The Teeth of the Tiger (2003), Dead or Alive (2010), and Command Authority (2013) are subsequent novels.

  • Clear and Present Danger (film by Noyce [1994])

    Harrison Ford: Clancy novels—Patriot Games (1992) and Clear and Present Danger (1994). In The Fugitive (1993), a film based on the 1960s television show, he portrayed the wrongly convicted Dr. Richard Kimble.

  • clear benefit (theatre)

    benefit performance: The clear benefit, coveted by all performers, provided the actor with the full proceeds of his performance, the management agreeing to pay all additional charges. With a half-clear benefit, the actor divided the gross income with the manager. The benefit proper stipulated that the actor pay…

  • Clear Channel Communications (American corporation)

    rock: Rock in the early 21st century: …Nation, the live-music division of Clear Channel.

  • Clear Grits (political party, Canada)

    Clear Grits, political movement and party that arose in Canada West (now Ontario) in opposition to the moderate Reform administration of Robert Baldwin, premier of the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec) from 1848 to 1851. The movement originated in 1849 within the Reform Party of Canada;

  • Clear History (television film by Mottola [2013])

    Larry David: …appeared in the HBO film Clear History (2013), a comedy about a marketing executive who sells his stake in a start-up that later becomes a multibillion-dollar company. In 2015 David made his Broadway debut in Fish in the Dark, which he also wrote. The comedy centred on the death of…

  • clear juice (food processing)

    sugar: Concentration and crystallization: …juice, now called clear or thin juice, is pumped to multiple-effect evaporators similar to those used in raw cane sugar manufacture. In the evaporators the juice is concentrated to thick juice (60–65 percent dissolved solids), which is mixed with remelted lower grades of sugar to form standard liquor. From this…

  • Clear Light of Day (work by Desai)

    Anita Desai: Clear Light of Day (1980), considered the author’s most successful work, is praised for its highly evocative portrait of two sisters caught in the lassitude of Indian life. Its characters are revealed not only through imagery but through gesture, dialogue, and reflection. As do most…

  • Clear Pictures (memoir by Price)

    Reynolds Price: His memoirs include Clear Pictures (1989), about growing up in North Carolina, and A Whole New Life (1994), which recounts his illness.

  • Clear Spot (album by Captain Beefheart)

    Captain Beefheart: …he won critical acclaim with Clear Spot (1972), Shiny Beast (Bat Chain Puller) (1978), Ice Cream for Crow (1982), and other albums, Beefheart never won a wide popular following; however, his music greatly influenced such groups as the Clash and Devo. In the early 1980s Beefheart, again using the name…

  • clear water stream (hydrology)

    Amazon River: Physiography of the river course: Negro, and Tocantins-Araguaia) or clearwater (Trombetas, Xingu, and Tapajós). The blackwater tributaries have higher levels of humic acids (which cause their dark colour) and originate in nutrient-poor, often sandy uplands, so they carry little or no silt or dissolved solids. Clearwater tributaries have a higher mineral content and lower…

  • clear-air turbulence (atmospheric science)

    Clear-air turbulence (CAT), erratic air currents that occur in cloudless air between altitudes of 6,000 and 15,000 metres (20,000 and 49,000 feet) and constitute a hazard to aircraft. This turbulence can be caused by small-scale (i.e., hundreds of metres and less) wind velocity gradients around the

  • clear-cell carcinoma (pathology)

    Renal carcinoma, malignant tumour affecting the epithelial (covering and lining) cells of the kidney. Most renal carcinomas appear in persons past 40 years of age, with peak incidence around the sixth or seventh decade. They tend to arise in persons with vascular disorders of the kidneys; because

  • clear-winged grasshopper (insect)

    short-horned grasshopper: The clear-winged grasshopper (Camnula pellucida) is a major crop pest in North America.

  • clearance (mechanics)

    gasoline engine: Combustion chamber: …at VTDC is called the clearance. The distance traveled by the piston between its VTDC and VBDC locations is the stroke. The ratio of VTDC to VBDC normalized to the VTDC value—i.e., (VBDC/VTDC):1—is the compression ratio of a reciprocating engine. Compression ratio is the most important factor affecting the theoretical…

  • Clearchus (Greek military officer)

    Battle of Cunaxa: Greek mercenaries under Clearchus, nearly 13,000 strong and the best trained and equipped troops in Cyrus’ army, routed the Persian left with few casualties, while Cyrus himself charged Artaxerxes’ centre with 600 cavalry. Cyrus succeeded in wounding his brother but was killed. When the Greeks returned, they found…

  • Clearchus of Soli (Greek philosopher)

    Aristotelianism: Early development: …Stoic theory of providence; and Clearchus of Soli combined Plato’s views on the human soul with Aristotle’s.

  • Clearfield (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Clearfield, county, central Pennsylvania, U.S., consisting of a hilly region on the Allegheny Plateau bounded to the east by the West Branch Susquehanna River and Moshannon Creek. Other waterways are Clearfield, Chest, Sandy Lick, and Bennett Branch Sinnemahoning creeks, Treasure Lake, and

  • Clearfield (Utah, United States)

    Clearfield, city, Davis county, northern Utah, U.S., at an altitude of 4,487 feet (1,368 metres). Founded in 1877 as a farming centre, it is mainly a residential community and suburb of Ogden and Salt Lake City, with some industrialization. The Clearfield Naval Supply Depot just outside the city

  • clearinghouse (finance)

    Clearinghouse, institution established by firms engaged in similar activities to enable them to offset transactions with one another in order to limit payment settlements to net balances. Clearinghouses play an important role in settling transactions related to banks, railroads, stock and

  • clearstory (architecture)

    Clerestory, in architecture, any fenestrated (windowed) wall of a room that is carried higher than the surrounding roofs to light the interior space. In a large building, where interior walls are far from the structure’s exterior walls, this method of lighting otherwise enclosed, windowless spaces

  • Clearwater (Florida, United States)

    Clearwater, city, seat (1912) of Pinellas county, west-central Florida, U.S. It lies on Clearwater Harbor (part of the Intracoastal Waterway), just west of Tampa via the Courtney Campbell Causeway across Old Tampa Bay. Together with St. Petersburg, about 15 miles (25 km) to the southeast, these

  • Clearwater River (river, Canada)

    Mackenzie River: History: …of Churchill River with the Clearwater River, itself one of the east-bank tributaries of the Athabasca River. In 1789 Alexander Mackenzie made his historic journey northward from the trading post of Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca, exploring, with a crew of 12 in three canoes, the full length of the…

  • clearwater stream (hydrology)

    Amazon River: Physiography of the river course: Negro, and Tocantins-Araguaia) or clearwater (Trombetas, Xingu, and Tapajós). The blackwater tributaries have higher levels of humic acids (which cause their dark colour) and originate in nutrient-poor, often sandy uplands, so they carry little or no silt or dissolved solids. Clearwater tributaries have a higher mineral content and lower…

  • clearwing moth (insect)

    Clearwing moth, (family Sesiidae), any of approximately 1,000 species of moths (order Lepidoptera) that are long-legged with a slender, dark body with bright red or yellow markings. The wings frequently lack scales and are transparent. Unlike those of other moths, the front and back wings are

  • Cleary, Beverly (American author)

    Beverly Cleary, American children’s writer whose award-winning books are lively, humorous portrayals of problems and events faced in real life by school-aged girls and boys. Beverly Bunn lived on a farm near Yamhill, Oregon, before moving to Portland—the setting of many of her books—when she was

  • cleavage (biology)

    nucleic acid: Cleavage: Following synthesis by transcription, most RNA molecules are processed before reaching their final form. Many rRNA molecules are cleaved from much larger transcripts and may also be methylated or enzymatically modified. In addition, tRNAs are usually formed as longer precursor molecules that are cleaved…

  • cleavage (mineralogy)

    Cleavage, tendency of a crystalline substance to split into fragments bounded by plane surfaces. Although cleavage surfaces are seldom as flat as crystal faces, the angles between them are highly characteristic and valuable in identifying a crystalline material. Cleavage occurs on planes where the

  • cleavage (embryo)

    Cleavage, in embryology, the first few cellular divisions of a zygote (fertilized egg). Initially, the zygote splits along a longitudinal plane. The second division is also longitudinal, but at 90 degrees to the plane of the first. The third division is perpendicular to the first two and is

  • cleavage (chemistry)

    ether: Cleavage: Ethers are good solvents partly because they are not very reactive. Most ethers can be cleaved, however, by hydrobromic acid (HBr) to give alkyl bromides or by hydroiodic acid (HI) to give alkyl iodides.

  • cleavage (painting)

    art conservation and restoration: Paintings on canvas: …a condition variously called “cleavage,” “flaking,” “blistering,” or “scaling.” The traditional method to address these problems is to reinforce the back of the canvas by attaching a new canvas to the old in a process called “lining,” also referred to as “relining.” A number of techniques and adhesives have…

  • cleavage reaction (chemistry)

    ether: Cleavage: Ethers are good solvents partly because they are not very reactive. Most ethers can be cleaved, however, by hydrobromic acid (HBr) to give alkyl bromides or by hydroiodic acid (HI) to give alkyl iodides.

  • Cleaveland, Moses (American explorer)

    Cleveland: History: Moses Cleaveland, from the Connecticut Land Company, arrived with surveyors at the mouth of the Cuyahoga in July 1796 to map the area. He founded and laid out the town of Cleaveland. (In 1832 an a in Cleaveland was dropped to shorten a newspaper’s masthead.)

  • cleavelandite (mineral)

    feldspar: Identification of specific feldspars: …referred to by the name cleavelandite.

  • cleaver (tool)

    Cleaver, heavy, axlike knife used for about the past one million years to cut through animal bone and meat; in modern times the cleaver, generally made of iron or carbon steel, remains a requisite tool of the butcher and a common kitchen implement. The versatility of the cleaver is probably best

  • Cleaver, Eldridge (American author and activist)

    Eldridge Cleaver, American black militant whose autobiographical volume Soul on Ice (1968) is a classic statement of black alienation in the United States. Cleaver was an inmate of correctional institutions in California almost constantly from his junior high school days until 1966 for crimes

  • Cleaver, Leroy Eldridge (American author and activist)

    Eldridge Cleaver, American black militant whose autobiographical volume Soul on Ice (1968) is a classic statement of black alienation in the United States. Cleaver was an inmate of correctional institutions in California almost constantly from his junior high school days until 1966 for crimes

  • cleavers (plant)

    Bedstraw, (genus Galium), plant genus of about 400 species of low-growing annual or perennial herbs in the madder family (Rubiaceae). They can be found in damp woods and swamps and along stream banks and shores throughout the world. Bedstraw plants are characterized by finely toothed, often

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