• 0-9
  • a
  • b
  • c
  • d
  • e
  • f
  • g
  • h
  • i
  • j
  • k
  • l
  • m
  • n
  • o
  • p
  • q
  • r
  • s
  • t
  • u
  • v
  • w
  • x
  • y
  • z
  • Christian IX (king of Denmark)

    Christian IX, Danish king who came to the throne at the height of a crisis over Schleswig-Holstein in 1863 and who later resisted the advance of full parliamentary government in Denmark. Christian was the son of Duke William of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (and after 1825 Duke of Glücksburg).

  • Christian Ludwig (margrave of Brandenburg)

    Brandenburg Concertos: …and dedicated in 1721 to Christian Ludwig, the margrave (marquess) of Brandenburg and the younger brother of King Frederick I of Prussia.

  • Christian Message in a Non-Christian World, The (work by Kraemer)

    study of religion: Neo-orthodoxy and demythologization: …Word to non-Christian religions in The Christian Message in a Non-Christian World, which had a wide impact on the overseas mission field. Since religions are cultural products and since each system of belief is organic and particular, there are, according to Kraemer, no points of contact between them and the…

  • Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (American church)

    Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, black Methodist church in the United States, organized in 1870 as the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church; it officially adopted its present name in 1956. The church originated from a movement begun in 1866 within the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, to

  • Christian Minstrel (work by Aikin)

    shape-note singing: History: Aikin’s Christian Minstrel (1846), many tunebooks were printed in seven shapes, representing the seven syllables of the doremi system. Aikin’s seven-shape notation achieved wide use in the southern United States, where it was adopted in some denominational hymnals. After the American Civil War, singing schools and…

  • Christian missions (Christianity)

    Mission, in Christianity, an organized effort for the propagation of the Christian faith. During the early years, Christianity expanded through the communities of the Jewish dispersion. Soon the separate character of Christianity was recognized, and it was freed from the requirements of Hebrew law.

  • Christian name (linguistics)

    name: Forms of personal names: …the first name or the given name. Because many people received the same name (given name), they were differentiated by surnames (for example, John Redhead, John Hunter, John Scott). Many of these surnames became fixed and hereditary in individual families. These are called either surnames or family names, and in…

  • Christian Nurture (work by Bushnell)

    Horace Bushnell: His first significant publication, Christian Nurture (1847), was a thorough critique of the prevailing emphasis placed on the conversion experience by revivalists. In God in Christ (1849), published in the year of his mystical experience that illumined the gospel for him, Bushnell challenged the traditional, substitutionary view of the…

  • Christian of Anhalt (Protestant prince)

    Christian of Anhalt, minor Protestant prince who played a major role in precipitating the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48). Christian entered the service of the Lutheran elector of Saxony and in 1591 led a force of German Protestant troops to support the Calvinist Henry IV in the French Wars of

  • Christian of Brunswick (German military commander)

    Christian of Brunswick, duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, Protestant military commander, and soldier of fortune during the early part of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), who made his reputation predominantly through his wholesale plundering and burning. “The mad Halberstadter” (der tolle

  • Christian of Oldenburg (Scandinavian king)

    Christian I, king of Denmark (1448–81), Norway (1450–81), and Sweden (1457–64, 1465–67), and founder of the Oldenburg dynasty, which ruled Denmark until 1863. He tried to gain control over Sweden and maintain a union of the Scandinavian nations but was defeated by rebellious Swedish nobles (

  • Christian People’s Party (political party, Denmark)

    Denmark: Postwar politics: …the Centre Democrats (Centrum-Demokraterne), the Christian People’s Party (Kristeligt Folkeparti), and the Progress Party (Fremskridtspartiet), an antitax party. A weak minority government under Poul Hartling of the Liberal Party tried to solve the country’s growing economic problems, but his austerity program resulted in protests from trade unions and the opposition.…

  • Christian Philosopher (work by Mather)

    Cotton Mather: His Christian Philosopher (1721) recognizes God in the wonders of the earth and the universe beyond; it is both philosophical and scientific and, ironically, anticipates 18th-century Deism, despite his clinging to the old order.

  • Christian philosophy

    Christianity, major religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus of Nazareth (the Christ, or the Anointed One of God) in the 1st century ce. It has become the largest of the world’s religions and, geographically, the most widely diffused of all faiths. It has a constituency of

  • Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas, The (work by Gilson)

    Étienne Gilson: …de saint Thomas d’Aquin (1919; The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas). Many of his best-known books resulted from lectureships. Among these are L’Esprit de la philosophie médiévale (1932; The Spirit of Mediæval Philosophy), his exposition and defense of the idea of a Christian philosophy; The Unity of Philosophical Experience…

  • Christian Platonism (philosophy)

    Saint Gregory of Nyssa: As a Christian Platonist, Gregory followed the great Alexandrian theologian Origen, though not slavishly; most notably, he shared Origen’s conviction that man’s material nature is a result of the fall and also Origen’s hope for ultimate universal salvation. In imitation of Plato’s Phaedo, Gregory presented his teaching…

  • Christian Reconstructionism (religious movement)

    fundamentalism: Christian fundamentalism in the United States: …in the United States, the Christian Reconstructionists, advocated the creation of a state and society based on strict conformity to biblical law. But they constituted only a small minority of the activists in the Christian Right.)

  • Christian Reformed Church in North America (Protestant denomination)

    Christian Reformed Church in North America, Protestant denomination that developed in the United States from a group that separated in 1857 from the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church (now the Reformed Church in America) and called itself the True Holland Reformed Church. It was strengthened in 1882

  • Christian Right (American political movement)

    fundamentalism: Christian fundamentalism in the United States: Despite the prominence of the Christian Right in American politics in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, millions of Christian fundamentalists continued to focus their attention on the religious and personal domains. They were not overtly political, and they certainly did not attempt to remake state and society according…

  • Christian Science (religious denomination)

    Christian Science, religious denomination founded in the United States in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910), author of the book that contains the definitive statement of its teaching, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1875). It is widely known for its highly controversial practice of

  • Christian Science Monitor, The (American newspaper)

    The Christian Science Monitor, American daily online newspaper that is published under the auspices of the Church of Christ, Scientist. Its original print edition was established in 1908 at the urging of Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the church, as a protest against the sensationalism of the popular

  • Christian Social Party (political party, Austria)

    Austria: Electoral reform: …without parliamentary influence, while the Christian Socialists and the Social Democrats returned as the two strongest parties out of more than 30 represented in parliament; the socialist delegation in the Austrian parliament was, in fact, larger than in any other country. The Austrian constitution, however, did not force the emperor…

  • Christian Social Party (political party, Germany)

    Adolf Stoecker: …Workers’ Party (1878)—later renamed the Christian Social Party (1881). Although failing in its appeal to the workers, the party attracted a considerable following among the Berlin lower-middle classes because of its founder’s espousal of anti-Semitism. As a member of the Reichstag (national parliament) in 1881–93 and 1898–1908, he sought to…

  • Christian Social People’s Party (political party, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg: Independent Luxembourg: …government made up of his Christian Social People’s Party (Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei; CSV) and the Democratic Party that brought to an end 15 years of coalition rule by the CSV and the Socialist Workers’ Party of Luxembourg (Lëtzebuergesch Sozialistesch Arbechterpartei; LSAP). In 2000, at age 79, Grand Duke Jean formally…

  • Christian Social Union (political party, Germany)

    Christian Social Union (CSU), conservative German political party that was founded in Bavaria, Germany, in 1946 by various Roman Catholic and Protestant groups and is committed to free enterprise, federalism, and a united Europe operating under Christian principles. Since December 1946, when party

  • Christian Socialism (political philosophy)

    Christian Socialism, movement of the mid-19th century that attempted to apply the social principles of Christianity to modern industrial life. The term was generally associated with the demands of Christian activists for a social program of political and economic action on behalf of all

  • Christian Socialist Movement (political movement, United Kingdom)

    socialism: Christian socialism: …more modest, manifestation is the Christian Socialist Movement in Britain, which affiliates itself with the British Labour Party. Several members of Parliament have belonged to the Christian Socialist Movement, including Prime Minister Gordon Brown, the son of a Methodist minister, and his predecessor, Tony Blair, an Anglican who converted to…

  • Christian Socialist Party (political party, Austria)

    Austria: Electoral reform: …without parliamentary influence, while the Christian Socialists and the Social Democrats returned as the two strongest parties out of more than 30 represented in parliament; the socialist delegation in the Austrian parliament was, in fact, larger than in any other country. The Austrian constitution, however, did not force the emperor…

  • Christian System, The (book by Campbell)

    Disciples of Christ: Teachings: …Campbell summarized his theology in The Christian System (1835), the most influential book in shaping Disciples thought. In it he outlined a commonsense biblical doctrine against the complex theories of the schools and the sects. He emphasized reliance on the Bible and insisted on going to the sources. Relying on…

  • Christian the Younger (German military commander)

    Christian of Brunswick, duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, Protestant military commander, and soldier of fortune during the early part of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), who made his reputation predominantly through his wholesale plundering and burning. “The mad Halberstadter” (der tolle

  • Christian Union (Swiss history)

    Kappel Wars: …Unterwalden, and Zug, formed the Christian Union, which allied itself with Austria to prevent Zürich from spreading Protestantism over the common lordships (territories ruled by the Swiss confederates jointly). Zürich thereupon launched an expedition against the Christian Union, but the fighting was negligible, and an armistice signed at Kappel on…

  • Christian Union (American magazine)

    Big Stick policy: Following his presidency, writing in Outlook magazine in 1914 about Belgium’s lack of preparedness for World War I, Roosevelt returned to the metaphor of the big stick:

  • Christian Union (American Pentecostal church)

    Church of God, any of several Pentecostal churches that developed in the U.S. South from the late 19th- and early 20th-century Latter Rain revival, based on a belief that a second rain of the gifts of the Holy Spirit would occur similar to that of the first Christian Pentecost. They adhere to an

  • Christian unity (Christianity)

    Ecumenism, movement or tendency toward worldwide Christian unity or cooperation. The term, of recent origin, emphasizes what is viewed as the universality of the Christian faith and unity among churches. The ecumenical movement seeks to recover the apostolic sense of the early church for unity in

  • Christian Unity, Week of Prayer for

    church year: Protestant churches: …observed during the Octave or Week of Prayer for Christian Unity, January 18–25—a custom started by Paul James Wattson of the Franciscan Friars of the Atonement and developed by Abbé Paul Couturier. The week is jointly sponsored by the World Council of Churches and the Vatican Secretariat for Promoting Christian…

  • Christian V (Scandinavian king)

    Christian V, king who consolidated absolutism in Denmark–Norway. Christian was the son of Frederick III, whom he succeeded in 1670. Popular with the common people, he fortified the absolutist system against the aristocracy by accelerating his father’s practice of allowing Holstein nobles and Danish

  • Christian V, Code of (Danish law)

    maritime law: Historical development: …of France (1681), and the Code of Christian V of Denmark (1683). Of these, the most significant were the Ordinances, prepared under Louis XIV’s finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, as part of his comprehensive though unfulfilled plan for the codification of all French law. Established customs of the sea, revised to…

  • Christian VI (Scandinavian king)

    Christian VI, king of Denmark and Norway, son of Frederick IV of Denmark and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, who ascended the throne after his father’s death on Oct. 12, 1730. Tolerably gifted, he became a diligent and conscientious ruler, choosing able administrators; but he was shy, reserved, and

  • Christian VII (Scandinavian king)

    Christian VII, mentally incompetent king of Denmark and Norway; his reign saw the brief domination of the kingdom by Count Johann Friedrich Struensee. The son of Frederick V, Christian VII came to the throne in 1766. His mental instability has been attributed to a brutal childhood governor and to

  • Christian VIII (king of Denmark)

    Christian VIII, king of Denmark during the rise of the liberal opposition to absolutism in the first half of the 19th century. While still crown prince of Denmark and recent stadtholder (governor) of Norway, Christian accepted election as king of Norway in 1814 by the Norwegian independence f

  • Christian Virtuoso, The (work by Boyle)

    Robert Boyle: Theological activities: The Christian Virtuoso (1690) summarized these views and may be seen as a manifesto of Boyle’s own life as the model of a Christian scientist.

  • Christian Wahnschaffe (work by Wasserman)

    Jakob Wassermann: In Christian Wahnschaffe (1919; The World’s Illusion), one of his most popular works, a millionaire’s son, after experiencing all that high life, love, travel, and art have to offer, dedicates himself to the service of humanity.

  • Christian Worship: A Service Book (liturgical manual)

    Disciples of Christ: Worship and organization: Christian Worship: A Service Book (1953), a semiofficial manual for voluntary use, exerted wide influence in restoring and stabilizing the typical pattern, with an emphasis on use of scriptural sentences throughout. The influence of the Liturgical Movement brought greater use of responsive readings, litanies, and…

  • Christian X (king of Denmark)

    Christian X, king of Denmark (1912–47) who symbolized the nation’s resistance to the German occupation during World War II. The eldest son of the future King Frederick VIII and Louise of Sweden and Norway, Christian became chief of the royal guard in 1898 and married Alexandrine of

  • Christian Year, The (work by Keble)

    John Keble: In 1827 he published The Christian Year, a volume of poems for Sundays and festivals of the church year. Widely circulated, the book did more than any other to promulgate the ideas of the High Church movement in Anglicanism.

  • Christian’s Secret of a Happy Life, The (work by Smith)

    Hannah Whitall Smith: In 1875 she published The Christian’s Secret of a Happy Life, a guide to sanctification and complete surrender to divine will that was translated into several languages and sold some two million copies around the world. She wrote several more books, including Every-day Religion; or, The Common-sense Teaching of…

  • Christian, Barbara (Caribbean-American educator and critic)

    Barbara Christian, Caribbean American educator and feminist critic who attempted to define an African American feminist philosophy of criticism. Educated at Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (B.A., 1963), and Columbia University, New York City (M.A., 1964; Ph.D., 1970), Christian taught at

  • Christian, Charles (American musician)

    Charlie Christian, American jazz guitarist, who was one of the first to produce improvised masterpieces using electrically amplified equipment. His recording career, tragically brief though it was, helped raise the guitar from an accompanying to a dominant solo instrument. Reared in Oklahoma City,

  • Christian, Charles (American musician)

    Charlie Christian, American jazz guitarist, who was one of the first to produce improvised masterpieces using electrically amplified equipment. His recording career, tragically brief though it was, helped raise the guitar from an accompanying to a dominant solo instrument. Reared in Oklahoma City,

  • Christian, Charlie (American musician)

    Charlie Christian, American jazz guitarist, who was one of the first to produce improvised masterpieces using electrically amplified equipment. His recording career, tragically brief though it was, helped raise the guitar from an accompanying to a dominant solo instrument. Reared in Oklahoma City,

  • Christian, Fletcher (British seaman and mutineer)

    Fletcher Christian, seaman and leading mutineer on HMS Bounty, under the command of William Bligh. Christian, a member of a family that had moved from the Isle of Man to Cumberland, England, had already served some years in the navy when, in 1787, he became master’s mate on the Bounty, a discovery

  • Christian, Letitia (American first lady)

    Letitia Tyler, American first lady (1841–42), the first wife of John Tyler, 10th president of the United States. Letitia Christian was the seventh of 12 children born to Robert Christian, a planter, and Mary Brown Christian. Although few records documenting her early life exist, historians have

  • Christian, Philip (English pottery manufacturer)

    Liverpool porcelain: …porcelain was also produced by Philip Christian (1765–76), Chaffers’s partner, after Christian took over the factory when Chaffers died in 1765. “Biting snake” handles, palm columns, and leaf-molded teapots are characteristic of this porcelain. The Pennington factory is thought to have produced bowls and jugs painted with ships. Also attributed…

  • Christian, Susanne (German actress)

    Paths of Glory: Christiane Harlan, credited as Susanne Christian, played a German captive forced to serenade French soldiers in the film’s moving conclusion; she married Kubrick after the production.

  • Christian, William (English politician)

    William Christian, Manx politician regarded in some circles as a patriot martyr. Christian was the third son of Ewan Christian, one of the deemsters (judges) of the Isle of Man. In 1648 Christian was appointed to the post of receiver general by the 7th Earl of Derby, lord of the Isle of Man. In

  • Christian-Jaque (French director)

    Christian-Jaque, one of the most commercially successful and prolific French motion-picture directors, who was able to depict both drama and comedy effectively. Christian-Jaque was educated at the School of Fine Arts and the School of Decorative Arts, both in Paris. He started his career as a

  • Christianae Religionis Institutio (work by Calvin)

    Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin’s masterpiece, a summary of biblical theology that became the normative statement of the Reformed faith. It was first published in 1536 and was revised and enlarged by Calvin in several editions before the definitive edition was published in 1559.

  • Christiani and Nielsen (Danish company)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Modern practice: …by a Danish engineer-constructor firm, Christiani and Nielsen, starting in 1938 with a three-tube highway crossing of the Maas River in Rotterdam. While following American technique in essence, European engineers have developed a number of innovations, including prestressed concrete in lieu of a steel structure (often consisting of a number…

  • Christiania (national capital, Norway)

    Oslo, capital and largest city of Norway. It lies at the head of Oslo Fjord in the southeastern part of the country. The original site of Oslo was east of the Aker River. The city was founded by King Harald Hardraade about 1050, and about 1300 the Akershus fortress was built by Haakon V. After the

  • Christiania (skiing turn)

    Sondre Norheim: …as the stem turn, the Christiania, and the stem Christiania. In 1850 he had been the first skier to perform parallel turns. In 1868 Norheim and some friends skied 322 km (200 miles) from Telemark to Christiania (later Oslo), where he made a jump of 18 metres (59 feet). He…

  • Christianisme dévoilé, Le (work by d’Holbach)

    Paul-Henri Dietrich, baron d'Holbach: In Le Christianisme dévoilé (1761; “Christianity Unveiled”), published under the name of a deceased friend, N.A. Boulanger, he attacked Christianity as contrary to reason and nature. Système social (1773; “Social System”) placed morality and politics in a utilitarian framework wherein duty became prudent self-interest. His other…

  • Christianismi Restitutio (work by Servetus)

    Michael Servetus: …revision of his ideas, the Christianismi Restitutio, to Calvin in 1546 and expressed a desire to meet him. After their first few letters, Calvin would have nothing more to do with him and kept the manuscript. He declared to his eloquent French preacher colleague Guillaume Farel that if Servetus ever…

  • Christianity

    Christianity, major religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus of Nazareth (the Christ, or the Anointed One of God) in the 1st century ce. It has become the largest of the world’s religions and, geographically, the most widely diffused of all faiths. It has a constituency of

  • Christianity and Crisis (journal)

    Reinhold Niebuhr: Political activist: …religious pacifist and socialist journal; Christianity and Crisis, a biweekly with wide-ranging social and religious concerns; and a quarterly, now discontinued, first named Radical Religion and later Christianity and Society. He married Ursula M. Keppel-Compton in 1931. His wife was herself a teacher of religion at Barnard College in New…

  • Christianity and Liberalism (book by Machen)

    John Gresham Machen: …unbiblical and unhistorical in his Christianity and Liberalism (1923) and struggled to preserve the conservative character of the Princeton Theological Seminary. He left Princeton in 1929, after the school was reorganized and adopted a more accepting attitude toward liberal Protestantism, and he helped found Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia. Ordained…

  • Christianity and Social Problems (book by Abbott)

    Lyman Abbott: His Christianity and Social Problems (1897), The Rights of Man (1901), The Spirit of Democracy (1910), and America in the Making (1911) present his moderate sociological views, which rejected both socialism and laissez-faire capitalism. On other problems, Abbott presented the viewpoint of liberal Evangelical Protestantism. He…

  • Christianity and the Religions of the World (work by Schweitzer)

    classification of religions: Other principles: …missionary, and Nobel laureate, in Christianity and the Religions of the World, grouped religions as rivals or nonrivals of Christianity. Still another scheme may be seen in Söderblom’s Gifford Lectures, The Living God, in which religions were divided according to their doctrines of the relation between human and divine activity…

  • Christianity and the Social Crisis (work by Rauschenbusch)

    Walter Rauschenbusch: Upon the publication of Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907), Rauschenbusch gained recognition as the major spokesman of the Social Gospel movement in the United States. Considered both dynamic and compassionate, he always regarded himself as an evangelist seeking to win men to a “new birth” in Christ. At…

  • Christianity as Old as the Creation (work by Tindal)

    Christology: Enlightenment Christology: … (1657–1733) argued in his book Christianity as Old as the Creation (1730) that Jesus had preached a gospel of “nature” that all of humankind could understand were it not for the perversions introduced by priests and other religious functionaries. Other Deist interpretations of Jesus were Chubb’s The True Gospel of…

  • Christianity not Mysterious (work by Toland)

    rationalism: Four waves of religious rationalism: John Toland (1670–1722), in his Christianity Not Mysterious (1696), sought to show that “there is nothing in the Gospels contrary to reason, nor above it”; any doctrine that is really above reason would be meaningless to humans. Attacking revelation, the freethinking polemicist Anthony Collins (1676–1729) maintained that the prophecies of…

  • Christianity Today (American periodical)

    Christian fundamentalism: The late 19th to the mid-20th century: Christianity Today was founded as their major periodical. Their new intellectual centre, Fuller Theological Seminary, was opened in Pasadena, California; many of the schools formerly identified with fundamentalism, such as the Moody Bible Institute, also moved into the Evangelical camp. A new ecumenical organization, the…

  • Christianity’s Newest Converts

    Though 2001 will undoubtedly be remembered as the year that the terrorist attacks in the U.S. were attributed to Islamic radicals, that action reminded Christians in the U.S. and other Western countries that Islam claims the allegiance of 1.2 billion people worldwide, second only to Christianity

  • Christiansborg Castle (palace, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Copenhagen: …of Slotsholmen (“Castle Islet”) is Christiansborg Palace, built on the site of the old castle founded by Bishop Absalon in 1167. Since 1928 the palace has been occupied by Parliament, the Supreme Court, and the Foreign Office. Nearby buildings house other government offices. Slotsholmen also contains the Bertel Thorvaldsen Museum,…

  • Christiansborg Palace (palace, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Copenhagen: …of Slotsholmen (“Castle Islet”) is Christiansborg Palace, built on the site of the old castle founded by Bishop Absalon in 1167. Since 1928 the palace has been occupied by Parliament, the Supreme Court, and the Foreign Office. Nearby buildings house other government offices. Slotsholmen also contains the Bertel Thorvaldsen Museum,…

  • Christiansen, Benjamin (Danish director)

    Benjamin Christensen, Danish motion-picture director known for his exploration of the macabre. Christensen began his career as an opera singer in 1902 but later became an actor and then a director. By 1913 he was known as the writer, star, and director of a film exploring the unknown, Det

  • Christiansen, Godtfred Kirk (Danish manufacturer)

    Godtfred Kirk Christiansen, Danish toy manufacturer who engineered the growth of Legos into an international sensation and made Legoland, a theme park built out of the tiny, brightly coloured plastic building blocks, into one of Denmark’s leading tourist attractions (b. July 8, 1920--d. July 13,

  • Christiansen, Ole Kirk (Danish businessman)

    LEGO: …the Billund, Denmark, workshop of Ole Kirk Christiansen, who began making wooden toys in 1932. Two years later he named his company LEGO after the Danish phrase leg godt (“play well”). In 1949 LEGO produced its first plastic brick, a precursor to its signature brick with interlocking studs on the…

  • Christianshavn (district, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Copenhagen: The old quarter of Christianshavn is on the harbour to the south. It contains the 17th-century Church of Our Saviour. The western quarter contains the Frederiksberg Park, with its palace and a zoological garden.

  • Christianson, Benjamin (Danish director)

    Benjamin Christensen, Danish motion-picture director known for his exploration of the macabre. Christensen began his career as an opera singer in 1902 but later became an actor and then a director. By 1913 he was known as the writer, star, and director of a film exploring the unknown, Det

  • Christiansted (United States Virgin Islands)

    Christiansted, chief town and port of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, on the northeastern coast of the island. Exports are mainly watches and rum. It was formerly the capital of the Danish West Indies and was a boyhood residence (1765) of the American statesman Alexander Hamilton. Pop. (2000)

  • Christianus Sextus (work by Falkberget)

    Johan Petter Falkberget: Christianus Sextus (1927–35), a trilogy set in the 18th century, dramatizes the history of a mine by that name. The novel’s action takes place after the Great Northern War (in which Russia, Denmark-Norway, and Saxony-Poland challenged Sweden’s supremacy), a postwar setting that forms a parallel…

  • Christie’s (auction house, London, United Kingdom)

    Christie’s, British auction firm especially known for the sale of art. It was founded by James Christie in London in 1766 and became one of the world’s leading auction houses. Christie became a friend of such artists and craftsmen as Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Thomas Chippendale,

  • Christie’s International PLC (auction house, London, United Kingdom)

    Christie’s, British auction firm especially known for the sale of art. It was founded by James Christie in London in 1766 and became one of the world’s leading auction houses. Christie became a friend of such artists and craftsmen as Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Thomas Chippendale,

  • Christie, Agatha (British author)

    Agatha Christie, English detective novelist and playwright whose books have sold more than 100 million copies and have been translated into some 100 languages. Educated at home by her mother, Christie began writing detective fiction while working as a nurse during World War I. Her first novel, The

  • Christie, Anna (fictional character)

    Anna Christie, fictional character, the protagonist of the play Anna Christie (1922) by Eugene

  • Christie, Chris (American politician)

    Chris Christie, American lawyer and politician who served as the governor of New Jersey (2010–18) and gained national prominence as a moderate voice in the Republican Party. He sought the party’s nomination for president in 2016. The son of a Korean War veteran, Christie majored in political

  • Christie, Christopher James (American politician)

    Chris Christie, American lawyer and politician who served as the governor of New Jersey (2010–18) and gained national prominence as a moderate voice in the Republican Party. He sought the party’s nomination for president in 2016. The son of a Korean War veteran, Christie majored in political

  • Christie, Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa (British author)

    Agatha Christie, English detective novelist and playwright whose books have sold more than 100 million copies and have been translated into some 100 languages. Educated at home by her mother, Christie began writing detective fiction while working as a nurse during World War I. Her first novel, The

  • Christie, J. Walter (American military designer)

    tank: Interwar developments: …in the United States by J.W. Christie, who in 1928 built an experimental model capable of 42.5 miles per hour. Christie’s vehicles could run on wheels after the removal of tracks and, far more significant, had road wheels independently suspended. This enabled them to move over broken ground faster than…

  • Christie, James (British auctioneer)

    Christie's: It was founded by James Christie in London in 1766 and became one of the world’s leading auction houses.

  • Christie, James, the Younger (British auctioneer)

    Christie's: James Christie the Younger assumed management of the auction house after his father’s death in 1803, becoming an expert on ancient Greek and Italian vases and sculpture. In 1823 the firm moved to 8 King’s Street, St. James’s Square (vacated only from 1941 to 1953…

  • Christie, Julie (British actress)

    Julie Christie, British film actress renowned for a wide range of roles in English and American films of the 1960s and ’70s, as well as for her offbeat, free-spirited personality. Christie was born on her father’s Indian tea plantation but was educated in England and France. She studied acting at

  • Christie, Julie Frances (British actress)

    Julie Christie, British film actress renowned for a wide range of roles in English and American films of the 1960s and ’70s, as well as for her offbeat, free-spirited personality. Christie was born on her father’s Indian tea plantation but was educated in England and France. She studied acting at

  • Christie, Manson & Woods Ltd. (auction house, London, United Kingdom)

    Christie’s, British auction firm especially known for the sale of art. It was founded by James Christie in London in 1766 and became one of the world’s leading auction houses. Christie became a friend of such artists and craftsmen as Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Thomas Chippendale,

  • Christie, Perry (prime minister of The Bahamas)

    The Bahamas: Independence: …in 2012, and its leader, Perry Christie, replaced FNM leader Hubert Ingraham as prime minister.

  • Christie, Samuel (British mathematician)

    bridge: …instrument, invented by British mathematician Samuel Christie and popularized in 1843 by Sir Charles Wheatstone, measures resistance by comparing the current flowing through one part of the bridge with a known current flowing through another part. The Wheatstone bridge has four arms, all predominantly resistive. A bridge can measure other…

  • Christie, Sir George William Langham (British opera festival director)

    Sir George William Langham Christie, British opera festival director (born Dec. 31, 1934, Glyndebourne, near Lewes, East Sussex, Eng.—died May 7, 2014, Glyndebourne), was for more than four decades (1958–99) the guiding force behind the privately operated Glyndebourne Festival, the annual summer

  • Christiern I (Scandinavian king)

    Christian I, king of Denmark (1448–81), Norway (1450–81), and Sweden (1457–64, 1465–67), and founder of the Oldenburg dynasty, which ruled Denmark until 1863. He tried to gain control over Sweden and maintain a union of the Scandinavian nations but was defeated by rebellious Swedish nobles (

  • Christiern II (Scandinavian king)

    Christian II, king of Denmark and Norway (1513–23) and of Sweden (1520–23) whose reign marked the end of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523), a political union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. After serving as viceroy in Norway (1502, 1506–12), Christian succeeded his father, John, king of Denmark and

  • Christina (queen of Sweden)

    Christina, queen of Sweden (1644–54) who stunned all Europe by abdicating her throne. She subsequently attempted, without success, to gain the crowns of Naples and of Poland. One of the wittiest and most learned women of her age, Christina is best remembered for her lavish sponsorship of the arts

  • Your preference has been recorded
    Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
    Subscribe Today!