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  • Civil Aeronautics Board (United States government agency)

    interstate commerce: The Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), which operated from 1938 to 1984, was involved in setting interstate routes as well as regulating fares for the commercial airlines. With the deregulation of the airline industry, however, the role of the CAB was much diminished, and its residual functions…

  • Civil Air Transport (American airline)

    Claire L. Chennault: Two years later Civil Air Transport (CAT) was founded and soon became active in the country’s civil war, transporting munitions and troops for the Nationalist government. It also did work for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and was eventually bought by the organization after the communists took…

  • civil aircraft

    airplane: Civil aircraft: All nonmilitary planes are civil aircraft. These include private and business planes and commercial airliners.

  • civil aviation

    Aviation, the development and operation of heavier-than-air aircraft. The term “civil aviation” refers to the air-transportation service provided to the public by airlines, while “military aviation” refers to the development and use of military aircraft. A brief treatment of aviation follows. For

  • Civil Code

    Prussian Civil Code, (“General State Law”), the law of the Prussian states, begun during the reign of Frederick the Great (1740–86) but not promulgated until 1794 under his successor, Frederick William II. It was to be enforced wherever it did not conflict with local customs. The code was adopted b

  • Civil Code (German law code)

    German Civil Code, the body of codified private law that went into effect in the German empire in 1900. Though it has been modified, it remains in effect. The code grew out of a desire for a truly national law that would override the often conflicting customs and codes of the various German t

  • Civil Code (France [1804])

    Napoleonic Code, French civil code enacted on March 21, 1804, and still extant, with revisions. It was the main influence on the 19th-century civil codes of most countries of continental Europe and Latin America. The demand for codification and, indeed, codification itself preceded the Napoleonic

  • Civil Code (Switzerland [1907])

    Swiss Civil Code, body of private law codified by the jurist Eugen Huber at the end of the 19th century; it was adopted in 1907 and went into effect in 1912, and it remains in force, with modifications, in present-day Switzerland. Because Huber’s work was completed after the Napoleonic Code (

  • Civil Code (Japanese law)

    Japanese Civil Code, body of private law adopted in 1896 that, with post-World War II modifications, remains in effect in present-day Japan. The code was the result of various movements for modernization following the Meiji Restoration of 1868. A legal code was required that would fill the needs

  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy (France)

    Civil Constitution of the Clergy, (July 12, 1790), during the French Revolution, an attempt to reorganize the Roman Catholic Church in France on a national basis. It caused a schism within the French Church and made many devout Catholics turn against the Revolution. There was a need to create a n

  • Civil Courage Party (political party, Mongolia)

    Mongolia: Political process: …smaller political parties are the Civil Courage (or Citizens’ Will) Party, founded in 2000 by Sanjaasürengiin Oyuun in memory of her brother, Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, leader of the 1989 Mongolian democratic revolution, who was murdered in 1998; and the Mongolian Green Party, established in 1990 and focused on environmental issues.

  • Civil Courage–Republican Party (political party, Mongolia)

    Mongolia: Political process: …smaller political parties are the Civil Courage (or Citizens’ Will) Party, founded in 2000 by Sanjaasürengiin Oyuun in memory of her brother, Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, leader of the 1989 Mongolian democratic revolution, who was murdered in 1998; and the Mongolian Green Party, established in 1990 and focused on environmental issues.

  • civil court (law)

    court: Civil courts: Civil courts (not to be confused with the civil-law legal system) deal with “private” controversies, particularly disputes that arise between individuals or between private businesses or institutions (e.g., a disagreement over the terms of a contract or over who shall bear responsibility for…

  • civil defense (war)

    Civil defense, in war or national defense, all nonmilitary actions taken to reduce loss of life and property resulting from enemy action. It includes defense against attack from conventional bombs or rockets, nuclear weapons, and chemical or biological agents. During World War II the threat of

  • Civil Directory (Spanish government)

    Spain: Primo de Rivera: The Civil Directory (1925–30) was responsible for a thorough overhaul of local government and for an ambitious public works program to increase irrigation, hydraulic power, and road building. Primo’s economic nationalism entailed strict protectionist policies and an attack on foreign oil monopolies. The complicated bureaucratic control…

  • civil disobedience

    Civil disobedience, the refusal to obey the demands or commands of a government or occupying power, without resorting to violence or active measures of opposition; its usual purpose is to force concessions from the government or occupying power. Civil disobedience has been a major tactic and

  • Civil Disobedience (essay by Thoreau)

    American literature: The Transcendentalists: …Disobedience” (1849; originally titled “Resistance to Civil Government”), Thoreau expounded his anarchistic views of government, insisting that if an injustice of government is “of such a nature that it requires injustice to another [you should] break the law [and] let your life be a counter friction to stop the…

  • civil embargo (international law)

    embargo: Whereas civil embargoes consist of the detention of national vessels in home ports either to protect them from foreign depredation or to prevent goods from reaching a particular country, hostile embargoes involve the detention of the vessels or other property of a foreign country.

  • civil engineering (science)

    Civil engineering, the profession of designing and executing structural works that serve the general public. The term was first used in the 18th century to distinguish the newly recognized profession from military engineering, until then preeminent. From earliest times, however, engineers have

  • Civil Engineers, Institution of (British organization)

    construction: Emergence of design professionals: …professions were founded, including the Institution of Civil Engineers (1818) and the Royal Institute of British Architects (1834), both in London, and the American Institute of Architects (1857). Official government licensing of architects and engineers, a goal of these societies, was not realized until much later, beginning with the Illinois…

  • Civil Engineers, Society of (British professional organization)

    civil engineering: History: …Engineers (now known as the Smeatonian Society). Its object was to bring together experienced engineers, entrepreneurs, and lawyers to promote the building of large public works, such as canals (and later railways), and to secure the parliamentary powers necessary to execute their schemes. Their meetings were held during parliamentary sessions;…

  • civil forfeiture (law)

    Civil forfeiture, legal process that enables a government to seize property and other assests belonging to persons suspected of committing a crime. The main purpose of civil forfeiture is to provide an effective means of prosecuting criminals and fighting organized crime. Beginning in the early

  • Civil Guard (Spanish police)

    Civil Guard, national police force of Spain, organized along military lines and engaged primarily in maintaining order in rural areas and in patrolling the frontiers and the highways. Formerly (until 1986) commanded by a lieutenant general of the army, the Civil Guard is now headed by a civilian

  • Civil History of the Kingdom of Naples, The (work by Giannone)

    Pietro Giannone: …del regno di Napoli (1723; The Civil History of the Kingdom of Naples)—a polemical survey of Neapolitan history in which he espoused the side of the civil power in its conflicts with the Roman Catholic hierarchy. As a result of this, the Istoria was placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum…

  • civil law (Romano-Germanic)

    Civil law, the law of continental Europe, based on an admixture of Roman, Germanic, ecclesiastical, feudal, commercial, and customary law. European civil law has been adopted in much of Latin America as well as in parts of Asia and Africa and is to be distinguished from the common law of the

  • civil law (law)

    procedural law: Civil-law codifications: Paralleling the common-law changes described above, civil-law systems underwent several periods of reform in the 19th century, rationalizing procedural rules while maintaining the principle of judicial guidance of litigation.

  • civil law (Roman law)

    Roman law: Development of the jus civile and jus gentium: …the republic (753–31 bce), the jus civile (civil law) developed. Based on custom or legislation, it applied exclusively to Roman citizens. By the middle of the 3rd century bce, however, another type of law, jus gentium (law of nations), was developed by the Romans to be applied both to themselves…

  • civil liberties (law)

    Civil liberty, Freedom from arbitrary interference in one’s pursuits by individuals or by government. The term is usually used in the plural. Civil liberties are protected explicitly in the constitutions of most democratic countries. (In authoritarian countries, civil liberties are often formally

  • Civil Liberties Act (United States history [1988])

    Executive Order 9066: In 1988 Congress passed the Civil Liberties Act, which stated that a “grave injustice” had been done to Japanese American citizens and resident aliens during World War II. It also established a fund that paid some $1.6 billion in reparations to formerly interned Japanese Americans or their heirs.

  • civil liberty (law)

    Civil liberty, Freedom from arbitrary interference in one’s pursuits by individuals or by government. The term is usually used in the plural. Civil liberties are protected explicitly in the constitutions of most democratic countries. (In authoritarian countries, civil liberties are often formally

  • Civil Lines (district, Delhi, India)

    Delhi: City layout: Conversely, the Civil Lines (residential areas originally built by the British for senior officers) in the north and New Delhi in the south embody an element of relative openness, characterized by green grass, trees, and a sense of order.

  • Civil List (British government)

    Civil List, in the United Kingdom, the list of sums appropriated annually by Parliament to pay the expenses of the sovereign and his or her household. The sums are charged to the government’s Consolidated Fund and audited by the treasury. The custom of the Civil List dates to 1689, when Parliament,

  • civil partnership

    business organization: Partnerships: …between kinds of partnership in civil law—one that has no equivalent in Anglo-American common-law countries—is that between civil and commercial partnerships. This distinction depends on whether the purposes for which the partnership is formed fall within the list of commercial activities in the country’s commercial code. These codes always make…

  • civil philosophy

    Western philosophy: The materialism of Thomas Hobbes: …(2) moral philosophy, and (3) civil philosophy. Physics is the science of the motions and actions of physical bodies conceived in terms of cause and effect. Moral philosophy (or, more accurately, psychology) is the detailed study of “the passions and perturbations of the mind”—that is, how minds are “moved” by…

  • civil procedure (law)

    procedural law: Civil procedure: The rules of every procedural system reflect choices between worthy goals. Different systems, for example, may primarily seek truth, or fairness between the parties, or a speedy resolution, or a consistent application of legal principles. Sometimes these goals will be compatible with each…

  • Civil Procedure, Rules of (American law)

    procedural law: English common law: …adopt (subject to congressional veto) Rules of Civil Procedure for the federal district courts, though some matters, such as subject-matter jurisdiction, remained governed by acts of Congress. There were similar developments in many of the states and also in England and Wales. At present most U.S. states, even those that…

  • civil religion (philosophical concept)

    Civil religion, a public profession of faith that aims to inculcate political values and that prescribes dogma, rites, and rituals for citizens of a particular country. This definition of civil religion remains consistent with its first sustained theoretical treatment, in Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s

  • civil rights (society)

    Civil rights, guarantees of equal social opportunities and equal protection under the law, regardless of race, religion, or other personal characteristics. Examples of civil rights include the right to vote, the right to a fair trial, the right to government services, the right to a public

  • Civil Rights Act (United States [1991])

    civil rights: Civil rights movements across the globe: …of legislation such as the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which established a commission designed to investigate the persistence of the “glass ceiling” that has prevented women from advancing to top management positions in the workplace.

  • Civil Rights Act (United States [1871])

    Papish v. Board of Curators of the University of Missouri: Facts of the case: …injunctive relief pursuant to the Civil Rights Act of 1871 (a law that was enacted to fight discrimination against African Americans during Reconstruction), asserting that she was expelled for activities protected by the First Amendment. The district court found in favour of the university, and the Court of Appeals for…

  • Civil Rights Act (United States [1875])

    Civil Rights Act of 1875, U.S. legislation, and the last of the major Reconstruction statutes, which guaranteed African Americans equal treatment in public transportation and public accommodations and service on juries. The U.S. Supreme Court declared the act unconstitutional in the Civil Rights

  • Civil Rights Act (United States [1957])

    African Americans: The civil rights movement: The Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first federal civil rights legislation to be passed since 1875, authorized the federal government to take legal measures to prevent a citizen from being denied voting rights.

  • Civil Rights Act (United States [1866])

    Indiana: Statehood: …in conflict with the federal Civil Rights Act of that year.

  • Civil Rights Act (United States [1964])

    Civil Rights Act, (1964), comprehensive U.S. legislation intended to end discrimination based on race, colour, religion, or national origin. It is often called the most important U.S. law on civil rights since Reconstruction (1865–77) and is a hallmark of the American civil rights movement. Title I

  • Civil Rights Cases (law cases [1883])

    Civil Rights Cases, five legal cases that the U.S. Supreme Court consolidated (because of their similarity) into a single ruling on October 15, 1883, in which the court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to be unconstitutional and thus spurred Jim Crow laws that codified the previously private,

  • Civil Rights Congress (American organization)

    Civil Rights Congress (CRC), civil rights organization founded in Detroit in 1946 by William Patterson, a civil rights attorney and a leader of the Communist Party USA. The organization’s membership was drawn mainly from working-class and unemployed African Americans and left-wing whites. At its

  • Civil Rights Memorial (monument, Montgomery, Alabama)

    Maya Lin: The Civil Rights Memorial was dedicated in Montgomery, Alabama, in November 1989.

  • Civil Rights, Committee on (United States)

    Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander: …a member of the President’s Committee on Civil Rights (1946). She helped found and served as national secretary (1943) of the National Bar Association, an association chiefly composed of black attorneys.

  • civil service

    Civil service, the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. In most countries the term refers to employees selected and promoted on the basis of a merit and seniority system, which may include examinations. In earlier times, when

  • Civil Service Commission (United States government)

    Helen Hamilton Gardener: Civil Service Commission, the highest federal position occupied by a woman to that time. She served until her death five years later.

  • Civil Service Commission (British government)

    public administration: The British Empire: The Civil Service Commission was established in 1855, and during the next 30 years patronage was gradually eliminated. The two original classes were increased to four, and some specialized branches were amalgamated to become the Scientific Civil Service. The new civil service managed to attract to…

  • civil service examination

    Confucianism: The Confucianization of politics: …entering government service through the examinations administered by the state. In short, those with a Confucian education began to staff the bureaucracy. In the year 58 all government schools were required to make sacrifices to Confucius, and in 175 the court had the approved version of the Classics, which had…

  • civil society (social science)

    Civil society, dense network of groups, communities, networks, and ties that stand between the individual and the modern state. This modern definition of civil society has become a familiar component of the main strands of contemporary liberal and democratic theorizing. In addition to its

  • civil suit (law)

    procedural law: Convergence of civil- and common-law procedure: …own; rather, they decide only claims brought forward by the parties and normally only on the basis of evidence proposed by them. Indeed, in practice they give the parties much of the responsibility for suggesting lines of proof. Nor do judges in common-law countries always play merely the role of…

  • civil trial (law)

    Seventh Amendment: …formally established the rules governing civil trials. The amendment’s objective was to preserve a distinction between the responsibilities of the courts (such as deciding matters of law) and those of juries (such as deciding matters of fact).

  • civil union (sociology)

    Civil union, legal recognition of the committed, marriagelike partnership of two individuals. Typically, the civil registration of their commitment provides the couple with legal benefits that approach or are equivalent to those of marriage, such as rights of inheritance, hospital visitation,

  • Civil War (comics)

    Iron Man: From Armor Wars to the silver screen: …a major role in Marvel’s Civil War (2006–07) event, and he briefly served as the director of the law-enforcement agency S.H.I.E.L.D. Fan backlash in the wake of Civil War—a story that pitted hero against hero, with Stark serving as the primary antagonist—led to the rebooting of the Iron Man franchise,…

  • civil war

    Civil war, a violent conflict between a state and one or more organized non-state actors in the state’s territory. Civil wars are thus distinguished from interstate conflicts (in which states fight other states), violent conflicts or riots not involving states (sometimes labeled intercommunal

  • Civil War Centennial Commission (United States history)

    Allan Nevins: (1959–71)—Nevins headed the nation’s Civil War Centennial Commission (1961–66) and helped to edit the commission’s 15-volume Impact Series. He joined Huntington Library in San Marino, California, as senior research associate, served for a term as a visiting professor at the University of Oxford (1964–65), and wrote the final volumes…

  • Civil War in France (work by Marx)

    Karl Marx: Role in the First International: …in a famous address entitled Civil War in France:

  • Civil War of AD 672 (Japanese history)

    Jinshin-no-ran, (Japanese: “War of the Year of the Monkey”) in Japanese history, war of imperial succession that brought an emperor with a secure military base to the Japanese throne for the first time in history. The war strengthened the power of the imperial family at the expense of powerful

  • Civil War, American (United States history)

    American Civil War, four-year war (1861–65) between the United States and 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. The secession of the Southern states (in chronological order, South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana,

  • Civil War, English (English history)

    English Civil Wars, (1642–51), fighting that took place in the British Isles between supporters of the monarchy of Charles I (and his son and successor, Charles II) and opposing groups in each of Charles’s kingdoms, including Parliamentarians in England, Covenanters in Scotland, and Confederates in

  • Civil War, Greek (Greek history)

    Greek Civil War, (December 1944–January 1945 and 1946–49), two-stage conflict during which Greek communists unsuccessfully tried to gain control of Greece. The first stage of the civil war began only months before Nazi Germany’s occupation of Greece ended in October 1944. The German occupation had

  • Civil War, Roman (49–46 bc)

    ancient Egypt: Dynastic strife and decline (145–30 bce): …by cultivating influence with powerful Roman commanders and using their capacity to aggrandize Roman clients and allies. Julius Caesar pursued Pompey to Egypt in 48 bce. After learning of Pompey’s murder at the hands of Egyptian courtiers, Caesar stayed long enough to enjoy a sightseeing tour up the Nile in…

  • Civil War, Spanish (Spanish history)

    Spanish Civil War, (1936–39), military revolt against the Republican government of Spain, supported by conservative elements within the country. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. The

  • Civil War, The (documentary by Burns)

    Ken Burns: …Burns’s 11-hour 1990 television series, The Civil War, however, that secured his reputation as a master filmmaker. Burns created a sense of movement in the still photographs that appeared throughout the film by using what was to become his signature technique of panning the camera over them and zooming in…

  • Civil War: A Narrative, The (work by Foote)

    Shelby Foote: …proved to be his masterwork, The Civil War: A Narrative (1958–74), which consists of three volumes—Fort Sumter to Perryville (1958), Fredericksburg to Meridian (1963), and Red River to Appomattox (1974). Considered a masterpiece by many critics, it was also criticized by academics for its lack of footnotes and other scholarly…

  • Civil War: Why They Fought, The

    On April 12, 2011, the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Fort Sumter, historian James M. McPherson presented in Charleston, S.C., a slightly longer version of this lecture on Civil War soldiers. It was the last lecture in a series (April 8–12, 2011) called “Why They Fought: Reflections on the

  • Civil Wars between the Two Houses of Lancaster and York, The (work by Daniel)

    English literature: Other poetic styles: …was a verse history of The Civil Wars Between the Two Houses of Lancaster and York (1595–1609), and versified history is also strongly represented in Drayton’s Legends (1593–1607), Barons’ Wars (1596, 1603), and England’s Heroical Epistles (1597).

  • Civil Wars of Granada (novel by Pérez de Hita)

    Ginés Pérez de Hita: …Guerras civiles de Granada (“The Civil Wars of Granada”). The book is considered the first Spanish historical novel and the last important collection of Moorish border ballads, the latter punctuating the book’s narrative.

  • Civil Works Administration (United States history)

    United States: Relief: Roosevelt also created the Civil Works Administration, which by January 1934 was employing more than 4,000,000 men and women. Alarmed by rising costs, Roosevelt dismantled the CWA in 1934, but the persistence of high unemployment led him to make another about-face. In 1935 the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act provided…

  • civilian (society)

    law of war: Civilians: According to customary international law, only members of the armed forces of a party to a conflict can take part in hostilities, and the law has always attempted to draw a clear distinction between the lawful combatant, who may be attacked, and the civilian,…

  • Civilian (Peruvian politics)

    Civilista, member of a Peruvian political movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that opposed military control of the government. The party of the Civilistas, the Partido Civilista, was founded in 1871 by Manuel Pardo to oppose the corrupt military regime of President José Balta (served

  • Civilian Conservation Corps (United States history)

    Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), (1933–42), one of the earliest New Deal programs, established to relieve unemployment during the Great Depression by providing national conservation work primarily for young unmarried men. Projects included planting trees, building flood barriers, fighting forest

  • civilian defense (war)

    Civil defense, in war or national defense, all nonmilitary actions taken to reduce loss of life and property resulting from enemy action. It includes defense against attack from conventional bombs or rockets, nuclear weapons, and chemical or biological agents. During World War II the threat of

  • civilian review (civilian oversight board)

    Citizen review, mechanism whereby alleged misconduct by local police forces may be independently investigated by representatives of the civilian population. Citizen review boards generally operate independently of the courts and other law-enforcement agencies. Among the first citizen review boards

  • Civilis, Gaius Julius (Roman military officer)

    Gaius Julius Civilis, Batavi chieftain and a Roman army officer who led a rebellion on the Rhine frontier against Roman rule in ad 69–70. His story is known only from Tacitus’ vivid account. Civilis was suspected of disloyalty by Aulus Vitellius when the latter was acclaimed emperor in January 69.

  • civilisation

    hunter-gatherer: …southwest Asia and in Mesoamerica, all peoples were hunter-gatherers. Their strategies have been very diverse, depending greatly upon the local environment; foraging strategies have included hunting or trapping big game, hunting or trapping smaller animals, fishing, gathering shellfish or insects, and gathering wild plant foods such as fruits

  • Civilisation (television series by Clark)

    Kenneth Mackenzie Clark, Baron Clark: …wrote and narrated a series, Civilisation, for BBC television in 1969. This series, a sweeping panorama of European art from the Dark Ages to the 20th century, made Clark internationally known. While the series demonstrated Clark’s erudition, enthusiasm, and talent as a communicator, it was criticized by some art historians…

  • Civilisation matérielle et capitalisme, XVe-XVIIIe siècle (work by Braudel)

    Fernand Braudel: 2–3, 1979; Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century). (The titles of the three individual volumes are Les Structures du quotidien: le possible et l’impossible [The Structures of Everyday Life: The Limits of the Possible], Les Jeux de l’échange [The Wheels of Commerce], and Le Temps du monde [The…

  • Civilista (Peruvian politics)

    Civilista, member of a Peruvian political movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that opposed military control of the government. The party of the Civilistas, the Partido Civilista, was founded in 1871 by Manuel Pardo to oppose the corrupt military regime of President José Balta (served

  • civilité (typeface)

    black letter: The typeface became known as civilité because it was used to print a popular children’s book, La Civilité puerile (1536), which was written by the humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus. The typeface was also used in a 16th-century Flemish handwriting book, Nouvel exemplaire pour apprendre à escrire (1565; “New Copy for…

  • Civilization (computer game series)

    Civilization, computer game series created in 1991 by Sid Meier and published by his U.S.-based MicroProse computer software company. Meier had experience creating flight simulator games prior to his work in the “God game” genre, where players have total control over multiple facets of the game.

  • civilization

    hunter-gatherer: …southwest Asia and in Mesoamerica, all peoples were hunter-gatherers. Their strategies have been very diverse, depending greatly upon the local environment; foraging strategies have included hunting or trapping big game, hunting or trapping smaller animals, fishing, gathering shellfish or insects, and gathering wild plant foods such as fruits

  • Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century (work by Braudel)

    Fernand Braudel: 2–3, 1979; Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century). (The titles of the three individual volumes are Les Structures du quotidien: le possible et l’impossible [The Structures of Everyday Life: The Limits of the Possible], Les Jeux de l’échange [The Wheels of Commerce], and Le Temps du monde [The…

  • Civilization and Its Discontents (work by Freud)

    Sigmund Freud: Religion, civilization, and discontents: …Unbehagen in der Kultur (1930; Civilization and Its Discontents), was devoted to what Rolland had dubbed the oceanic feeling. Freud described it as a sense of indissoluble oneness with the universe, which mystics in particular have celebrated as the fundamental religious experience. Its origin, Freud claimed, is nostalgia for the…

  • Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, The (work by Burckhardt)

    Jacob Burckhardt: …of art and culture, whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860; The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1878, reprinted 1945) became a model for the treatment of cultural history in general.

  • Civilizations from Europe and the Mediterranean, Museum of (museum, Marseilles, France)

    museum: History museums: The Museum of Civilizations from Europe and the Mediterranean (Mucem) absorbed some of the former museum’s collection and opened in Marseilles, France, in 2013. It endeavoured to offer a regional, as opposed to national, approach to cultural history. Outdoor museums preserving traditional architecture, sometimes in situ,…

  • civilized labour (South African government policy)

    Southern Africa: Urbanization and manufacturing: …to this that the “civilized labour” policy, which favoured employers using white labour, was devised in the 1920s. The policy probably was more effective in spurring capital-intensive manufacturing and the employment of poorly paid Afrikaner women than in eliminating white poverty: by 1930 one in five Afrikaners was classified…

  • civilized society

    hunter-gatherer: …southwest Asia and in Mesoamerica, all peoples were hunter-gatherers. Their strategies have been very diverse, depending greatly upon the local environment; foraging strategies have included hunting or trapping big game, hunting or trapping smaller animals, fishing, gathering shellfish or insects, and gathering wild plant foods such as fruits

  • Civilizing Process: The History of Manners, The (work by Elias)

    Norbert Elias: …den Prozess der Zivilisation (1939; The Civilizing Process: The History of Manners).

  • Civita Castellana (Italy)

    Civita Castellana, town, Lazio (Latium) region, central Italy. It lies along the Treia River, just southeast of the town of Viterbo. Civita Castellana stands on the site of the 9th-century-bc Falerii Veteres (“Old Falerii”), the capital of the Faliscans, a tribe belonging to the Etruscan

  • Civitanova Marche (Italy)

    Civitanova Marche, town, Marche region, central Italy, east of Macerata city. The town lies on the Adriatic coast at the mouth of the Chienti River. It is divided into two centres: Portocivitanova, on the coast, and Civitanova Alta, on high ground 3 miles (5 km) inland. It is mainly a tourist

  • civitas (ancient Rome)

    Civitas, citizenship in ancient Rome. Roman citizenship was acquired by birth if both parents were Roman citizens (cives), although one of them, usually the mother, might be a peregrinus (“alien”) with connubium (the right to contract a Roman marriage). Otherwise, citizenship could be granted by t

  • Civitas (sculpture by Flack)

    Audrey Flack: One of the best-known is Civitas, also called the Monumental Gateway to the city of Rock Hill, South Carolina (1990–91). It consists of four 20-foot- (6-metre-) high bronze figures on granite bases. Her Recording Angel (2006–07) and Colossal Head of Daphne (installed 2008) were both commissioned by and are located…

  • Civitas Baiocassium (France)

    Bayeux, town, Calvados département, Normandy région, northwestern France. It lies on the Aure River, northwest of Caen. As Bajocasses, it was a capital of the Gauls, then, as Augustodurum and, later, Civitas Baiocassium, it was an important Roman city that became a bishopric in the 4th century.

  • Civitas de Bellovacis (France)

    Beauvais, town, capital of Oise département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France, at the juncture of the Thérain and Avelon rivers, north of Paris. Capital of the Bellovaci tribe, it was first called Caesaromagus, after its capture by Julius Caesar in 52 bce, and later Civitas de Bellovacis. In

  • Civitas Nova (Italy)

    Alessandria, city, Piedmont regione, northwestern Italy. The city lies at the confluence of the Bormida and Tanaro rivers, southeast of Turin (Torino). It was founded in 1168 by the towns of the Lombard League as an Alpine valley stronghold against the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I (Frederick

  • Civitas Petrocorium (France)

    Périgueux, town, Dordogne département, Nouvelle-Aquitaine région, southwestern France. It lies on the right bank of the Isle River, east-northeast of Bordeaux and southwest of Paris. Originally settled by a Gaulish tribe, the Petrocorii, the town fell to the Romans, who called it Vesuna after a

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