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  • Church, Benjamin (American military leader)

    King Philip's War: Benjamin Church’s Plymouth command, a non-Connecticut exception, had utilized Indian allies since the beginning of the war, and he succeeded in killing Philip in August 1676. By September the colonists and their Indian allies had destroyed much of the Native American opposition in southern New…

  • Church, Dorothea Towles (American fashion model)

    Dorothea Towles Church, American model (born July 26, 1922, Texarkana, Texas—died July 7, 2006, New York, N.Y.), found stardom in the 1950s as the first black model on the runways of Paris, where she was hired by Christian Dior. After returning to the U.S. in 1954 laden with trunks of designer d

  • Church, Frank (American politician)

    Frank Church, American politician from Idaho who served four terms in the U.S. Senate (1957–81). Church, a prominent figure in the Democratic Party, played a key role in the anti-Vietnam War movement and in the reform of U.S. intelligence activities. Church enrolled at Stanford University in 1942

  • Church, Frederic Edwin (American painter)

    Frederic Edwin Church, American Romantic landscape painter who was one of the most prominent members of the Hudson River school. Church studied with the painter Thomas Cole at his home in Catskill, New York, and they remained friends throughout their lives. From the beginning Church sought for his

  • Church, Mary Eliza (American social activist)

    Mary Eliza Church Terrell, American social activist who was cofounder and first president of the National Association of Colored Women. She was an early civil rights advocate, an educator, an author, and a lecturer on woman suffrage and rights for African Americans. Mary Church was the daughter of

  • Church, Peace of the (Roman Catholicism)

    Port-Royal: …period of calm, called the Peace of the Church, prevailed. The houses of Paris and Les Champs were separated, the latter enjoying the protection of the Duchess de Longueville, a cousin of King Louis XIV. After her death in 1679, persecution was renewed, and the community was forbidden to receive…

  • Church, Sir Richard (British soldier)

    Sir Richard Church, British soldier and Philhellene, commander of the Greek forces during the War of Greek Independence. The second son of a Quaker merchant, he ran away from school to join the army, becoming an ensign in the 13th (Somersetshire) Light Infantry and serving under Sir Ralph

  • Church, The (treatise by Hus)

    Jan Hus: Hus and the Western Schism: …treatises was De ecclesia (The Church). He also wrote a large number of treatises in Czech and a collection of sermons entitled Postilla.

  • Church, William (American inventor)

    printing: Attempts to mechanize composition (mid-19th century): In 1822 William Church of Boston patented a typesetting machine consisting of a keyboard on which each key released a piece of type of the corresponding letter stored in channels in a magazine. The pieces of type thus obtained had to be assembled by hand and the…

  • Church-History of Britain, The (work by Fuller)

    Thomas Fuller: There he completed The Church-History of Britain (1655), notable for its number of excellent character sketches, and added to it The History of the University of Cambridge and The History of Waltham-Abbey in Essex (1655). In 1658 he was given the parish of Cranford, near London, and continued…

  • Church-Turing theorem (logic)

    foundations of mathematics: Recursive definitions: The Church-Turing theorem of undecidability, combined with the related result of the Polish-born American mathematician Alfred Tarski (1902–83) on undecidability of truth, eliminated the possibility of a purely mechanical device replacing mathematicians.

  • Church-Turing thesis (mathematics)

    Church’s thesis, a principle formulated by the 20th-century American logician Alonzo Church, stating that the recursive functions are the only functions that can be mechanically calculated. The theorem implies that the procedures of arithmetic cannot be used to decide the consistency of s

  • Churches Group (archaeology)

    Mitla: …Grupo de las Iglesias (Churches Group), Grupo del Arroyo (Arroyo Group), Grupo de los Adobes (Adobe Group), and Grupo del Sur (Southern Group)—of which only the first two had been fully excavated and restored by the early 1980s. Each group has several rectangular patios (some connected by long, winding…

  • Churches of Christ (American Protestantism)

    Church of Christ, any of several conservative Protestant churches, found chiefly in the United States. They are strongest in parts of the Midwest and in the western and southern parts of the country. Each church is known locally as a Church of Christ and its members as Christians, and each church

  • Churches Together in Britain and Ireland (religious organization)

    Churches Together in Britain and Ireland, interdenominational Christian cooperative organization formed in 1942 by the Church of England and other British churches. It is concerned with ecumenical activity and with such social and cultural issues as environmental policy, immigration, and

  • Churches’ Participation in Development, Commission for the

    Christianity: Property, poverty, and the poor: …of Churches (WCC) established the Commission for the Churches’ Participation in Development (CCPD). Initially involved in development programs and the provision of technical services, the CCPD focus shifted to the psychological and political character of the symbiosis of development and underdevelopment. This focus was endorsed at the 1975 WCC Assembly…

  • Churchill (Manitoba, Canada)

    Churchill, northernmost seaport of Canada, in northeastern Manitoba. It lies on the west coast of Hudson Bay at the mouth of the Churchill River. It was named for John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company (1685–91). The company’s original wooden Fort Churchill

  • Churchill (county, Nevada, United States)

    Churchill, county, west-central Nevada, U.S. An original Nevada county, Churchill was created in 1861. The county seat, Fallon, is about 60 miles (100 km) east of Reno. The Carson-Truckee Project (completed 1903) and Lahontan Dam (completed 1914), built on the Walker, Truckee, and Carson rivers,

  • Churchill Downs (racetrack, Kentucky, United States)

    Kentucky Derby: …first Saturday in May at Churchill Downs racetrack, Louisville, Kentucky. With the Preakness Stakes (run in mid-May) and the Belmont Stakes (early in June), it makes up American Thoroughbred racing’s coveted Triple Crown. The Derby field is limited to three-year-olds and, since 1975, to 20 horses; fillies carry 121 pounds…

  • Churchill Falls (waterfall, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Churchill Falls, part of a series of cataracts and rapids on the Churchill River, southwest of Michikamau Lake in west Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada. Lying 250 miles (400 km) from the river’s mouth, the falls drop 245 feet (75 m), forming part of the river’s 1,100-foot (335-metre) descent within a

  • Churchill province (geological region, Canada)

    North America: The Canadian Shield: …south of the intervening nonrigid Churchill province, which may be composite in origin. The structural grain of the cratons is truncated at their margins, suggesting that they originated by the fragmentation of larger continents that formed more than 2.6 billion years ago. Small remnant basins of essentially flat-lying Precambrian sedimentary…

  • Churchill River (river, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Churchill River, largest river of Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada. It is formed from several river-lakes on the central plateau of western Labrador (a region of extensive iron-ore development) and meanders more than 200 miles (300 km) to Churchill Falls. There, the course is broken by a series of c

  • Churchill River (river, Manitoba, Canada)

    Mackenzie River: History: …Portage) connecting the headwaters of Churchill River with the Clearwater River, itself one of the east-bank tributaries of the Athabasca River. In 1789 Alexander Mackenzie made his historic journey northward from the trading post of Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca, exploring, with a crew of 12 in three canoes, the…

  • Churchill tank

    Churchill tank, the most successful British tank used in World War II. In 1940, after the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk on the French coast, the British government commissioned Vauxhall Motors, Ltd., to design a new tank to replace the Matilda II, which had limited

  • Churchill, Berton (Canadian actor)

    Stagecoach: …whiskey salesman; Henry Gatewood (Berton Churchill), a corrupt banker attempting to abscond with stolen funds; Hatfield (John Carradine), a professional gambler and self-proclaimed southern gentleman who seeks to protect fellow passenger Lucy Mallory (Louise Platt), who is pregnant and hopes to reunite with her husband in Lordsburg, where he…

  • Churchill, Caryl (British playwright)

    Caryl Churchill, British playwright whose work frequently dealt with feminist issues, the abuses of power, and sexual politics. When Churchill was 10, she immigrated with her family to Canada. She attended Lady Margaret Hall, a women’s college of the University of Oxford, and remained in England

  • Churchill, Charles (British poet)

    Charles Churchill, English poet noted for his lampoons and polemical satires written in heroic couplets. Churchill was educated at Westminster School. Although he was delayed in taking orders by an early and imprudent marriage, he was ordained in 1756 and, in 1758, on his father’s death, succeeded

  • Churchill, Frank (American composer and songwriter)

    Bambi: Production notes and credits:

  • Churchill, Jennie Jerome (British socialite and writer)

    Jennie Jerome Churchill, American-born society figure, remembered chiefly as the wife of Lord Randolph Churchill and mother of Sir Winston Churchill, prime minister of Great Britain (1940–45, 1951–55). Jeanette Jerome was the daughter of a prosperous American financier and a socially ambitious

  • Churchill, John, 1st Duke of Marlborough (English general)

    John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, one of England’s greatest generals, who led British and allied armies to important victories over Louis XIV of France, notably at Blenheim (1704), Ramillies (1706), and Oudenaarde (1708). John Churchill was the son of Sir Winston Churchill, member of

  • Churchill, Lady Randolph (British socialite and writer)

    Jennie Jerome Churchill, American-born society figure, remembered chiefly as the wife of Lord Randolph Churchill and mother of Sir Winston Churchill, prime minister of Great Britain (1940–45, 1951–55). Jeanette Jerome was the daughter of a prosperous American financier and a socially ambitious

  • Churchill, Lord Randolph (British politician)

    Lord Randolph Churchill, British politician who was a precociously influential figure in the Conservative Party and the father of Winston Churchill. He became leader of the House of Commons and chancellor of the Exchequer in 1886, at the age of 37, and seemed certain to be prime minister in due

  • Churchill, Lord Randolph Henry Spencer (British politician)

    Lord Randolph Churchill, British politician who was a precociously influential figure in the Conservative Party and the father of Winston Churchill. He became leader of the House of Commons and chancellor of the Exchequer in 1886, at the age of 37, and seemed certain to be prime minister in due

  • Churchill, Randolph (British author)

    Randolph Churchill, English author, journalist, and politician, the only son of British prime minister Winston Churchill. Churchill was a popular journalist in the 1930s and thrice failed to enter Parliament before becoming Conservative member for Preston (1940–45). During World War II he served as

  • Churchill, Randolph Frederick Edward Spencer (British author)

    Randolph Churchill, English author, journalist, and politician, the only son of British prime minister Winston Churchill. Churchill was a popular journalist in the 1930s and thrice failed to enter Parliament before becoming Conservative member for Preston (1940–45). During World War II he served as

  • Churchill, Sarah Jennings (English duchess)

    Sarah Jennings, Duchess of Marlborough, wife of the renowned general John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough; her close friendship with Queen Anne bolstered her husband’s career and served to aid the Whig cause. As a child, Sarah Jennings formed a friendship with the Princess Anne (the future queen

  • Churchill, Sir Winston (British politician [1620-1688])

    John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough: Military career: …Churchill was the son of Sir Winston Churchill, member of Parliament, who possessed only a moderate property but was sufficiently influential at the court of Charles II to be able to provide for his sons there and in the armed forces. John, the eldest, advanced rapidly both at court and…

  • Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Winston Churchill, British statesman, orator, and author who as prime minister (1940–45, 1951–55) rallied the British people during World War II and led his country from the brink of defeat to victory. After a sensational rise to prominence in national politics before World War I, Churchill

  • Churchill, Winston (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Winston Churchill, British statesman, orator, and author who as prime minister (1940–45, 1951–55) rallied the British people during World War II and led his country from the brink of defeat to victory. After a sensational rise to prominence in national politics before World War I, Churchill

  • Churchill, Winston (American writer)

    Winston Churchill, American author of historical novels of wide popularity. Graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1894 and having private means, he soon devoted himself to writing. His first novel, The Celebrity, appeared in 1898. His next, Richard Carvel (1899), a novel of Revolutionary

  • Churching of Women (Christian rite)

    rite of passage: Life-cycle ceremonies: … and the fading rite of churching of women, to a ceremony of thanksgiving for mothers soon after childbirth. These rites involve the parents as well as the child and in some societies include the couvade, which in its so-called classic form centres ritual attention at childbirth upon the father rather…

  • churchwarden (Anglican)

    Churchwarden, in the Church of England, one of the lay guardians of a parish church. The office dates from the 14th century, but the original duties of maintaining the edifice and goods of the church, with the financial obligations involved, were transferred to the parochial councils in 1921.

  • Churchyard, Thomas (English writer)

    Thomas Churchyard, English writer who won brief fame through his occasional verse, pamphlets on wartime experiences, pageants for Queen Elizabeth I, and historical and antiquarian works—all reflecting aspects of a crowded career. His works have never been completely printed and are of only

  • Churia Range (hills, Nepal)

    Nepal: Relief: The Churia Range, which is sparsely populated, rises in almost perpendicular escarpments to an altitude of more than 4,000 feet. Between the Churia Range to the south and the Mahābhārat Range to the north, there are broad basins from 2,000 to 3,000 feet high, about 10…

  • churidar (clothing)

    Bangladesh: Daily life and social customs: The traditional sherwani and churidar, calf-length tunic and close-fitting trousers, are still seen at weddings, where they are worn along with the turban. The sari is common among women, but girls and younger women, especially students, prefer the shalwar kamiz, a combination of calf-length shirt and baggy silk or…

  • churinga (art and religion)

    Tjurunga, in Australian Aboriginal religion, a mythical being and a ritual object, usually made of wood or stone, that is a representation or manifestation of such a being. An Aranda word, tjurunga traditionally referred to sacred or secret–sacred things set apart, or taboo; for example, certain r

  • Chūritsu Rōren (Japanese labour organization)

    Chūritsurōren, Japanese trade-union federation (1961–87) whose members were primarily employed in private enterprise. Although some of the individual member unions were identified with political parties, the federation itself was independent. Chūritsurōren often cooperated with the General Council

  • Chūritsurōren (Japanese labour organization)

    Chūritsurōren, Japanese trade-union federation (1961–87) whose members were primarily employed in private enterprise. Although some of the individual member unions were identified with political parties, the federation itself was independent. Chūritsurōren often cooperated with the General Council

  • churl (English peasant)

    Ceorl, the free peasant who formed the basis of society in Anglo-Saxon England. His free status was marked by his right to bear arms, his attendance at local courts, and his payment of dues directly to the king. His wergild, the sum that his family could accept in place of vengeance if he were k

  • churn (machine)

    Churn, device for making butter. The earliest churns were goatskins or other primitive containers in which cream could be agitated. The dash churn, familiar to farm homes for centuries, consisted of a tall, narrow, nearly cylindrical stone or wood tub fitted with a wooden cover; the cream was

  • Churni (Jaina text)

    Jainism: Canonical and commentarial literature: of texts called Bhashyas and Churnis. Composed between the 4th and the 7th century, these texts contain many ancient Jain legends and historical traditions and a large number of popular stories that support Jain doctrine. The Bhashyas and Churnis, in turn, gave rise in the medieval period to a large…

  • churning (machine)

    Churn, device for making butter. The earliest churns were goatskins or other primitive containers in which cream could be agitated. The dash churn, familiar to farm homes for centuries, consisted of a tall, narrow, nearly cylindrical stone or wood tub fitted with a wooden cover; the cream was

  • churning of the ocean of milk (Hindu mythology)

    Churning of the ocean of milk, in Hinduism, one of the central events in the ever-continuing struggle between the devas (gods) and the asuras (demons, or titans). The gods, who had become weakened as a result of a curse by the irascible sage Durvasas, invited the asuras to help them recover the

  • Churriguera family (Spanish family)

    Churriguera family, a Spanish architectural family prominent during the last years of the 17th century and the first quarter of the 18th. The chief members of the family were three brothers, sons of a Barcelona altarpiece maker, all active at the same time. The family has become identified with the

  • Churriguera, Alberto (Spanish architect)

    Salamanca: …Plaza Mayor (1729–33; designed by Alberto Churriguera and completed by Andrés García de Quiñones), which was originally intended to serve on occasion as a bullring and which has a surrounding arcade ornamented on two sides with medallions of the kings of Spain and General Franco. There also is the Town…

  • Churriguera, Joaquín (Spanish architect)

    Churriguera family: His brother Joaquín (1674–1724) is remembered for his work at the Salamanca cathedral (1714–24; dismantled after 1755) and at the Colegio de Calatrava (begun 1717) in Salamanca. Another brother, Alberto (1686–1750), designed the handsome Plaza Mayor in Salamanca.

  • Churriguera, José Benito (Spanish architect)

    salomónica: …this school continued to imitate José Benito Churriguera’s graceful salomónicas, especially those behind the altar of the church of San Esteban in Salamanca, Spain, well into the 18th century.

  • Churrigueresco (architectural style)

    Churrigueresque, Spanish Rococo style in architecture, historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque (q.v.) style. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament, surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments, undulating cornices, reversed volutes,

  • Churrigueresque (architectural style)

    Churrigueresque, Spanish Rococo style in architecture, historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque (q.v.) style. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament, surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments, undulating cornices, reversed volutes,

  • Churru (Jat chieftain)

    Churu: …was founded about 1620 by Churru, a chieftain of the Jats (an agricultural people of northern India), from whom its name is derived. It is a local market for wool, millet, gram (chickpeas), cattle, and salt and has cottage industries that include hand-loom weaving, pottery, and leather manufacture. Bajra (pearl…

  • Churu (India)

    Churu, city, northeastern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It lies on a sandy plain on the Rajasthan Steppe, about 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Jhunjhunun. The city was founded about 1620 by Churru, a chieftain of the Jats (an agricultural people of northern India), from whom its name is

  • Churubusco (historical district, Mexico City, Mexico)

    Churubusco, neighbourhood of the Federal District of Mexico, lying on the Río Churubusco; it was formerly a southeastern suburb of Mexico City until its annexation in 1970. Known as Huitzilopocho by the Aztecs, it was a town of considerable importance before the Spanish conquest. It contains a

  • Churún Merú, Salto (waterfall, Venezuela)

    Angel Falls, waterfall in the Guiana Highlands in Bolívar state, southeastern Venezuela, on the Churún River, a tributary of the Caroní, 160 miles (260 km) southeast of Ciudad Bolívar. The highest waterfall in the world, the cataract drops 3,212 feet (979 metres) and is 500 feet (150 metres) wide

  • Churún River (river, Venezuela)

    Orinoco River: Physiography of the Orinoco: Farther upstream, on the Churún River (a tributary of the Caroní), are Angel Falls, the highest waterfall in the world (3,212 feet [979 metres]). Many lagoons, including the Mamo, Amana, and Colorada, are located on the banks of the Orinoco west of its confluence with the Caroní and east…

  • Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Comet (comet)

    comet: Spacecraft exploration of comets: …hieroglyphics) on a trajectory to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). Rendezvous with 67P took place on August 6, 2014. Along the way, Rosetta successfully flew by the asteroids 2849 Steins and 21 Lutetia and obtained considerable scientific data. Rosetta uses 11 scientific instruments to study the nucleus, coma, and solar wind interaction.…

  • Chusan Archipelago (archipelago, China)

    Zhoushan Archipelago, group of more than 400 islands off the northern coast of Zhejiang province, eastern China. The administrative centre of the archipelago is at Dinghai, the main town on Zhoushan Island. Daishan Island lies north of Zhoushan Island. The Zhoushan islands represent the submerged

  • Chusetown (Connecticut, United States)

    Seymour, town (township), New Haven county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S. It lies along the Naugatuck River near New Haven. The area was settled about 1678 as part of Derby on land purchased from the Pequot Indians, who called it Naugatuck. It was known successively as Rimmon (1670); Chusetown

  • Chūshingura (drama by Takeda Izumo and others)

    Chūshingura, classic play cycle of the Japanese kabuki theatre. The kabuki drama was adapted from an original written about 1748 for the puppet theatre (bunraku) by Takeda Izumo with Namiki Sōsuke (Senryū) and Miyoshi Shōraku. In 11 acts it dramatizes the incidents that took place from 1701 to 1

  • Chūshingura: The Treasury of Loyal Retainers (drama by Takeda Izumo and others)

    Chūshingura, classic play cycle of the Japanese kabuki theatre. The kabuki drama was adapted from an original written about 1748 for the puppet theatre (bunraku) by Takeda Izumo with Namiki Sōsuke (Senryū) and Miyoshi Shōraku. In 11 acts it dramatizes the incidents that took place from 1701 to 1

  • chusimp’o style (architecture)

    Chusimp’o style, (Korean: “column-head bracket system”) Korean adaptation of the Chinese architecture of the T’ang period (ad 618–907). T’ang architecture was first introduced into Korea in the middle of the Koryŏ period (935–1392). In southern China, particularly in Fukien province, the T’ang

  • Chuska Mountains (mountains, New Mexico, United States)

    San Juan: The Chuska Mountains rise to more than 9,000 feet (2,700 metres) in the southwest. The San Juan River, at Lake Navajo, forms the county’s northeastern boundary, then receives the Las Animas River and flows in a long curve through the county. The western half of San…

  • Chusovaya River (river, Russia)

    Ural Mountains: Drainage: The Chusovaya and Ufa rivers of the Central and Southern Urals, which later join the Volga drainage basin, have their sources on the eastern slope.

  • Chusovoi (Russia)

    Chusovoy, city, Perm oblast (province), west-central Russia. It is situated in the mid-Ural Mountains along the Chusovaya River at the inflow of the Usva. Founded in 1879 as an ironworks, it became a city in 1933. Ironworks and steelworks are located there, and ferroalloys and high-quality steels

  • Chusovoy (Russia)

    Chusovoy, city, Perm oblast (province), west-central Russia. It is situated in the mid-Ural Mountains along the Chusovaya River at the inflow of the Usva. Founded in 1879 as an ironworks, it became a city in 1933. Ironworks and steelworks are located there, and ferroalloys and high-quality steels

  • Chust (city, Ukraine)

    Khust, city, western Ukraine, near the confluence of the Rika and Tisza rivers. It arose in the 10th century as a fortified Rus town. Subsequently it was under the rule of Hungary, the principality of Galicia-Volhynia, and Transylvania before coming under Austrian control in the 18th century.

  • Chust (Uzbekistan)

    Namangan: The ancient settlement of Chust is the home of the tyubeteyka, the traditional Uzbek square skullcap, and Chortoq spa attracts visitors from all over Russia and Central Asia. Uzbeks constitute more than four-fifths of the inhabitants, the remainder including Tajiks, Russians, Tatars, and Kyrgyz. More than three-fifths of the…

  • Chust pottery (ceramics)

    Central Asian arts: Neolithic and Metal Age cultures: The best Chust pottery was very thin, covered with a red slip (liquid clay) and decorated after glazing with black triangular and scroll designs.

  • chute (hydrology)

    Chute, or Cutoff, in a river, shortcut across a meander (q.v.). loop that shortens and straightens the course of the stream. Chutes are formed by lateral erosion of the bank of the upstream arm of a loop, which causes the stream to cut through the neck of the loop into the downstream arm. This

  • Chute d’un ange, La (poem by Lamartine)

    Alphonse de Lamartine: Political career: …poem under the appropriate title La Chute d’un ange (“The Fall of an Angel”). In 1832–33 he travelled to Lebanon, Syria, and the Holy Land. He had by then definitively lost the Catholic faith he had tried to recover in 1820; a further blow was the death in Beirut, on…

  • Chute de l’empire américain, La (film by Arcand [2018])

    Denys Arcand: …Chute de l’empire américain (2018; The Fall of the American Empire), a satiric crime thriller that explores greed in modern society.

  • Chute Montmorency (waterfall, Canada)

    Montmorency Falls, waterfall at the mouth of the Montmorency River in Québec region, southern Quebec province, Canada, about 7 miles (11 km) northeast of Quebec city. The waterfall makes a spectacular plunge 275 feet (84 m) into the St. Lawrence River. A hydroelectric installation at the falls

  • Chute, La (novel by Camus)

    The Fall, novel by Albert Camus, published in 1956 in French as La Chute. The novel is one of the author’s most brilliant technical achievements. It is set in an Amsterdam bar and consists of a one-sided conversation over the course of several days between an unidentified stranger and Jean-Baptiste

  • Chute, Marchette (American author)

    children's literature: Contemporary times: …England by the equally scholarly Marchette Chute. Poetry for children had at least two talented representatives. One was the eminent poet-critic John Ciardi, the other David McCord, a veteran maker of nonsense and acrobat of language.

  • Chutes de Khone (waterfall, Laos)

    Khone Falls, series of cataracts on the Mekong River, extreme southern Laos, on the Cambodian border. The falls are the principal impediment to navigation of the river and have impeded economic use of the Mekong by the peoples of the Cambodian plain to the south and those of Laos to the north; a

  • Chutes de Livingstone (waterfalls, Africa)

    Livingstone Falls, series of 32 rapids and cataracts on the Congo River, extending for about 220 miles (354 km) between Kinshasa and Matadi in Congo (Kinshasa) and partially along the border with Congo (Brazzaville). The total drop of the falls is about 850 feet (260 m), despite only minor rapids

  • chutney (food)

    Chutney, relish that accompanies an Indian meal. Chutneys may be highly spiced or bland and may be prepared from fruits, vegetables, or herbs. The commercially made chutneys of Great Britain, which have remained popular since the height of the Empire, are usually stewed from mangoes or other

  • Chuuk Islands (islands, Micronesia)

    Chuuk Islands, cluster of 16 much-eroded high volcanic islands in the Federated States of Micronesia, western Pacific Ocean. The name Chuuk means “high mountains” in the Chuukese language, one of several Malayo-Polynesian languages that are used in the islands. The Chuuk Islands, which form part of

  • Chuukese (people)

    Micronesian culture: High-island and low-island cultures: …the Marianas; the Yapese; the Chuukese, inhabiting about 12 high islands of varying size in the large Chuuk Lagoon; the Pohnpeians; the Kosraeans; and some inhabitants of the isolated island of Nauru, which is geologically a raised atoll (without exposed volcanic rock).

  • Chuvalo, George (Canadian boxer)

    George Chuvalo, Canadian professional boxer and heavyweight champion of Canada. Chuvalo’s forte was the knockout punch, and he used it to record 64 of his 73 victories in a 93-bout career that began in 1956 and continued through 1973. He held the Canadian heavyweight title three times during his

  • Chuvan language

    Paleo-Siberian languages: Yukaghir: …to Yukaghir are Omok and Chuvan (Chuvantsy); these were spoken south and southwest of the current Yukaghir area. Nivkh has about 1,000 speakers, roughly half of whom live in the estuary of the Amur River and the other half on Sakhalin Island.

  • Chuvantsy language

    Paleo-Siberian languages: Yukaghir: …to Yukaghir are Omok and Chuvan (Chuvantsy); these were spoken south and southwest of the current Yukaghir area. Nivkh has about 1,000 speakers, roughly half of whom live in the estuary of the Amur River and the other half on Sakhalin Island.

  • Chuvash (people)

    Chuvash, ethnic minority in western Russia who constitute the majority of the population of Chuvashia. Another 850,000 Chuvash are found in other parts of Russia. The Chuvash speak a Turkic language and claim to be descended from the Bolgars who in the 4th century ad migrated from Central Asia to

  • Chuvash A. S. S. R. (republic, Russia)

    Chuvashiya, republic in western Russia that is inhabited mainly by the Chuvash people. Its capital is Cheboksary. Chuvashiya occupies the right (southwest) bank of the middle Volga River and is drained by tributaries of that river—the Sura in the west, the Great (Bolshoy) Tsivil and Little (Maly)

  • Chuvash language

    Chuvash language, member of the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family, spoken in Chuvashia and nearby regions along the middle course of the Volga River, in the central part of European Russia. Chuvash constitutes a separate and distinct branch of the Turkic languages that differs

  • Chuvashia (republic, Russia)

    Chuvashiya, republic in western Russia that is inhabited mainly by the Chuvash people. Its capital is Cheboksary. Chuvashiya occupies the right (southwest) bank of the middle Volga River and is drained by tributaries of that river—the Sura in the west, the Great (Bolshoy) Tsivil and Little (Maly)

  • Chuvashiya (republic, Russia)

    Chuvashiya, republic in western Russia that is inhabited mainly by the Chuvash people. Its capital is Cheboksary. Chuvashiya occupies the right (southwest) bank of the middle Volga River and is drained by tributaries of that river—the Sura in the west, the Great (Bolshoy) Tsivil and Little (Maly)

  • Chüy River (river, Central Asia)

    Chu River, river in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, rising in the Tien Shan at the confluence of the Dzhuvanaryk and Kochkor rivers. It flows north through the Boam Gorge, beyond which it is joined by the Chon-Kyomin; it then flows northwest through the fertile Chu Valley, in which much of its water is

  • Chūzenji, Lake (lake, Japan)

    Lake Chūzenji, lake, lying within Nikkō National Park, Tochigi ken (prefecture), north-central Honshu, Japan. It is situated at an elevation of 4,163 feet (1,269 metres) and has a surface area of about 4.6 square miles (11.8 square km). Lake Chūzenji is a resort site noted for its shrines,

  • Chūzenji-ko (lake, Japan)

    Lake Chūzenji, lake, lying within Nikkō National Park, Tochigi ken (prefecture), north-central Honshu, Japan. It is situated at an elevation of 4,163 feet (1,269 metres) and has a surface area of about 4.6 square miles (11.8 square km). Lake Chūzenji is a resort site noted for its shrines,

  • Chuzzlewit, Martin (fictional character)

    Martin Chuzzlewit, fictional character, the protagonist of the novel Martin Chuzzlewit (1844) by Charles

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