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  • Clatworthy, Robert (American art director)
  • Clauberg, Johann (German philosopher and theologian)

    Johann Clauberg, philosopher and theologian who became the foremost German proponent of the thought of the French philosopher René Descartes. After study at Bremen and in the Netherlands at Groningen and after travel in France and England, Clauberg encountered Cartesian philosophy in lectures by

  • Claude (French artist)

    Claude Lorrain, French artist best known for, and one of the greatest masters of, ideal landscape painting, an art form that seeks to present a view of nature more beautiful and harmonious than nature itself. The quality of that beauty is governed by Classical concepts, and the landscape often

  • Claude de France (queen of France)

    Claude Of France, queen consort of King Francis I of France (reigned 1515–47), the daughter of the French king Louis XII and Anne of Brittany. In 1504 Claude’s mother, eager to keep Brittany out of French hands, caused the Treaty of Blois to be concluded, which assured the hand of Claude to C

  • Claude Lorrain (French artist)

    Claude Lorrain, French artist best known for, and one of the greatest masters of, ideal landscape painting, an art form that seeks to present a view of nature more beautiful and harmonious than nature itself. The quality of that beauty is governed by Classical concepts, and the landscape often

  • Claude Lorrain glass (painting tool)

    Claude Lorrain glass, black convex glass used by artists to reflect the landscape in miniature and, in doing so, to merge details and reduce the strength of colour so that the artist is presented with a broad picture of the scene and a certain tonal unity. The 17th-century French landscape painter

  • Claude of France (queen of France)

    Claude Of France, queen consort of King Francis I of France (reigned 1515–47), the daughter of the French king Louis XII and Anne of Brittany. In 1504 Claude’s mother, eager to keep Brittany out of French hands, caused the Treaty of Blois to be concluded, which assured the hand of Claude to C

  • Claude’s Confession (work by Zola)

    Émile Zola: Life: …La Confession de Claude (Claude’s Confession), a sordid, semiautobiographical tale that drew the attention of the public and the police and incurred the disapproval of Zola’s employer. Having sufficiently established his reputation as a writer to support himself and his mother, albeit meagerly, as a freelance journalist, Zola left…

  • Claude, Albert (Belgian cytologist)

    Albert Claude, Belgian-American cytologist who developed the principal methods of separating and analyzing components of the living cell. For this work, on which modern cell biology is partly based, Claude, his student George Palade, and Christian de Duve shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or

  • Claude, Georges (French engineer)

    Georges Claude, engineer, chemist, and inventor of the neon light, which found widespread use in signs and was the forerunner of the fluorescent light. In 1897 Claude discovered that acetylene gas could be transported safely by dissolving it in acetone. His method was generally adopted and brought

  • Claudel, Camille (French artist)

    Camille Claudel, French sculptor of whose work little remains and who for many years was best known as the mistress and muse of Auguste Rodin. She was also the sister of Paul Claudel, whose journals and memoirs provide much of the scant information available on his sister’s life. Between the ages

  • Claudel, Camille-Rosalie (French artist)

    Camille Claudel, French sculptor of whose work little remains and who for many years was best known as the mistress and muse of Auguste Rodin. She was also the sister of Paul Claudel, whose journals and memoirs provide much of the scant information available on his sister’s life. Between the ages

  • Claudel, Paul (French author)

    Paul Claudel, poet, playwright, essayist, a towering force in French literature of the first half of the 20th century, whose works derive their lyrical inspiration, their unity and scope, and their prophetic tone from his faith in God. Claudel, the brother of the sculptor Camille Claudel, was born

  • Clauderus, Gabriel (German scientist)

    embalming: Development of modern embalming: …German scientists Frederik Ruysch and Gabriel Clauderus are believed to have used similar arterial-injection techniques to prevent cadavers from decomposing. The Scottish anatomist William Hunter (1718–83), however, is credited with being the first to report fully on arterial and cavity embalming as a way to preserve bodies for burial. His…

  • Claudet, Antoine-François-Jean (French photographer)

    history of photography: Development of the daguerreotype: …in Britain were produced by Claudet, who opened a studio on the roof of the Royal Adelaide Gallery in June 1841. He was responsible for numerous improvements in photography, including the discovery that red light did not affect sensitive plates and could therefore be used safely in the darkroom. The…

  • Claudia, Lex (Roman law)

    Gaius Flaminius: …only senator to support the Lex Claudia of Quintus Claudius (218), which forbade senators to engage in commerce.

  • Claudian (Roman author)

    Claudian, last important poet of the classical tradition. Coming to Italy and abandoning Greek, he showed his mastery of Latin in a poem celebrating the consulship (395) of Probinus and Olybrius. An epigram on his superior, the Greek Hadrianus, Deprecatio ad Hadrianum, jeopardized his civil post;

  • Claudian dynasty (ancient Rome)

    Julio-Claudian dynasty, (ad 14–68), the four successors of Augustus, the first Roman emperor: Tiberius (reigned 14–37), Caligula (37–41), Claudius I (41–54), and Nero (54–68). It was not a direct bloodline. Augustus had been the great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar (of the Julia gens),

  • Claudian law (Roman law)

    Gaius Flaminius: …only senator to support the Lex Claudia of Quintus Claudius (218), which forbade senators to engage in commerce.

  • Claudianus major (work by Claudian)

    Claudian: …in two books, known as Claudianus major, together with epistles, epigrams, and idylls. The longer poems are panegyrics on the consulships of Honorius, Mallius Theodorus, and Stilicho. A third book celebrates Stilicho’s entry into Rome. There are also invectives against ministers of Arcadius, two poems addressed to Serena, wife of…

  • Claudianus minor (work by Claudian)

    Claudian: Claudianus minor contains the mythological epic Raptus Proserpinae (“The Rape of Proserpine”), on which Claudian’s medieval fame largely depended. The second book of the epic has an elegiac epistle addressed to Florentinus, the city prefect, and reflects Claudian’s interest in the Eleusinian mysteries.

  • Claudianus, Claudius (Roman author)

    Claudian, last important poet of the classical tradition. Coming to Italy and abandoning Greek, he showed his mastery of Latin in a poem celebrating the consulship (395) of Probinus and Olybrius. An epigram on his superior, the Greek Hadrianus, Deprecatio ad Hadrianum, jeopardized his civil post;

  • Claudii Pulchri (Roman house)

    Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus: …rivals of the Scipios, the Claudii Pulchri, through Tiberius’s wife, Claudia, daughter of Appius Claudius Pulcher, the contemporary head of the house and princeps senatus, who had the honour of speaking first in all discussions in the Senate.

  • Claudine (fictional character)

    Claudine, fictional character, the heroine of a series of novels by Colette, originally published in French as the work of her then husband, Henri Gauthier-Villars (“Willy”). The works include Claudine at School (1900), Claudine in Paris (1901), The Indulgent Husband (1902), and The Innocent Wife

  • Claudine à l’école (novel by Colette)

    Claudine: The works include Claudine at School (1900), Claudine in Paris (1901), The Indulgent Husband (1902), and The Innocent Wife (1903). Locked by Willy in a room so that she would write without distractions, the young Colette drew on her own experiences as a girl from the provinces and…

  • Claudine à Paris (novel by Colette)

    Claudine: …include Claudine at School (1900), Claudine in Paris (1901), The Indulgent Husband (1902), and The Innocent Wife (1903). Locked by Willy in a room so that she would write without distractions, the young Colette drew on her own experiences as a girl from the provinces and as a young married…

  • Claudine at School (novel by Colette)

    Claudine: The works include Claudine at School (1900), Claudine in Paris (1901), The Indulgent Husband (1902), and The Innocent Wife (1903). Locked by Willy in a room so that she would write without distractions, the young Colette drew on her own experiences as a girl from the provinces and…

  • Claudine in Paris (novel by Colette)

    Claudine: …include Claudine at School (1900), Claudine in Paris (1901), The Indulgent Husband (1902), and The Innocent Wife (1903). Locked by Willy in a room so that she would write without distractions, the young Colette drew on her own experiences as a girl from the provinces and as a young married…

  • Claudio (fictional character, “Measure for Measure”)

    Measure for Measure: …passes the death sentence on Claudio, a nobleman convicted for impregnating his betrothed, Juliet. Claudio’s sister Isabella, a novice in a nunnery, pleads his case to Angelo. This new deputy ruler, a man of stern and rigorous self-control, finds to his consternation and amazement that he lusts after Isabella; her…

  • Claudio (fictional character, “Much Ado About Nothing”)

    Much Ado About Nothing: …a contrast between the conventional Claudio and Hero, who have the usual expectations of each other, and Beatrice and Benedick, who are highly skeptical of romance and courtship and, seemingly, each other. Claudio is deceived by the jealous Don John into believing that Hero is prepared to abandon him for…

  • Claudius (Roman emperor)

    Claudius, Roman emperor (41–54 ce), who extended Roman rule in North Africa and made Britain a province. The son of Nero Claudius Drusus, a popular and successful Roman general, and the younger Antonia, he was the nephew of the emperor Tiberius and a grandson of Livia Drusilla, the wife of the

  • Claudius (Solomonid king of Ethiopia)

    Aḥmad Grāñ: …with the new Ethiopian ruler, Galawdewos (Claudius), were soon able to rearm themselves and rally a large number of Ethiopians. Aḥmad Grāñ, who had sent most of his Turkish troops back, was killed in the crucial battle that followed, and Galawdewos was able to regain his kingdom in 1543, though…

  • Claudius (fictional character)

    Claudius, the usurping king of Denmark, uncle-stepfather of Hamlet, and second husband to Gertrude in Shakespeare’s

  • Claudius Caecus, Appius (Roman statesman)

    Appius Claudius Caecus, outstanding statesman, legal expert, and author of early Rome who was one of the first notable personalities in Roman history. A member of the patrician class, Appius embarked on a program of political reform during his censorship, beginning in 312 bce. Elements of this

  • Claudius II Gothicus (Roman emperor)

    Claudius II Gothicus, Roman emperor in 268–270, whose major achievement was the decisive defeat of the Gothic invaders (hence the name Gothicus) of the Balkans in 269. Claudius was an army officer under the emperor Gallienus from 260 to 268—a period of devastation of much of the Roman Empire by

  • Claudius Julianus, Flavius (Roman emperor)

    Julian, Roman emperor from ad 361 to 363, nephew of Constantine the Great, and noted scholar and military leader who was proclaimed emperor by his troops. A persistent enemy of Christianity, he publicly announced his conversion to paganism in 361, thus acquiring the epithet “the Apostate.” Julian

  • Claudius Namatianus, Rutilius (Roman poet)

    Rutilius Claudius Namatianus, Roman poet who was the author of an elegiac poem, De reditu suo, describing a journey from Rome to his native Gaul in the autumn of ad 417. The poem is chiefly interesting for the light it throws on the ideology of the pagan landowning aristocracy of the rapidly

  • Claudius Pulcher, Appius (Roman politician [died circa 130 BC])

    Appius Claudius Pulcher, Roman politician, father-in-law of the agrarian reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus. Claudius served on the Gracchan land commission from 133 until his death. He was consul in 143 and censor in 136. His prestige as princeps senatus (“senior senator”) enabled him to

  • Claudius Pulcher, Appius (Roman politician [died circa 48 BC])

    Appius Claudius Pulcher, Roman politician, a leading member of the senatorial party opposed to the powerful general Julius Caesar. From 72 to 70 Claudius served in Anatolia under his brother-in-law, Lucius Licinius Lucullus, in the war against Mithradates VI, king of Pontus. He was praetor in 57,

  • Claudius Pulcher, Publius (Roman commander)

    Publius Claudius Pulcher, son of Appius Claudius Caecus and commander of the fleet that suffered the only serious Roman naval defeat of the First Punic War (264–241 bc). The setback occurred in 249, when Claudius was consul. He attacked the Carthaginian fleet in the harbour of Drepanum (modern

  • Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis, Appius (Roman statesman)

    Appius Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis, traditional founder of the Claudii, one of the most distinguished gentes (“clans”) of ancient Rome. About 504 bc he migrated from Regillum (or Regilli) in Sabine territory to Rome, where he received patrician rank. His followers were granted Roman citizenship

  • Claudius the God (work by Graves)

    Robert Graves: …ancient Mediterranean civilizations and including Claudius the God (1934), which extends Claudius’s narrative to his own reign as emperor; Count Belisarius (1938), a sympathetic study of the great and martyred general of the Byzantine Empire; and The Golden Fleece (1944; U.S. title Hercules, My Shipmate). Graves’s researches for The Golden…

  • Claudius, cells of (anatomy)

    human ear: Organ of Corti: …called the cells of Hensen, Claudius, and Boettcher, after the 19th-century anatomists who first described them. Their function has not been established, but they are assumed to help in maintaining the composition of the endolymph by ion transport and absorptive activity.

  • Claudius, Matthias (German author)

    Matthias Claudius, German poet, most notable for Der Mond ist aufgegangen (“The Moon Has Risen”) and editor of the journal Der Wandsbecker Bothe. After studying at Jena, Claudius held a series of editorial and minor official positions in Copenhagen and Darmstadt until in 1788 he acquired a sinecure

  • Claus (prince of The Netherlands)

    Prince Claus, (Claus Georg Wilhelm Otto Friedrich Gerd von Amsberg), German-born Dutch royal (born Sept. 6, 1926, Dötzingen, Ger.—died Oct. 6, 2002, Amsterdam, Neth.), was the consort of Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands. When Claus married then crown princess Beatrix in March 1966, he faced p

  • Claus process (chemistry)

    sulfur: Commercial production: …to elemental sulfur by the Claus process, which involves the partial burning of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide, with subsequent reaction between the two to yield sulfur. Another important source is the sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired steam power plants. In the early 1970s techniques to collect…

  • Claus, Carl Ernst (Russian chemist)

    Karl Karlovich Klaus, Russian chemist (of German origin) credited with the discovery of ruthenium in 1844. Klaus was educated at Dorpat, where he became a pharmacist; later he taught chemistry and pharmacy at the universities of Dorpat and Kazan. Klaus was noted for his researches on the platinum

  • Claus, Hugo (Belgian writer, director, and painter)

    Hugo Claus, Belgian poet, novelist, playwright, screenwriter, director, and painter renowned for his prolific energy and the versatility of his politically and socially challenging work. Many consider him to be Belgium’s greatest writer. Claus was the son of a painter. He attended Roman Catholic

  • Claus, Santa (legendary figure)

    Santa Claus, legendary figure who is the traditional patron of Christmas in the United States and other countries, bringing gifts to children. His popular image is based on traditions associated with Saint Nicholas, a 4th-century Christian saint. Father Christmas fills the role in many European

  • Clausel, Bertrand, Comte (marshal of France)

    Bertrand, Count Clauzel, marshal of France and governor of Algeria (1835–37). After service in the eastern Pyrenees, northwestern France, and Italy, he rose to general of division in 1802 and distinguished himself during the Peninsular War (1809–12). Having crushed the Bordeaux royalists during the

  • Clausewitz, Carl Philipp Gottlieb von (Prussian general)

    Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian general and military thinker, whose work Vom Kriege (1832; On War) has become one of the most respected classics on military strategy. Clausewitz enlisted in the Prussian army in 1792, and in 1793–95 he took part (and was commissioned) in the campaigns of the First

  • Clausewitz, Carl von (Prussian general)

    Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian general and military thinker, whose work Vom Kriege (1832; On War) has become one of the most respected classics on military strategy. Clausewitz enlisted in the Prussian army in 1792, and in 1793–95 he took part (and was commissioned) in the campaigns of the First

  • Clausiliacea (gastropod superfamily)

    gastropod: Classification: Superfamily Clausiliacea Elongated shells of West Indian shore salt-spray zone (Cerionidae) or Andean mountains of South America and Eurasia (Clausiliidae). Superfamily Strophocheilacea Large helicoidal to elongated shells of South America (Strophocheilidae) or southwestern

  • Clausiliidae (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: …South America and Eurasia (Clausiliidae). Superfamily Strophocheilacea Large helicoidal to elongated shells of South America (Strophocheilidae) or southwestern Africa (Dorcasiidae). Order Sigmurethra Ureter originates near anterior margin

  • Clausius, Rudolf (German mathematician and physicist)

    Rudolf Clausius, German mathematical physicist who formulated the second law of thermodynamics and is credited with making thermodynamics a science. Clausius was appointed professor of physics at the Artillery and Engineering School at Berlin in 1850, the same year in which he presented a paper

  • Clausius, Rudolf Julius Emanuel (German mathematician and physicist)

    Rudolf Clausius, German mathematical physicist who formulated the second law of thermodynamics and is credited with making thermodynamics a science. Clausius was appointed professor of physics at the Artillery and Engineering School at Berlin in 1850, the same year in which he presented a paper

  • Clausius-Clapeyron equation

    thermodynamics: The Clausius-Clapeyron equation: Phase changes, such as the conversion of liquid water to steam, provide an important example of a system in which there is a large change in internal energy with volume at constant temperature. Suppose that the cylinder contains both water and steam in equilibrium…

  • Claussen, Sophus (Danish poet)

    Sophus Claussen, one of Scandinavia’s foremost lyric poets. He was influenced by the French Symbolists and in turn greatly influenced Danish modernist poets of the 1940s and 1960s. Claussen’s family was devoted to farming and politics, and he was intensely interested in the latter. After studying

  • clausula (music)

    Clausula, (Latin: “clause”, ) in music, a 13th-century polyphonic genre featuring two strictly measured parts: notable examples are the descant sections based on the Gregorian chant melisma (several notes to a syllable), which in the organa of the Notre-Dame school alternated with sections

  • clausula (rhetoric)

    Clausula, in Greek and Latin rhetoric, the rhythmic close to a sentence or clause, or a terminal cadence. The clausula is especially important in ancient and medieval Latin prose rhythm; most of the clausulae in Cicero’s speeches, for example, follow a specific pattern and distinctly avoid certain

  • Clauzel, Bertrand, Comte (marshal of France)

    Bertrand, Count Clauzel, marshal of France and governor of Algeria (1835–37). After service in the eastern Pyrenees, northwestern France, and Italy, he rose to general of division in 1802 and distinguished himself during the Peninsular War (1809–12). Having crushed the Bordeaux royalists during the

  • Clavariaceae (biology)

    mushroom: …Ramaria), are shrublike, clublike, or coral-like in growth habit. One club fungus, the cauliflower fungus (Sparassis crispa), has flattened clustered branches that lie close together, giving the appearance of the vegetable cauliflower. The cantharelloid fungi (Cantharellus and its relatives) are club-, cone-, or trumpet-shaped mushroomlike forms with an expanded top…

  • Clavatipollenites (plant genus)

    magnoliid clade: Evolution: …pollen grain is known as Clavatipollenites, which recent studies suggest is probably most closely related to the order Laurales, although it shows some links to the Magnoliales. It first appeared in the rocks of the Barremian (129.4 million to 125.0 million years ago) or in those of the slightly earlier…

  • Clave historial (work by Flórez)

    Enrique Flórez: …España sagrada, Flórez wrote the Clave historial (1743; “Key to Historical Methodology”), a discourse on methods of writing history; the Memorias de las reynas católicas (1761; “Memoirs of the Catholic Queens”), a genealogical account of Catholic queens in the Castilian line from the Goths until the reign of Charles III;…

  • Clavé, Pelegrín (Spanish artist)

    Manuel Vilar: …academy recruited Vilar and painter Pelegrín Clavé, a fellow Catalonian who also worked in a Purist style, in the hopes of revitalizing the school. Together, Vilar and Clavé directed the school’s training toward a conservative, deeply religious art. Students began to produce emotionally intense biblical scenes that reflected their teachers’…

  • Clavel, Alexander (Swiss manufacturer)

    Novartis AG: …a silk-dyeing business owned by Alexander Clavel, who began manufacturing the synthetic dye fuchsine in 1859. In 1873 Clavel sold his business to a partnership, Bindschedler & Busch, which expanded the range of dyestuffs produced. In 1884 the firm was transformed into a limited-liability company called the Gesellschaft für Chemische…

  • Clavell, James (American writer and director)

    James Clavell, Australian author of popular action novels set within Asian cultures. Clavell grew up in England and later became a member of the Royal Artillery. A motorcycle injury caused him to leave the military in 1946. He developed an interest in film, and his first writings were screenplays,

  • Clavell, James Dumaresq (American writer and director)

    James Clavell, Australian author of popular action novels set within Asian cultures. Clavell grew up in England and later became a member of the Royal Artillery. A motorcycle injury caused him to leave the military in 1946. He developed an interest in film, and his first writings were screenplays,

  • Clavering, Sir John (British army officer)

    Warren Hastings: Political rivalries: …led by an army officer, Sir John Clavering, and included the immensely able and ambitious Philip Francis, immediately quarreled with Hastings. Hastings’s admirers have had little patience with Clavering and Francis; but it is possible to see that Francis had a genuine point of view in his opposition to Hastings…

  • claves (musical instrument)

    Claves, percussion instrument, a pair of cylindrical hardwood sticks about 8 inches (20 centimetres) long and one inch (2 12 centimetres) in diameter, one of which is held in the player’s fingertips over the cupped hand (a resonator). When struck together they produce a sharp ringing sound. Claves

  • Clavibacter (bacterium)

    plant disease: General characteristics: …plant pathogenic bacteria are Agrobacterium, Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Streptomyces, and Xylella. With the exception of Streptomyces species, all are small, single, rod-shaped cells approximately 0.5 to 1.0 micrometre (0.00002 to 0.00004 inch) in width and 1.0 to 3.5

  • Claviceps (genus of fungi)

    Ascomycota: A related genus, Claviceps, includes C. purpurea, the cause of ergot of rye and ergotism in humans and domestic animals. Earth tongue is the common name for the more than 80 Geoglossum species of the order Helotiales. They produce black to brown, club-shaped fruiting structures on soil or…

  • Claviceps africana (fungus)

    ergot: …of sorghum is caused by C. africana, while that of pearl millet is due to C. fusiformis.

  • Claviceps fusiformis (fungus)

    ergot: …pearl millet is due to C. fusiformis.

  • Claviceps purpurea (fungus species)

    Ascomycota: A related genus, Claviceps, includes C. purpurea, the cause of ergot of rye and ergotism in humans and domestic animals. Earth tongue is the common name for the more than 80 Geoglossum species of the order Helotiales. They produce black to brown, club-shaped fruiting structures on soil or on decaying…

  • clavichord (musical instrument)

    Clavichord, stringed keyboard musical instrument, developed from the medieval monochord. It flourished from about 1400 to 1800 and was revived in the 20th century. It is usually rectangular in shape, and its case and lid were usually highly decorated, painted, and inlaid. The right, or treble, end

  • clavicle (anatomy)

    Clavicle, curved anterior bone of the shoulder (pectoral) girdle in vertebrates; it functions as a strut to support the shoulder. The clavicle is present in mammals with prehensile forelimbs and in bats, and it is absent in sea mammals and those adapted for running. The wishbone, or furcula, of

  • clavicytherium (musical instrument)

    Clavicytherium, a type of vertically strung

  • clavier (musical instrument)

    Clavier, any stringed keyboard musical instrument in Germany from the late 17th century. The harpsichord, the clavichord, and, later, the piano bore the name. The Anglicized form of the name is often used in English discussions of such instruments in German music. It is also used in place of “

  • Clavier de Bombardes (musical instrument)

    keyboard instrument: France: …fifth manual, it was a Clavier de Bombardes, consisting of 16-, 8-, and 4-foot trumpets and a cornet. Unlike its German counterpart, the main case housed all divisions except the Positif, which was in its usual location on the gallery railing.

  • Clavierübung (work by Bach)

    Johann Sebastian Bach: Instrumental works: The second part of the Clavierübung, containing the Concerto in the Italian Style and the French Overture (Partita) in B Minor, appeared in 1735. The third part, consisting of the Organ Mass with the Prelude and Fugue [“St. Anne”] in E-flat Major (BWV 552), appeared in 1739. From c. 1729…

  • Clavigo (work by Goethe)

    José Clavijo y Fajardo: …von Goethe in his tragedy Clavigo.

  • Clavijo y Fajardo, José (Spanish author)

    José Clavijo y Fajardo, Spanish naturalist and man of letters known for his campaign against public performance of the Corpus Christi autos sacramentales, one-act, open-air dramas that portrayed the eucharistic mystery. From his position as editor of the literary periodical El pensador, he issued

  • Clavioline (musical instrument)

    electronic instrument: Post-World War II electronic instruments: The Hammond Solovox, Constant Martin’s Clavioline, and Georges Jenny’s Ondioline are examples of commercially produced monophonic (capable of generating only one note at a time) electronic instruments. These instruments used small keyboards and were designed to mount immediately under the keyboard of a piano. They were capable of simulating a…

  • Clavis Mathematicae (work by Oughtred)

    William Oughtred: …famous under the title of Clavis Mathematicae (“The Key to Mathematics”), although it was not an easy text. It compressed much of contemporary European knowledge of arithmetic and algebra into less than 100 pages (in the first edition), while a somewhat obscure style and a penchant for excessive symbolism made…

  • Clavis Universalis (work by Collier)

    Arthur Collier: In his major work, Clavis Universalis (1713; “Universal Key”), he argued that men dare not conclude that what seems to perception to be external is actually external, for such objects as hallucinations, which seem external, are admitted to be internal. The difference between a seen and an imagined object,…

  • Clavius, Christopher (Jesuit astronomer)

    calendar: The Gregorian calendar: …bull that the Jesuit astronomer Christopher Clavius (1537–1612) began to draw up, using suggestions made by the astronomer and physician Luigi Lilio (also known as Aloysius Lilius; died 1576).

  • clavus (fish anatomy)

    mola: …thick rudderlike structure called a clavus just behind the tall triangular dorsal and anal fins. The development of the clavus results from the folding of the mola’s back fin into its body as the fish grows. The fishes are also flattened from side to side and have tough skin, a…

  • claw (anatomy)

    Claw, narrow, arched structure that curves downward from the end of a digit in birds, reptiles, many mammals, and some amphibians. It is a hardened (keratinized) modification of the epidermis. Claws may be adapted for scratching, clutching, digging, or climbing. By analogy, the appendages of other

  • claw beaker (glass)

    glassware: The Roman Empire: …of the elaborate and fantastic Rüsselbecher (“elephant’s trunk, or claw beaker”) on which two superimposed rows of hollow, trunklike protrusions curve down to rejoin the wall of the vessel above a small button foot.

  • claw hammer (tool)

    hand tool: Hammers and hammerlike tools: …name hammer is the carpenter’s claw type, but there are many others, such as riveting, boilermaker’s, bricklayer’s, blacksmith’s, machinist’s ball peen and cross peen, stone (or spalling), prospecting, and tack hammers. Each has a particular reason for its form. Such specialization was evident under the Romans, and a craftsperson of…

  • claw shrimp (crustacean)

    Clam shrimp, any member of the crustacean order Conchostraca (subclass Branchiopoda), a group of about 200 species inhabiting shallow freshwater lakes, ponds, and temporary pools throughout the world. Clam shrimps are so called because their entire body is contained within a bivalved shell

  • claw-toed tree toad (amphibian)

    clawed frog: …the African clawed frog, or platanna (X. laevis) of southern Africa, a smooth-skinned frog about 13 cm (5 inches) long. It is valuable for mosquito control, because it eats the eggs and young of those insects. Native to sub-Saharan Africa, X. laevis was introduced to the United States and Britain.…

  • clawed frog (amphibian)

    Clawed frog, (genus Xenopus), any member of 6 to 15 species of tongueless aquatic African frogs (family Pipidae) having small black claws on the inner three toes of the hind limbs. Xenopus species are generally dull-coloured. Their bodies are relatively flat and bear whitish fringelike mucous

  • clawless otter (mammal)

    mustelid: Natural history: Clawless otters (genus Aonyx) specialize on crustaceans (especially crabs) and mollusks, whereas other otters (genus Lutra) are primarily fish eaters. Specialization even occurs between sexes in the weasels (genus Mustela), in which males consume larger prey than females owing to their larger size.

  • Claxton, Laurence (English religious leader)

    Laurence Claxton, preacher and pamphleteer, leader of the radical English religious sect known as the Ranters. Originally a tailor by trade, Claxton sampled many Protestant denominations before joining the Baptists in 1644. His first tracts, The Pilgrimage of Saints and Truth Released, appeared in

  • Claxton, Timothy (British educator)

    mechanics' institute: Timothy Claxton founded the Mechanical Institution in London in 1817; it offered lecture-discussions for three years, until Claxton left London in 1820. The New York Mechanic and Scientific Institution, founded in 1822, was the first of many short-lived efforts in New York.

  • Clay (Liberia)

    Kle, town, western Liberia. It is a traditional trading centre among the Gola people. The B.F. Goodrich Company, Liberia, Inc., established a plantation, hospital, power plant, housing, schools, and roads to the west of the town, which began producing rubber in 1963. Pop. (2008)

  • clay (geology)

    Clay, soil particles the diameters of which are less than 0.005 millimetre; also a rock that is composed essentially of clay particles. Rock in this sense includes soils, ceramic clays, clay shales, mudstones, glacial clays (including great volumes of detrital and transported clays), and deep-sea

  • Clay Center for the Arts and Sciences (cultural centre, West Virginia, United States)

    West Virginia: Cultural life: The Clay Center for the Arts and Sciences in Charleston is the home of the West Virginia Symphony Orchestra; it also contains the Avampato Discovery Museum, which has art and science exhibits. The well-regarded Wheeling Symphony, established in 1929, performs in locations across the state. The…

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