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  • chromatic aberration (optics)

    Chromatic aberration, colour distortion in an image viewed through a glass lens. Because the refractive index of glass varies with wavelength, every property of a lens that depends on its refractive index also varies with wavelength, including the focal length, the image distance, and the image

  • chromatic acid (chemical compound)

    chromium: Principal compounds: …is chromium oxide, commonly called chromium trioxide or chromic acid, CrO3, in which chromium is in the +6 oxidation state. An orange-red crystalline solid, chromic acid liquefies gradually when exposed to moist air. It is usually produced by treatment of sodium dichromate with sulfuric acid. Chromic acid is used chiefly…

  • chromatic adaptation (physiology)

    colour: Colour effects: This effect, also called chromatic adaptation, is what causes browns to appear reddish to someone who has just viewed a green lawn. Thus, even when the colour of a given object is measured and its physical cause identified, visual effects can prevent the precise perception of that colour from…

  • chromatic harp (musical instrument)

    harp: …12 strings per octave (chromatic harps).

  • chromatic modulation (music)

    modulation: Continuous chromatic modulation for long stretches of musical time, with cadences constantly postponed, is characteristic of the increasingly complex harmonic idioms of the late 19th century, beginning with the German composer Richard Wagner’s opera Tristan und Isolde (1857–59).

  • chromatic scale (music)

    musical sound: Division of the pitch spectrum: …for the pitches of the chromatic scale. The piano keyboard is a useful visual representation of this 12-unit division of the octave. Beginning on any key, there are 12 different keys (and thus 12 different pitches), counting the beginning key, before a key occupying the same position in the pattern…

  • chromaticism (music)

    Chromaticism, (from Greek chroma, “colour”) in music, the use of notes foreign to the mode or diatonic scale upon which a composition is based. Chromatic tones in Western art music are the notes in a composition that are outside the seven-note diatonic (i.e., major and minor) scales and modes. On

  • chromaticity (optics)

    colour: Tristimulus measurement and chromaticity diagrams: …graphically represented on a standard chromaticity diagram (see also the location of emerald green on a chromaticity diagram). Standardized by the Commission Internationale d’Éclairage (CIE) in 1931, the chromaticity diagram is based on the values x, y, and z, where x = X/(X + Y + Z), y = Y/(

  • chromatid (biology)

    centromere: … that holds together the two chromatids (the daughter strands of a replicated chromosome). The centromere is the point of attachment of the kinetochore, a structure to which the microtubules of the mitotic spindle become anchored. The spindle is the structure that pulls the chromatids to opposite ends of the cell…

  • chromatin (biology)

    cell: DNA packaging: …a dense, compact fibre called chromatin. An extreme example of the ordered folding and compaction that chromatin can undergo is seen during cell division, when the chromatin of each chromosome condenses and is divided between two daughter cells (see below Cell division and growth).

  • chromatin fibre (biology)

    cell: DNA packaging: …a dense, compact fibre called chromatin. An extreme example of the ordered folding and compaction that chromatin can undergo is seen during cell division, when the chromatin of each chromosome condenses and is divided between two daughter cells (see below Cell division and growth).

  • chromatogram (tape)

    chromatography: Development chromatography: …carved or cut from the chromatogram. In one type of planar chromatography, the mixture is placed at one corner of a square bed, plate, or sheet and developed, the mobile phase is evaporated, and the plate is rotated 90° so that the spots become the origins for a second development…

  • chromatography (chemistry)

    Chromatography, technique for separating the components, or solutes, of a mixture on the basis of the relative amounts of each solute distributed between a moving fluid stream, called the mobile phase, and a contiguous stationary phase. The mobile phase may be either a liquid or a gas, while the

  • chromatophore (biological pigment)

    Chromatophore, pigment-containing cell in the deeper layers of the skin of animals. Depending on the colour of their pigment, chromatophores are termed melanophores (black), erythrophores (red), xanthophores (yellow), or leucophores (white). The distribution of the chromatophores and the pigments

  • Chrome (Internet browser)

    Chrome, an open-source Internet browser released by Google, Inc., a major American search engine company, in 2008. The first beta version of the software was released on Sept. 2, 2008, for personal computers (PCs) running various versions of Microsoft Corporation’s Windows OS (operating system).

  • chrome brick

    refractory: Basic: include magnesia, dolomite, chrome, and combinations of these materials. Magnesia brick is made from periclase, the mineral form of magnesia (MgO). Periclase is produced from magnesite (a magnesium carbonate, MgCO3), or it is produced from magnesium hydroxide (Mg[OH]2), which in turn is derived from seawater or underground brine

  • chrome green (pigment)

    chromium processing: Pigments: Chrome green is a mixture of lead chromate with iron blue. This pigment has excellent covering and hiding power and is widely used in paints.

  • Chrome OS (open-source operating system)

    Chrome: …open-source operating system, known as Chrome OS. The first devices to use Chrome OS were released in 2011 and were netbooks called Chromebooks. Chrome OS, which runs on top of a Linux kernel, requires fewer system resources than most operating systems because it uses cloud computing, in which the only…

  • chrome oxide green (pigment)

    colour: Transition metal compounds: …also known as the pigment chrome green, in which the relatively weak ligand field of the chromium-oxygen bonding at the chromiums produces colour in a similar manner to that in the emerald discussed above. Additional examples are the copper-containing blue-to-green gem materials malachite, azurite, and turquoise, as well as the…

  • chrome yellow (chemical compound)

    chromium processing: Pigments: Chromium yellow varies greatly in the shades available and is essentially lead chromate, or crocoite. This pigment makes an excellent paint for both wood and metal. Zinc yellow, a basic zinc chromate, is used as a corrosion-inhibiting primer on aircraft parts fabricated from aluminum or…

  • Chromebook (computer)

    Google Apps: …2011 and were netbooks called Chromebooks. Chrome OS, which runs on top of a Linux kernel, requires fewer system resources than most operating systems because it uses cloud computing, in which the only software run on a Chrome OS device is the Chrome browser and all other software applications are…

  • chromic acid (chemical compound)

    chromium: Principal compounds: …is chromium oxide, commonly called chromium trioxide or chromic acid, CrO3, in which chromium is in the +6 oxidation state. An orange-red crystalline solid, chromic acid liquefies gradually when exposed to moist air. It is usually produced by treatment of sodium dichromate with sulfuric acid. Chromic acid is used chiefly…

  • chromic acid (chemical compound, H2CrO4)

    carboxylic acid: Oxidation: …agent, the most common being chromic acid (H2CrO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4), and nitric acid (HNO3). Aldehydes are oxidized to carboxylic acids more easily (by many oxidizing agents), but this is not often useful, because the aldehydes are usually less available than the corresponding acids. Also

  • chromic oxide (chemical compound)

    chromium: Principal compounds: …chromium oxide, also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromic oxide, Cr2O3, in which chromium is in the +3 oxidation state. It is prepared by calcining sodium dichromate in the presence of carbon or sulfur. Chromium oxide is a green powder and is employed extensively as a pigment; its hydrate form,…

  • chrominance (electronics)

    television: Basic principles of compatible colour: The NTSC system: Chrominance, defined as that part of the colour specification remaining when the luminance is removed, is a combination of the two independent quantities, hue and saturation. Chrominance may be represented graphically in polar coordinates on a colour circle (as shown in the diagram), with saturation…

  • chrominance signal (electronics)

    television: Basic principles of compatible colour: The NTSC system: In the NTSC system, the chrominance signal is an alternating current of precisely specified frequency (3.579545 ± 0.000010 megahertz), the precision permitting its accurate recovery at the receiver even in the presence of severe noise or interference. Any change in the amplitude of its alternations at any instant corresponds to…

  • chrominance transmission (electronics)

    television: Basic principles of compatible colour: The NTSC system: The chrominance transmission has no appreciable effect on black-and-white receivers, yet, when used with the luminance transmission in a colour receiver, it produces an image in full colour.

  • chromist (kingdom of microorganisms)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Kingdom Chromista Common microorganisms; includes important plant pathogens, such as the cause of potato blight (Phytophthora); motile spores swim by means of 2 flagella and grow as hyphae with cellulose-containing walls; includes the majority of the Oomycota; contains a total of approximately 110 genera and 900…

  • Chromista (kingdom of microorganisms)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Kingdom Chromista Common microorganisms; includes important plant pathogens, such as the cause of potato blight (Phytophthora); motile spores swim by means of 2 flagella and grow as hyphae with cellulose-containing walls; includes the majority of the Oomycota; contains a total of approximately 110 genera and 900…

  • chromite (mineral)

    Chromite, relatively hard, metallic, black oxide mineral of chromium and iron (FeCr2O4) that is the chief commercial source of chromium. It is the principal member of the spinel series of chromium oxides; the other naturally occurring member is magnesiochromite, oxide of magnesium and chromium

  • chromite series (mineralogy)

    spinel: … is aluminum; the chromite (chromium-spinel) series, in which B is chromium; and the magnetite (iron-spinel) series, in which B is iron.

  • chromium (chemical element)

    Chromium (Cr), chemical element of Group 6 (VIb) of the periodic table, a hard, steel-gray metal that takes a high polish and is used in alloys to increase strength and corrosion resistance. Chromium was discovered (1797) by the French chemist Nicolas-Louis Vauquelin and isolated as the metal a

  • chromium bromide (chemical compound)

    crystal: Ferromagnetic materials: Chromium bromide (CrBr3) is an insulator since chromium is trivalent and a bromine atom needs one electron to complete its outer shell. The trivalent chromium atoms each have a moment, and these align ferromagnetically below the Curie temperature of 37 K. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; Tc…

  • chromium dioxide (chemical compound)

    sound recording: The audiotape: …and to a lesser extent chromium dioxide (CrO2). The recording head of the tape deck consists of a tiny C-shaped magnet with its gap adjacent to the moving tape. The incoming sound wave, having been converted by a microphone into an electrical signal, produces a time-varying magnetic field in the…

  • chromium processing

    Chromium processing, preparation of the ore for use in various products. Chromium (Cr) is a brilliant, hard, refractory metal that melts at 1,857 °C (3,375 °F) and boils at 2,672 °C (4,842 °F). In the pure state it is resistant to ordinary corrosion, resulting in its application as an electroplated

  • chromium sesquioxide (chemical compound)

    chromium: Principal compounds: …chromium oxide, also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromic oxide, Cr2O3, in which chromium is in the +3 oxidation state. It is prepared by calcining sodium dichromate in the presence of carbon or sulfur. Chromium oxide is a green powder and is employed extensively as a pigment; its hydrate form,…

  • chromium trioxide (chemical compound)

    chromium: Principal compounds: …is chromium oxide, commonly called chromium trioxide or chromic acid, CrO3, in which chromium is in the +6 oxidation state. An orange-red crystalline solid, chromic acid liquefies gradually when exposed to moist air. It is usually produced by treatment of sodium dichromate with sulfuric acid. Chromic acid is used chiefly…

  • chromium(III) oxide (chemical compound)

    chromium: Principal compounds: …chromium oxide, also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromic oxide, Cr2O3, in which chromium is in the +3 oxidation state. It is prepared by calcining sodium dichromate in the presence of carbon or sulfur. Chromium oxide is a green powder and is employed extensively as a pigment; its hydrate form,…

  • chromium(VI) oxide (chemical compound)

    chromium: Principal compounds: …is chromium oxide, commonly called chromium trioxide or chromic acid, CrO3, in which chromium is in the +6 oxidation state. An orange-red crystalline solid, chromic acid liquefies gradually when exposed to moist air. It is usually produced by treatment of sodium dichromate with sulfuric acid. Chromic acid is used chiefly…

  • chromium-spinel (mineralogy)

    spinel: … is aluminum; the chromite (chromium-spinel) series, in which B is chromium; and the magnetite (iron-spinel) series, in which B is iron.

  • chromizing (industrial process)

    chromium processing: Chromium plating: …other metals by electroplating and chromizing. There are two types of electroplating: decorative and “hard.” Decorative plate varies between 0.000254 and 0.000508 millimetre (0.00001 and 0.00002 inch) in thickness and is usually deposited over nickel. “Hard” plating is used because of its wear resistance and low coefficient of friction. For…

  • chromo (printing)

    Oleograph, colour lithograph produced by preparing a separate stone by hand for each colour to be used and printing one colour in register over another. The term is most often used in reference to commercial prints. Sometimes as many as 30 stones were used for a single print. The technique was

  • chromo-luminarism (art)

    Pointillism, in painting, the practice of applying small strokes or dots of colour to a surface so that from a distance they visually blend together. The technique is associated with its inventor, Georges Seurat, and his student, Paul Signac, who both espoused Neo-Impressionism, a movement that

  • chromobiont (organism)
  • chromoblastomycosis (disease)

    Chromoblastomycosis, infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues that is characterized by the development of warty lesions, usually on the foot and leg. It occurs as a result of traumatic inoculation with any of several saprophytic fungi (genera Phialophora, Cladosporium, and Hormodendrum [or

  • chromogram (photography)

    Frederic Eugene Ives: …called kromskop) camera and the chromogram (also spelled kromogram). The latter, a viewing instrument that accurately combined and projected the three-separation colour negative produced by the former, was of particular importance in the development of full-colour projection. Some of his early prints are preserved in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

  • chromolithograph (printing)

    Oleograph, colour lithograph produced by preparing a separate stone by hand for each colour to be used and printing one colour in register over another. The term is most often used in reference to commercial prints. Sometimes as many as 30 stones were used for a single print. The technique was

  • chromomycosis (disease)

    Chromoblastomycosis, infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues that is characterized by the development of warty lesions, usually on the foot and leg. It occurs as a result of traumatic inoculation with any of several saprophytic fungi (genera Phialophora, Cladosporium, and Hormodendrum [or

  • chromophore (chemistry)

    Chromophore, a group of atoms and electrons forming part of an organic molecule that causes it to be coloured. Correlations between the structural features of chemical compounds and their colours have been sought since about 1870, when it was noted that quinones and aromatic azo and nitro

  • Chromophyta (division of algae)

    algae: Annotated classification: Division Chromophyta Most with chlorophyll a; one or two with chlorophyllide c; carotenoids present; storage product beta-1,3-linked polysaccharide outside chloroplast; mitochondria with tubular cristae; biflagellate cells and zoospores usually with tubular hairs on one flagellum; mucous organelles common. Class Bacillariophyceae (

  • chromosomal aberration

    heredity: Chromosomal aberrations: The chromosome set of a species remains relatively stable over long periods of time. However, within populations there can be found abnormalities involving the structure or number of chromosomes. These alterations arise spontaneously from errors in the normal processes of the cell. Their…

  • chromosomal anomaly (congenital)

    Chromosomal disorder, any syndrome characterized by malformations or malfunctions in any of the body’s systems, and caused by abnormal chromosome number or constitution. Normally, humans have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs; the pairs vary in size and shape and are numbered by convention.

  • chromosomal disorder (congenital)

    Chromosomal disorder, any syndrome characterized by malformations or malfunctions in any of the body’s systems, and caused by abnormal chromosome number or constitution. Normally, humans have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs; the pairs vary in size and shape and are numbered by convention.

  • chromosomal mutation

    heredity: Chromosomal aberrations: The chromosome set of a species remains relatively stable over long periods of time. However, within populations there can be found abnormalities involving the structure or number of chromosomes. These alterations arise spontaneously from errors in the normal processes of the cell. Their…

  • chromosomal translocation (genetics)

    chromosomal disorder: …be transferred to another (translocation), which has no effect on the person in which it occurs but generally causes a deletion or duplication syndrome in his or her children. Changes in chromosome number occur during sperm or egg formation or in the early development of the embryo. In the…

  • chromosome (biology)

    Chromosome, the microscopic threadlike part of the cell that carries hereditary information in the form of genes. A defining feature of any chromosome is its compactness. For instance, the 46 chromosomes found in human cells have a combined length of 200 nm (1 nm = 10− 9 metre); if the chromosomes

  • chromosome 15 (genetics)

    autism: Possible causes and risk factors: …that a region on chromosome 15 is deleted or duplicated in some children with autism; defects in and near this region have been implicated in other disorders associated with neurobiological development, including Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and epilepsy.

  • chromosome 19 (genetics)

    human disease: Alzheimer’s disease: Another gene on chromosome 19 is believed to play a part in the more common late-onset cases. The gene on chromosome 21 was the first to be identified. (This finding is significant because an abnormality in chromosome 21—an extra copy—is found in patients with Down syndrome, virtually all…

  • chromosome 20 (genetics)

    sleepwalking: …to a region of chromosome 20 and revealed that persons carrying the sleepwalking version of this chromosome had a 50 percent chance of transmitting the disorder to their children. The identification of specific genes that contribute to sleepwalking could facilitate diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

  • chromosome 21 (genetics)

    human disease: Alzheimer’s disease: The gene on chromosome 21 was the first to be identified. (This finding is significant because an abnormality in chromosome 21—an extra copy—is found in patients with Down syndrome, virtually all of whom develop Alzheimer’s disease if they live to age 35.) The defective gene on chromosome 21…

  • chromosome 6 (genetics)

    schizophrenia: Theories on the origin of schizophrenia: …in persons with schizophrenia, including chromosomes 6 and 22. In the case of chromosome 6, it is thought that the interaction of these variants—many of which occur in a region of the chromosome that contains the major histocompatibility complex, a group of genes associated with regulating responses of the immune…

  • chromosome map

    Calvin Blackman Bridges: …to observable changes in its chromosomes. These experiments led to the construction of “gene maps” and proved the chromosome theory of heredity. Bridges, with Morgan and Alfred Henry Sturtevant, published these results in 1925. That same year he published “Sex in Relation to Chromosomes and Genes,” demonstrating that sex in…

  • chromosome number (genetics)

    Chromosome number, precise number of chromosomes typical for a given species. In any given asexually reproducing species, the chromosome number is always the same. In sexually reproducing organisms, the number of chromosomes in the body (somatic) cells typically is diploid (2n; a pair of each

  • Chromosomes in Heredity, The (work by Sutton)

    Walter Sutton: …developed this hypothesis in “The Chromosomes in Heredity” (1903) and concluded that chromosomes contain hereditary units and that their behaviour during meiosis is random. His work formed the basis for the chromosomal theory of heredity.

  • chromosphere (solar)

    Chromosphere, lowest layer of the Sun’s atmosphere, several thousand kilometres thick, located above the bright photosphere and below the extremely tenuous corona. The chromosphere (colour sphere), named by the English astronomer Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer in 1868, appears briefly as a bright

  • Chronegk, Ludwig (German actor)

    Meiningen Company: Assisted by the actor Ludwig Chronegk, who conducted it on tour, the duke instituted many reforms, among which were an emphasis upon historical accuracy and authenticity in costumes and sets, the use of steps and platforms to keep the action moving fluidly on many different levels, the division of…

  • chronic active hepatitis (pathology)

    hepatitis: Other causes: …of acute viral hepatitis include fulminant hepatitis, which is a very severe, rapidly developing form of the disease that results in severe liver failure, impaired kidney function, difficulty in the clotting of blood, and marked changes in neurological function. Such patients rapidly become comatose; mortality is as high as 90…

  • chronic constrictive pericarditis (physiology)

    pericarditis: This condition, called chronic constrictive pericarditis, is corrected by surgical removal of the pericardium.

  • chronic cystic mastitis (mammary gland)

    Fibrocystic disease of the breast, noncancerous cysts (harmless swellings caused by fluid trapped in breast tissues) that often increase in size and become tender during the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle. This condition occurs most often in women between the ages of 30 and 50 years.

  • chronic cystitis (pathology)

    cystitis: Chronic cystitis, or interstitial cystitis, is a recurrent or persistent inflammation of the bladder. No causative virus or bacterium is known. The condition may possibly arise from an autoimmune disorder, in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells of the bladder, or as a…

  • chronic daily headache (pathology)

    headache: Tension and chronic daily headaches: Chronic daily headaches have many of the same clinical features as episodic tension-type headaches but occur more often, sometimes on a daily basis. Their most common causes are depression, anxiety, anger, or frustration. Chronic daily headaches may also arise from excessive use of pain medications.…

  • chronic destructive pulmonary disease (pathology)

    bronchitis: …two conditions is known as chronic destructive pulmonary disease. Chronic bronchitis is sometimes also caused by prolonged inhalation of environmental irritants or organic substances such as acid vapours or hay dust (see farmer’s lung). In some countries chronic bronchitis is caused by daily inhalation of wood smoke from improperly ventilated…

  • chronic disease (pathology)

    bronchitis: …a long-standing, repetitive condition, called chronic bronchitis, that results in protracted and often permanent damage to the bronchial mucosa.

  • chronic fatigue syndrome

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), disorder characterized by persistent debilitating fatigue. There exist two specific criteria that must be met for a diagnosis of CFS: (1) severe fatigue lasting six months or longer and (2) the coexistence of any four of a number of characteristic symptoms, defined

  • chronic glomerulonephritis (pathology)

    Bright disease: Chronic glomerulonephritis usually follows the other two stages, if the affected person survives long enough, but it has been found in a few individuals who apparently have not had previous kidney disease. In this stage the kidney is reduced mostly to scar tissue. It is…

  • chronic granulomatous disease (pathology)

    Chronic granulomatous disease, a group of rare inherited diseases characterized by the inability of certain white blood cells called phagocytes to destroy invading microorganisms. Individuals born with this defect are vulnerable to many bacterial and fungal infections, particularly Staphylococcus

  • chronic hepatitis (pathology)

    hepatitis: Other causes: …of acute viral hepatitis include fulminant hepatitis, which is a very severe, rapidly developing form of the disease that results in severe liver failure, impaired kidney function, difficulty in the clotting of blood, and marked changes in neurological function. Such patients rapidly become comatose; mortality is as high as 90…

  • chronic hypertension (medicine)

    pregnancy: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: …Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: (1) chronic hypertension, (2) preeclampsia and eclampsia, (3) preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, (4) transient hypertension, and (5) unclassified.

  • chronic inflammation (pathology)

    inflammation: Chronic inflammation: If the agent causing an inflammation cannot be eliminated, or if there is some interference with the healing process, an acute inflammatory response may progress to the chronic stage. Repeated episodes of acute inflammation also can give rise to chronic inflammation. The physical…

  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia (pathology)

    blood disease: Leukemia: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) occurs most often in people over age 50 and worsens gradually over time. It is mainly characterized by an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood and bone marrow, often accompanied by more or less generalized enlargement of lymph…

  • chronic mountain sickness

    human respiratory system: High altitudes: …lose this acclimatization and develop chronic mountain sickness, sometimes called Monge disease, after the Peruvian physician who first described it. This disease is characterized by greater levels of hemoglobin. In Tibet some infants of Han origin never achieve satisfactory acclimatization on ascent to high altitude. A chemodectoma, or benign tumour,…

  • chronic myelogenous leukemia (pathology)

    blood disease: Leukemia: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the appearance in the blood of large numbers of immature white blood cells of the myelogenous series in the stage following the myeloblast, namely, myelocytes. The spleen becomes enlarged, anemia develops, and the affected person may lose weight.…

  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (pathology)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), progressive respiratory disease characterized by the combination of signs and symptoms of emphysema and bronchitis. It is a common disease, affecting tens of millions of people and causing significant numbers of deaths globally. Sources of noxious

  • chronic pain

    therapeutics: Pain: Chronic pain serves a less useful function and is often more difficult to treat. Although acute pain requires immediate attention, its cause is usually easily found, whereas chronic pain complaints may be more vague and difficult to isolate.

  • chronic stress (psychology and biology)

    stress: Types of stress and effects: Chronic stress is characterized by the persistent presence of sources of frustration or anxiety that a person encounters every day. An unpleasant job situation, chronic illness, and abuse incurred during childhood or adult life are examples of factors that can cause chronic stress. This type…

  • chronic traumatic encephalopathy (pathology)

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), degenerative brain disease typically associated with repetitive trauma to the head. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) originally was known as dementia pugilistica, a term introduced in the 1920s and ’30s to describe mental and motor deficits associated

  • chronic wasting disease (animal disease)

    prion: …called mad cow disease), and chronic wasting disease of mule deer and elk. For decades physicians thought that these diseases resulted from infection with slow-acting viruses, so-called because of the lengthy incubation times required for the illnesses to develop. These diseases were, and sometimes still are, referred to as slow…

  • Chronic, The (album by Dr. Dre)

    Snoop Dogg: …and on his landmark album The Chronic (both 1992). Snoop’s prominent vocals on the hit singles “Dre Day” and “Nuthin’ but a ‘G’ Thang” fueled a rapid ascent to stardom. His own album Doggystyle (1993) became the first debut record to enter the Billboard 200 chart at number one.

  • Chronica (work by Nepos)

    Cornelius Nepos: …of distinguished Romans and foreigners; Chronica (in 3 books), which introduced to the Roman reader a Greek invention, the universal comparative chronology; Exempla (in at least 5 books), which consisted of anecdotes; possibly a universal geography to match the Chronica; and biographies of the elder Cato and Cicero. There survive…

  • Chronica (work by Sulpicius Severus)

    Sulpicius Severus: In 400 he wrote Chronica, 2 vol., (c. 402–404), sacred histories from the Creation to his own time but omitting the Gospels; the latter part is a valuable contemporary document, especially for the tragic history of the Priscillianists, followers of an unorthodox Trinitarian doctrine teaching that the Son differs…

  • Chronica (work by Gervase of Canterbury)

    Gervase Of Canterbury: …he began to compile his Chronica, starting with the reign of King Stephen (1135–54). A second history, the Gesta regum, traces in less detail the political and military fortunes of Britain from the 1st century bc to 1209 or 1210. The earlier portions of both works are derivative, but Gervase…

  • Chronica (work by Roger of Hoveden)

    Roger Of Hoveden: His Chronica are in two parts: the first is based on Bede’s Ecclesiastical History and Its Continuation by Simeon and Henry of Huntingdon (732–1154), and the second treats the period from 1155 to 1201. This, the lengthy part of the chronicle, is by far the most…

  • Chronica (work by Otto of Freising)

    Otto Of Freising: Otto’s Chronica sive historia de duabus civitatibus is a history of the world from the beginning to 1146. Following St. Augustine, it interprets all secular history as a conflict between the civitas Dei (“the realm of God”) and the world; and it views its contemporary period…

  • Chronica Hungarorum (historical work)

    Chronica Hungarorum, (Latin: “Chronicle of the Hungarians”) the first book printed in Hungary, issued from the press of András Hess in Buda, now Budapest, on June 5, 1473. Hess, who was probably of German origin, dedicated the book to his patron, László Karai, provost of Buda, who had invited him

  • Chronica majora (work by Paris)

    Matthew Paris: His Chronica majora (“Major Chronicles”) incorporates Roger Wendover’s Flores historiarum (“Flowers of History”) and continues it from 1235 to 1259. His other chronicles—the Historia Anglorum (“History of the English”), the Flores historiarum, and the Abbreviatio chronicorum (“Summary of the Chronicles”)—are all abridged from his Chronica majora…

  • Chronica sive historia de duabus civitatibus (work by Otto of Freising)

    Otto Of Freising: Otto’s Chronica sive historia de duabus civitatibus is a history of the world from the beginning to 1146. Following St. Augustine, it interprets all secular history as a conflict between the civitas Dei (“the realm of God”) and the world; and it views its contemporary period…

  • Chronica Slavorum (work by Helmold of Bosau)

    Helmold Of Bosau: …who wrote Chronica Slavorum (Chronicle of the Slavs). Completed in about 1172, this work was a history of the lower Elbe River region from about 800 to 1170.

  • Chronica: Zeitbuch und Geschichtsbibel (work by Franck)

    Sebastian Franck: Franck’s major work, Chronica: Zeitbuch und Geschichtsbibel (1531; “Chronica: Time Book and Historical Bible”), is a wide-ranging history of Christianity that seeks to give heresies and heretics their due.

  • Chronicle (work by Langtoft)

    Peter Langtoft: His Chronicle deals with the history of England from the earliest times to the death of Edward I and seems to have as its aim the glorification of that king. The early part relies ultimately upon Geoffrey of Monmouth and other writers, but for the reign…

  • Chronicle (work by Rolandino)

    Italy: Cultural developments: …Ezzelino da Romano in his Chronicle. While in exile from Florence in the early 1300s, Dante Alighieri, the greatest of all Italian poets, completed his towering epic poem, The Divine Comedy. Dante’s literary art found its visual equivalent in the brilliant frescoes of Giotto di Bondone in Padua (Arena Chapel),…

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