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  • City of Night (novel by Rechy)

    American literature: Realism and metafiction: …America’s urban homosexual subculture in City of Night (1963). As literary and social mores were liberalized, Cheever himself dealt with homosexuality in his prison novel Falconer (1977) and even more explicitly in his personal journals, published posthumously in 1991.

  • City of Orange (New Jersey, United States)

    Orange, township, Essex county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S. It lies just west of Newark. Named Mountain Plantations when it was settled in 1678, it was later renamed to honour William, prince of Orange, who became William III of Great Britain. Orange was a part of Newark until 1806, when it

  • City of Sadness, A (film by Hou Hsiao-hsien [1989])

    Hou Hsiao-hsien: …Wind) and Beiqing chengshi (1989; A City of Sadness). The latter film detailed the February 28, 1947, massacre by mainland Chinese of local Taiwanese demonstrating in the city of Taipei. The subject remained taboo in China for decades after the massacre, and A City of Sadness was the first film…

  • City of Silva (Italy)

    San Gimignano, town, west-central Toscana (Tuscany) regione (region), central Italy. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) northwest of Siena. Originally called “City of Silva,” it later took its name from the Bishop of Modena (d. 397), who liberated the town from a barbarian invasion. An independent

  • City of The Dalles (Oregon, United States)

    The Dalles, inland port, seat (1854) of Wasco county, Oregon, U.S., on the south bank of the Columbia River, 75 miles (121 km) east of Portland, within the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The area around The Dalles is known to have been a trading centre for Native Americans as long as

  • City of the Dead (district, Cairo, Egypt)

    Cairo: City layout: …the district of Al-Qarāfah (City of the Dead), a unique zone made up of an extensive series of cemeteries. In this vast, dusty, ochre-coloured district stand the exquisite shrine-mosques and mausoleums of early religious leaders such as Imam al-Shāfiʿī, the founder of Egypt’s major legal tradition. The major monuments…

  • City of the Mind (novel by Lively)

    Penelope Lively: …of Egypt; Passing On (1989); City of the Mind (1991); and Cleopatra’s Sister (1993). Heat Wave (1996) is the story of the disintegration of a marriage, and a retired anthropologist reflects on her past in Spiderweb (1998). In The Photograph (2003) a man finds and investigates posthumous proof of his…

  • City of the Saints (work by Burton)

    Sir Richard Burton: Exploration in Arabia: The resulting volume, City of the Saints (1861), showed that he could write with sophistication about the nature of the Mormon church, compose a vivid portrait of its leader, Brigham Young, and also be dispassionate about the Mormon practice of polygamy, which was then outraging most Americans. Shortly…

  • City of the Sun (archaeological site, Lebanon)

    Baalbeck, large archaeological complex encompassing the ruins of an ancient Roman town in eastern Lebanon. It is located in the broad Al-Biqāʿ (Bekaa Valley) region, at an elevation of roughly 3,700 feet (1,130 metres) about 50 miles (80 km) east-northeast of Beirut. The complex was designated a

  • City of the Sun (work by Campenella)

    eugenics: Early history: and poet Tommaso Campanella, in City of the Sun (1623), described a utopian community in which only the socially elite are allowed to procreate. Galton, in Hereditary Genius (1869), proposed that a system of arranged marriages between men of distinction and women of wealth would eventually produce a gifted race.…

  • City of the Tribes (Ireland)

    Galway, city, seaport, and county town (seat) of County Galway, western Ireland, located on the northern shore of Galway Bay. Galway city is administratively independent of the county. After the building of the city’s walls by Anglo-Norman settlers (c. 1270), Galway developed as a commercial centre

  • City of Trembling Leaves, The (work by Clark)

    Walter van Tilburg Clark: …the background for his novel The City of Trembling Leaves (1945), the story of a sensitive adolescent boy’s development. His best-known work is The Ox-Bow Incident (1940). The story of a lynching in 1885 of three innocent men, it conveys a powerful and dramatic insight into mob psychology. A film…

  • City of Women (film by Fellini [1980])

    Federico Fellini: Mature years: …La città delle donne (1980; City of Women), E la nave va (1983; And the Ship Sails On), Ginger e Fred (1985; Ginger and Fred), Intervista (1987; “Interview”), and La voce della luna (1990; The Voice of the Moon), his last feature film. Unified only by his flair for the…

  • city pigeon (bird)

    columbiform: Importance to humans: …together with escapes, established the feral populations in numerous European towns, in North America (where it is often known simply as the “city pigeon”), and other parts of the world as far away as Australia. Being naturally adapted to rocky ravines, sea cliffs, and barren sites, the bird has readily…

  • city planning

    Urban planning, design and regulation of the uses of space that focus on the physical form, economic functions, and social impacts of the urban environment and on the location of different activities within it. Because urban planning draws upon engineering, architectural, and social and political

  • City Planning Commission (New York City, New York, United States)

    New York City: Planning the modern metropolis: …successful, and in 1990 the City Planning Commission established new building districts in an attempt to decrease the flood of new building in Manhattan.

  • City Rises, The (painting by Boccioni)

    Umberto Boccioni: The City Rises (1910–11), however, is an exemplary Futurist painting in its representation of dynamism, motion, and speed. The swirling human figures in its crowd scenes are repetitively fragmented according to the Futurist style, but the rhythmic muscular energy they generate is unrelated to the…

  • city senator (Roman official)

    ancient Rome: Developments in the provinces: …miles into the surrounding landscape, city senators had not only to collect taxes but also to build roads and carry out much rural police work. Within their cities, too, senators had to see to the collection of taxes and tolls; as a group, they had to oversee and assign the…

  • City Slickers (film by Underwood [1991])
  • City Stadium (stadium, Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States)

    Lambeau Field, gridiron football stadium in Green Bay, Wisconsin, that is the home of the city’s NFL team, the Packers. It is the oldest stadium with an NFL team in continuous residence but has been much enlarged since opening in 1957. City Stadium was built to replace a smaller stadium of the same

  • City Streets (film by Mamoulian [1931])

    Rouben Mamoulian: Films of the 1930s: …he relocated to Hollywood was City Streets (1931), one of the better early gangster films. Although it was not as celebrated as Little Caesar (1931), The Public Enemy (1931), and Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932), City Streets is arguably more visually sophisticated than any of them. Written by…

  • city transit

    Mass transit, the movement of people within urban areas using group travel technologies such as buses and trains. The essential feature of mass transportation is that many people are carried in the same vehicle (e.g., buses) or collection of attached vehicles (trains). This makes it possible to

  • city transportation

    Mass transit, the movement of people within urban areas using group travel technologies such as buses and trains. The essential feature of mass transportation is that many people are carried in the same vehicle (e.g., buses) or collection of attached vehicles (trains). This makes it possible to

  • City University of New York, The (university, New York City, New York, United States)

    City University of New York, The, system of higher education institutions in New York, New York, U.S. It was created in 1961 to combine New York City’s municipally supported colleges (now numbering 21, including the CUNY Baccalaureate Program). The university includes the Graduate School and

  • City Varieties Music Hall (building, Leeds, England, United Kingdom)

    Leeds: …opened in 1878, and the City Varieties music hall, which was founded above a pub in 1865 and featured performances headlined by Charlie Chaplin, Lillie Langtry, and Harry Houdini, among others. For some 30 years (1953–83), City Varieties also hosted the British Broadcasting Corporation’s television variety show The Good Old…

  • City, The (work by Weber)

    urban culture: Definitions of the city and urban cultures: Max Weber in The City (1921) provided another definition of the city, similar to Pirenne’s, when he contrasted “Occidental” with “Oriental” urbanism. According to Weber, five attributes define an urban community: it must possess (1) a fortification, (2) a market, (3) a law code and court system of…

  • City, The (borough, London, United Kingdom)

    City of London, municipal corporation and borough, London, England. Sometimes called “the Square Mile,” it is one of the 33 boroughs that make up the large metropolis of Greater London. The borough lies on the north bank of the River Thames between the Temple Bar memorial pillar (commemorating the

  • city-manager system (government)

    political system: Cities: …populations over 10,000 operate under council-manager governments. In council-manager systems the council is generally small, elected at large on a nonpartisan ballot for overlapping four-year terms; no other offices are directly elected, and the mayor, who presides at council meetings and performs mainly ceremonial functions, is chosen by the council…

  • city-region (urban development model)

    City-region, model of urban development, predominant in North America, that is characterized by extensive urban sprawl and the development of highly powerful economic poles located in the suburbs. City-regions represent the most advanced stage of urban development that exists today. Worldwide, the

  • city-state (politics)

    City-state, a political system consisting of an independent city having sovereignty over contiguous territory and serving as a centre and leader of political, economic, and cultural life. The term originated in England in the late 19th century and has been applied especially to the cities of

  • CitySearch (American company)

    Zip2: …for Zip2 to merge with CitySearch, which provided a similar service, Musk organized a revolt and prevailed upon the board of directors to remove Sorkin as CEO. Sorkin was replaced by Derek Proudian. In 1999 Compaq Computer Corp. purchased Zip2 for $307 million, and Zip2 became a unit of the…

  • CiU (political party, Spain)

    Convergence and Union, historical political party that supported greater autonomy for Catalonia within Spain. The party advocated for greater European integration and held moderate positions on economic policy. The Convergence and Union (CiU) was established in 1978 as an alliance between the

  • Ciucaș (mountain, Romania)

    Ciucaș, mountain peak in Romania, at 6,099 feet (1,859 metres) the highest point in the Buzău Mountains. It is a picturesque mountain noted for the strange shapes of its limestone and conglomerate rocks, which are known locally as the Frying Pans but have the appearance of chimney

  • Ciucașul (mountain, Romania)

    Ciucaș, mountain peak in Romania, at 6,099 feet (1,859 metres) the highest point in the Buzău Mountains. It is a picturesque mountain noted for the strange shapes of its limestone and conglomerate rocks, which are known locally as the Frying Pans but have the appearance of chimney

  • Ciudad Acuña (Mexico)

    Ciudad Acuña, city, northern Coahuila estado (state), northeastern Mexico. The city is on the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte) just across the U.S.-Mexico border from Del Rio, Texas, and is a port of entry. Ciudad Acuña is also a commercial and manufacturing centre for the agricultural hinterland.

  • Ciudad Bolívar (Venezuela)

    Ciudad Bolívar, city, capital of Bolívar estado (state), southeastern Venezuela. It lies on a small hill on the south bank of the Orinoco River, opposite Soledad on the north. Its elevation ranges from 85 to 246 feet (26 to 75 metres) above sea level; the average annual temperature is in the

  • Ciudad Chetumal (Mexico)

    Chetumal, city, capital of Quintana Roo estado (state), southeastern Mexico. It is situated in the eastern Yucatán Peninsula, just north of the Belizean border. Chetumal lies at the mouth of the Hondo River on the Bay of Chetumal (an extension of the Caribbean Sea), at an elevation of 20 feet (6

  • Ciudad de Guatemala (national capital, Guatemala)

    Guatemala City, capital of Guatemala, the largest city in Central America, and the political, social, cultural, and economic centre of Guatemala. Lying in a valley of the central highlands at an elevation of 4,897 feet (1,493 metres) above sea level, it has a temperate and invigorating mountain

  • Ciudad de México (national capital, Mexico)

    Mexico City, city and capital of Mexico, synonymous with the Federal District (Distrito Federal; D.F.). The term Mexico City can also apply to the capital’s metropolitan area, which includes the Federal District but extends beyond it to the west, north, and east, where the state (estado) of México

  • Ciudad de México, D.F. (national capital, Mexico)

    Mexico City, city and capital of Mexico, synonymous with the Federal District (Distrito Federal; D.F.). The term Mexico City can also apply to the capital’s metropolitan area, which includes the Federal District but extends beyond it to the west, north, and east, where the state (estado) of México

  • Ciudad de Panamá (national capital, Panama)

    Panama City, capital of the Republic of Panama. It is located in the east-central part of the country near the Pacific Ocean terminus of the Panama Canal, on the Gulf of Panama. Area city, 38.5 square miles (100 square km). Pop. (2010) city, 430,299; (2010 est.) urban agglomeration, 1,378,000. The

  • Ciudad de Valles (Mexico)

    Valles, city, eastern San Luis Potosí estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It lies along the Tampaon (or Valles) River, west-southwest of Tampico. Sugarcane, citrus fruits, avocados, coffee, tobacco, and cattle are processed there, and lumbering (principally pine) is also important. The city is a

  • Ciudad del Carmen (Mexico)

    Campeche: At the lagoon’s entrance is Ciudad del Carmen, the chief port and petroleum depot of the area.

  • Ciudad del Este (Paraguay)

    Ciudad del Este, city, eastern Paraguay. It is situated directly on the right bank of the Paraná River at the border with Brazil, but it is considered part of the tri-border region that includes Argentina. Founded in 1957, the city was converted from a tropical forest into Paraguay’s second most

  • Ciudad Delicias (Mexico)

    Ciudad Delicias, city, east-central Chihuahua estado (state), north-central Mexico, located southeast of Chihuahua city, the state capital, and near the San Pedro River. It is a commercial and manufacturing centre for an irrigated agricultural area. Cotton, wheat, and wine grapes are the principal

  • Ciudad Guayana (Venezuela)

    Ciudad Guayana, city and industrial port complex, northeastern Bolívar estado (state), Venezuela, at the confluence of the Caroní and Orinoco rivers in the Guiana Highlands. Taking its name from the Guiana (Guayana) region, the traditional designation of Bolívar state, it was founded by the state

  • Ciudad Guzmán (Mexico)

    Ciudad Guzmán, city, south-central Jalisco estado (state), west-central Mexico, near Lake Zapotlán’s south shore. It lies between the Sierra Tapalpa and the Cerro del Tigre, at 4,944 feet (1,507 metres) above sea level. Beans, corn (maize), wheat, and other products grown in the vicinity are

  • Ciudad Hidalgo (Mexico)

    Ciudad Hidalgo, city, northeastern Michoacán estado (state), west-central Mexico. It lies on the Mesa Central at an elevation of 7,740 feet (2,359 metres) above sea level, near the Tuxpan River, about 40 miles (65 km) east of Morelia, the state capital. The city, formerly known as Villa Hidalgo,

  • Ciudad Juárez (Mexico)

    Juárez, city, northern Chihuahua estado (state), northern Mexico. It is located on the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte) opposite El Paso, Texas, U.S., with which it is connected by bridges. Formerly known as El Paso del Norte, it was renamed in 1888 for the Mexican president Benito Juárez, who

  • Ciudad Juárez, Battle of (Mexican Revolution [1911])

    Battle of Ciudad Juárez, (7 April–10 May 1911), defining battle that marked the end of the first phase of the Mexican Revolution (1910–20). Seeking to end the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz, rebel forces, led by Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco, attacked Federal forces at Ciudad Juárez (located just

  • Ciudad Mante (Mexico)

    Ciudad Mante, city, southern Tamaulipas estado (state), northeastern Mexico. Formerly known as Villa Juárez, it lies at 272 feet (83 metres) above sea level just south of the confluence of the Tamesí and Mante rivers and almost due south of Ciudad Victoria, the state capital. It is the commercial

  • Ciudad Mendoza (city, Mexico)

    Ciudad Mendoza, city, west-central Veracruz estado (state), east-central Mexico. Formerly known as Santa Rosa, it lies on the Blanco River at the south foot of Volcano Pico de Orizaba, in the Sierra Madre Oriental. Although once primarily a textile (cotton ginning and weaving) and agricultural

  • Ciudad Obregón (Mexico)

    Ciudad Obregón, city, southern Sonora estado (state), northwestern Mexico. It lies in the heart of the Yaqui valley, at 330 feet (100 metres) above sea level on the coastal plain, near the Yaqui River. The climate is hot and dry. With the completion in the 1950s of irrigation projects on the Yaqui,

  • Ciudad Ojeda (Venezuela)

    Ciudad Ojeda, city, Zulia estado (state), northwestern Venezuela. Lying on the northeastern shore of Lake Maracaibo, Ciudad Ojeda is an important oil centre. Just to the south of Ciudad Ojeda lies the Lagunillas oil field, the largest in Latin America. From derricks on land and in the water, oil is

  • ciudad perdida (Mexican settlement)

    Mexico City: City layout: …settlements and slums known as ciudades perdidas (“lost cities”) have occupied formerly green areas, unused lots, and vast areas of dry lake beds, especially along the city’s northwestern and eastern peripheries. Many develop into permanently built-up areas, such as the suburb of Nezahualcóyotl, which has spread across the lake bed…

  • Ciudad Porfirio Díaz (Mexico)

    Piedras Negras, city and border port of entry, northeastern Coahuila estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It lies at 722 feet (220 metres) above sea level on the Rio Grande (Bravo del Norte River), just across from Eagle Pass, Texas, U.S., with which it is connected by two bridges. It was founded

  • Ciudad Real (settlement, Paraguay)

    Salto del Guairá: …earliest colonial settlements in Paraguay, Ciudad Real, which was established in 1556 by Rui Díaz de Melgarejo. The original settlement was abandoned in the 17th century. The modern town is linked by bridge to the Brazilian port city of Guaíra and is a centre of international trade. The local economy…

  • Ciudad Real (Spain)

    Ciudad Real, city, capital of Ciudad Real provincia (province), in Castile–La Mancha comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), south-central Spain. On a fertile plain watered by the Guadiana and Jabalón rivers, it was founded in 1255 by Alfonso X (the Wise) as Villa Real and declared a city by

  • Ciudad Real (province, Spain)

    Ciudad Real, provincia (province), southwestern Castile–La Mancha comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), south-central Spain, one of five provinces formed from the ancient region of New Castile. In the east and centre, high plains form part of the flat, dry windmill region known as La Mancha,

  • Ciudad Rodrigo (Spain)

    Ciudad Rodrigo, city, western Salamanca provincia (province), in southwestern Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), near the Portuguese border in western Spain. Named for Count Rodrigo González, who founded it in 1150, the city, situated on a rise above the Agueda River, was

  • Ciudad Trujillo (national capital, Dominican Republic)

    Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic. It is situated on the southeast coast of the island of Hispaniola, at the mouth of the Ozama River, and is the oldest permanent city established by Europeans in the Western Hemisphere. The city is also the seat of the oldest Roman Catholic

  • Ciudad Universitaria (area, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Caracas: Education: …of a new campus, called Ciudad Universitaria (University City), began in 1945. Designed by Carlos Raúl Villanueva, Ciudad Universitaria was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2000 in recognition of being an excellent example of modernist architecture. Other higher-educational institutions include Simón Bolívar University, which is public and oriented…

  • Ciudad Universitaria (sector, Madrid, Spain)

    Ciudad Universitaria, a northern sector of Madrid. The 16th-century Universidad de Madrid (then the Universidad de Alcalá de Henares) was moved to the San Bernardo neighbourhood of Madrid in 1836; it was again relocated in the late 1920s to its present site. Destroyed during the Spanish Civil War,

  • Ciudad Victoria (Mexico)

    Ciudad Victoria, city, capital of Tamaulipas estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It lies in the western part of the state at 1,053 feet (321 metres) above sea level on the San Marcos River, about 300 miles (480 km) north of Mexico City. A settlement was founded on the site in 1750, and in 1825 it

  • Ciudad Vieja (Guatemala)

    Antigua Guatemala, city, southwestern Guatemala, at an elevation of 5,029 feet (1,533 metres). Capital of the former captaincy general, Antigua Guatemala was once the most important seat of Spanish colonial government between Mexico City and Lima, Peru. Founded as Santiago de los Caballeros de

  • ciudad y los perros, La (novel by Vargas Llosa)

    The Time of the Hero, novel by Mario Vargas Llosa, published in 1963 as La ciudad y los perros (“The City and the Dogs”). The novel describes adolescents in a Peruvian military school striving to survive in a hostile and violent environment. The corruption of the military school suggests a larger

  • Ciudad, Juan (Portuguese monk)

    Saint John of God, ; canonized 1690; feast day March 8), founder of the Hospitaller Order of St. John of God (Brothers Hospitallers), a Roman Catholic religious order of nursing brothers. In 1886 Pope Leo XIII declared him patron of hospitals and the sick. Formerly a shepherd and soldier, he was so

  • ciudadela (pre-Inca architecture)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The Chimú state: …large rectangular enclosures sometimes called ciudadelas (“citadels”). These were surrounded by tapering adobe walls, 10 feet thick at the base and about 30 feet high. They ranged in size from about 400 by 200 yards to 650 by 400 yards.

  • Ciudadela (ancient courtyard, Teotihuacán, Mexico)

    Teotihuacán: …of the avenue lies the Ciudadela (“Citadel”), a large square courtyard covering 38 acres (15 hectares). Within the Citadel stands the Temple of Quetzalcóatl (the Feathered Serpent) in the form of a truncated pyramid; projecting from its ornately decorated walls are numerous stone heads of the deity. The temple walls…

  • Čiurlionis, Mikalojus Konstantinas (Lithuanian artist)

    Lithuania: The arts: The composer and painter Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875–1911), considered one of Lithuania’s most outstanding artists of the early 20th century, was actively involved with the school. Moreover, some of the Lithuanian artists who opposed Soviet ideological constraints produced theatre and art of lasting significance. After the second Soviet occupation…

  • Cīvakacintāmaṇi (work by Tiruttakkatēvar)

    South Asian arts: Epics: …Peruṅkatai (“The Great Story”), the Cīvakacintāmaṇi (“The Amulet of Cīvakaṉ”) by Tiruttakkatēvar, and Cūḷāmaṇĭ (“The Crest Jewel”) by Tōlāmoḻittēvar. The last three works depict Jaina kings and their ideals of the good life, nonviolence, and the attainment of salvation through self-sacrifice. They are also characterized by excellent descriptions of city…

  • Civena, Palazzo (palace, Vicenza, Italy)

    Andrea Palladio: Early life and works: In elevation the Palazzo Civena is close to the High Renaissance palace type developed in the early 16th century in Rome. In plan it resembles Sanmicheli’s Palazzo Canossa (c. 1535) in Verona. An innovative feature is the use of traditional arcaded pavement of northern Italy behind the main…

  • civet (mammal)

    skunk: Spotted skunks (genus Spilogale) live from southwestern Canada to Costa Rica. Except for a white spot between the eyes, their spots are actually a series of interrupted stripes running down the back and sides. These are about the size of a tree squirrel and are…

  • civet (animal secretion)

    chemoreception: Territorial behaviour: The major ingredient, called civet, or civetone, is an unusual compound, with 17 carbon atoms that form a ring. Musk deer produce a similar compound (with 15 carbon atoms in a ring), and both compounds were widely used in perfumery until similar synthetic compounds were produced.

  • civet (mammal, family Viverridae)

    Civet, any of a number of long-bodied, short-legged carnivores of the family Viverridae. There are about 15 to 20 species, placed in 10 to 12 genera. Civets are found in Africa, southern Europe, and Asia. Rather catlike in appearance, they have a thickly furred tail, small ears, and a pointed

  • civet cat (mammal)

    skunk: Spotted skunks (genus Spilogale) live from southwestern Canada to Costa Rica. Except for a white spot between the eyes, their spots are actually a series of interrupted stripes running down the back and sides. These are about the size of a tree squirrel and are…

  • civet cat (mammal, family Viverridae)

    Civet, any of a number of long-bodied, short-legged carnivores of the family Viverridae. There are about 15 to 20 species, placed in 10 to 12 genera. Civets are found in Africa, southern Europe, and Asia. Rather catlike in appearance, they have a thickly furred tail, small ears, and a pointed

  • civet coffee (coffee)

    Kopi luwak, (Indonesian: “civet coffee”) the coffee bean or specialty coffee that is digested by, fermented within, and then excreted by the Asian palm civet—popularly called a luwak in Indonesia but found throughout South and Southeast Asia. The coffee bean produced in that manner was discovered

  • civetone (chemistry)

    Leopold Ružička: …the molecules of muskone and civetone, important to the perfume industry, contain rings of 15 and 17 carbon atoms, respectively. Before this discovery, rings with more than eight atoms had been unknown and indeed had been believed to be too unstable to exist. Ružička’s discovery greatly expanded research on these…

  • Civettictis civetta (mammal)

    civet: …otter civet (Cynogale bennetti), the African civet (Civettictis civetta), and the rare Congo water civet (Genetta piscivora) are semiaquatic. Civets feed on small animals and on vegetable matter. Their litters usually consist of two or three young.

  • Civic Action Service (French organization)

    Charles Pasqua: …War (1954–62), Pasqua created the Civic Action Service (Service d’Action Civique; SAC) to protect Gaullist personalities from terrorist bombings and attacks by far-right French Algerians who opposed Algerian independence.

  • Civic Amenities Act (United Kingdom [1967])

    art conservation and restoration: Role of law: …up in 1908, and the Civic Amenities Act of 1967 enabled local planning authorities to define special areas for “conservation and enhancement.” In France, the Commission des Secteurs Sauvegardés was set up in 1962 under André Malraux, minister for cultural affairs, to pursue an active program for public protection of…

  • civic capacity (social science)

    Civic capacity, capacity of individuals in a democracy to become active citizens and to work together to solve collective problems and of communities to encourage such participation in their members. Civic capacity may be understood as a property of individuals as well as of communities, such as

  • civic centre (building)

    Civic centre, grouping of municipal facilities into a limited precinct often adjacent to the central business district. In smaller cities the civic centre is sometimes combined with the cultural centre. The civic centre has its ultimate base in the Hellenistic concept of an acropolis and in the

  • Civic Culture Revisited, The (work by Almond and Verba)

    political science: Political culture: …Almond and Verba’s edited volume The Civic Culture Revisited (1980), several authors demonstrated that political culture in each of their subject countries was undergoing major change, little of which was predictable from the original study, suggesting that political culture, while more durable than mere public opinion, is never static. Critics…

  • Civic Culture, The (work by Almond and Verba)

    political science: Political culture: >The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations (1963), which surveyed 1,000-person samples in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Mexico. Almond and Verba identified three types of political culture: (1) participant, in which citizens understand and take part in…

  • Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations, The (work by Almond and Verba)

    political science: Political culture: >The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations (1963), which surveyed 1,000-person samples in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Mexico. Almond and Verba identified three types of political culture: (1) participant, in which citizens understand and take part in…

  • Civic Democratic Party (political party, Czech Republic)

    Václav Klaus: …1991, Klaus cofounded the centre-right Civic Democratic Party (CDP), serving as its leader until 2002. In 1992 Klaus became premier of the Czech Republic, then (with Slovakia) one of the two constituent republics of Czechoslovakia.

  • civic engagement (social science)

    Civic engagement, broad set of practices and attitudes of involvement in social and political life that converge to increase the health of a democratic society. The concept of civic engagement has assumed increasing importance as a means to reverse the balkanization of individual interests and the

  • Civic Forum (revolutionary group, Czechoslovakia)

    Czechoslovak history: Velvet Revolution and Velvet Divorce: …the makeshift leadership of the Civic Forum, an opposition group for which the dissident playwright and Charter 77 coauthor Václav Havel served as chief spokesman. In Slovakia a parallel group named Public Against Violence was founded. Daily mass gatherings culminated in a general strike on November 27, during which the…

  • Civic Museum (museum, Bologna, Italy)

    Bologna: The Civic Museum, founded in 1712 and accommodated since 1881 in the Palazzo Galvani, contains important remains of past civilizations, including collections from the Umbrian (Villanova) civilization and the Etruscan necropolis. The art gallery houses a fine collection of paintings of the Bolognese school (the Carracci,…

  • Civic Platform (political party, Poland)

    Poland: Poland in the 21st century: …was defeated by the centre-right Civic Platform party, which under the premiership of Donald Tusk formed a coalition government with the PSL.

  • Civic Repertory Theatre (theatre, New York City, New York, United States)

    Eva Le Gallienne: In 1926 she founded the Civic Repertory Theatre in New York City to present classics and important foreign plays at low admission prices. Through her productions and translations, she introduced American audiences to the works of Anton Chekhov, Henrik Ibsen, and others; she directed and acted in most of the…

  • civic republicanism (social and political science)

    Civic republicanism, tradition of political thought that stresses the interconnection of individual freedom and civic participation with the promotion of the common good. The concept of civic republicanism is most easily understood as a form of government that contrasts with autocratic forms of

  • civic theatre

    Civic theatre, professional or amateur theatre that is wholly or partly subsidized by the city in which it is located. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with community theatre, meaning a noncommercial, locally based group. European countries such as France, Denmark, and Germany have a long

  • civic virtue (political philosophy)

    Civic virtue, in political philosophy, personal qualities associated with the effective functioning of the civil and political order, or the preservation of its values and principles. Attempts to define civic virtue vary, as different political systems organize public life around alternative

  • Cividale del Friuli (Italy)

    Cividale del Friuli, town, Friuli–Venezia Giulia regione, northeastern Italy, lying on the Natisone River just northeast of Udine. Founded in Roman times as Forum Julii, perhaps by Julius Caesar, it gave its name to, and was the capital of, Friuli, the first Lombard duchy formed in Italy. From 730

  • Cividale, diet of (German history)

    Frederick II: Years as a Crusader: …Frederick in 1232 at the diet of Cividale, strengthened the rule of the princes at the expense of the central power of the empire. These and other steps set back the development of communal self-government in Germany and furthered the independence of the principalities. In the meantime, relations between Frederick…

  • civil action (law)

    procedural law: Civil procedure: The rules of every procedural system reflect choices between worthy goals. Different systems, for example, may primarily seek truth, or fairness between the parties, or a speedy resolution, or a consistent application of legal principles. Sometimes these goals will be compatible with each…

  • Civil Action, A (film by Zaillian [1998])

    Robert Duvall: Duvall’s performance in A Civil Action (1998) was honoured with his third Oscar nomination for best supporting actor. In 2002 he returned to directing with Assassination Tango, in which he played a hit man who, while on an assignment, becomes interested in the tango; he also wrote the…

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