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  • Christ Recrucified (work by Kazantzakis)

    Greek literature: Literature after 1922: …masterpiece O Christos xanastavronete (1954; Christ Recrucified), he embodied a synthesis of ideas from various philosophies and religions in larger-than-life characters who wrestle with great problems, such as the existence of God and the purpose of human life. Kazantzákis had earlier published his 33,333-line Odísia (1938; Odyssey), an epic poem…

  • Christ Stopped at Eboli (work by Levi)

    Carlo Levi: …è fermato a Eboli (1945; Christ Stopped at Eboli), which reflects the visual sensitivity of a painter and the compassionate objectivity of a doctor. The novel was quickly acclaimed a literary masterpiece, and it was widely translated.

  • Christ the King, Church of (church, Cork, Ireland)

    Barry Byrne: …his finest works, the reinforced-concrete Church of Christ the King, Cork, Ireland (from 1928), is said to be the first European Catholic church designed by an American architect.

  • Christ the King, Feast of (Roman Catholic festival)

    Feast of Christ the King, festival celebrated in the Roman Catholic Church in honour of Jesus Christ as lord over all creation. Essentially a magnification of the Feast of the Ascension, it was established by Pope Pius XI in 1925. Originally, it was celebrated on the last Sunday in October, but in

  • Christ the Redeemer (statue, Mount Corcovado, Brazil)

    Christ the Redeemer, colossal statue of Jesus Christ at the summit of Mount Corcovado, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. It was completed in 1931 and stands 98 feet (30 metres) tall, its horizontally outstretched arms spanning 92 feet (28 metres). The statue, made of reinforced concrete clad in

  • Christ the Saviour, Cathedral of (cathedral, Moscow, Russia)

    Moscow: The inner city: …1931 Stalin demolished the 19th-century Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, and, beginning in 1958, a vast open-air swimming pool occupied its foundation, in accordance with Khrushchev’s orders. The cathedral, however, was restored to its original design and reopened in 1997. Its massive gilded cupola overlooking the Kremlin is one of…

  • Christ thorn (plant)

    Crown of thorns, (Euphorbia milii), thorny plant of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), native to Madagascar. Crown of thorns is popular as a houseplant and is grown in warm climates as a garden shrub. Flowering is year-round but most plentiful in wintertime in the Northern Hemisphere. The common

  • Christ Walking on the Water (work by Giotto)

    Giotto: Roman period: …are the great mosaic of Christ Walking on the Water (the Navicella), over the entrance to St. Peter’s; the altarpiece painted for Cardinal Stefaneschi (Vatican Museum); and the fresco fragment of Boniface VIII Proclaiming the Jubilee, in San Giovanni in Laterano (St. John Lateran). Giotto is also known to have…

  • Christ with St. John the Baptist (painting by Cavaliere d’Arpino)

    Cavaliere D'Arpino: …his best work is the four incidents from the life of St. John the Baptist in the Church of San Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. During his long career, he also created the designs for the mosaics of the cupola of St. Peter’s; the frescoes of the Cappella Paolina of the…

  • Christ’s Column (Romanesque sculpture)

    Western sculpture: Carolingian and Ottonian periods: …itself clearly in the so-called Christ’s Column (12.8 feet [3.9 metres] high; c. 1020; St. Michael’s, Hildesheim), which, with its figures spiralling around the shaft, reminds one of the triumphal columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius. Originally, it was crowned by a cross. As belonging to the art associated with…

  • Christ’s thorn (plant)

    Christ’s thorn, any of several prickly or thorny shrubs, particularly Paliurus spina-christi, of the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae). P. spina-christi is native to southern Europe and western Asia. It grows about 6 m (20 feet) tall and is sometimes cultivated in hedges. The alternate leaves are oval

  • Christ’s Victory (poem by Fletcher)

    English literature: Continued influence of Spenser: …his long religious poem “Christ’s Victory” (1610), which is also indebted to Josuah Sylvester’s highly popular translations from the French Calvinist poet Guillaume du Bartas, the Divine Weeks and Works (1605). Similarly, Spenserian pastorals still flowed from the pens of William Browne (Britannia’s Pastorals, 1613–16), George Wither (

  • Christ, Baptism of (art motif)

    Masolino: Clemente and the “Baptism of Christ” at Castiglione Olona are milestones in the history of landscape painting. With their light tonality and elegant, rhythmical figures, the scenes by Masolino in the Baptistery and Collegiata form two of the most fascinating fresco cycles of the 15th century.

  • Christ, Community of (American church)

    Community of Christ, church that claims to be the legal continuation of the church founded by Joseph Smith at Fayette in Seneca county, New York, in 1830. World headquarters are in Independence, Missouri. In the early 21st century the church’s members numbered about 250,000, with congregations in

  • Christ, Crib of (religious object)

    Rome: Santa Maria Maggiore: …of the church is the Crib of Christ relic, five pieces of wood connected by bits of metal. According to tradition, Pope Liberius (reigned 352–366) had a vision of Mary, who told him to erect a church where snow would fall, miraculously, on the night of August 5. In remembrance,…

  • Christ, Disciples of (Protestant church group)

    Disciples of Christ, group of Protestant churches that originated in the religious revival movements of the American frontier in the early 19th century. There are three major bodies of the Disciples of Christ, all of which stem from a common source. The Churches of Christ emphasize rigorous

  • Christ, imitation of (religion)

    Christianity: The problem of suffering: …specifically Christian idea of the imitation of Christ. Individual Christians are called to follow the example of Christ; incorporation into the body of Christ is granted to those who are ready to carry out within themselves Christ’s destiny of suffering, death, and resurrection. The early church’s characterization of the Christian…

  • Christ, John the Baptist, and the Apostles (work by Thorvaldsen)

    Western sculpture: Relation to the Baroque and the Rococo: …examples are large marbles of Christ, John the Baptist, and the Apostles by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen in the Church of Our Lady, Copenhagen (1821–27 and 1842). Thorvaldsen’s marbles, unlike Canova’s, are as neutral as the plaster models and indeed the surface of the sculpture was deliberately left neutral.

  • Christ, mystical body of (theology)

    Mystical body of Christ, in Roman Catholicism, a mystical union of all Christians into a spiritual body with Jesus Christ as their head. The concept is rooted in the New Testament and possibly reflects Christianity’s roots in Judaism; St. Paul’s letters to the Corinthians and Romans both use the

  • Christ, Order of (Portuguese religious group)

    Henry the Navigator: Early life: …made administrator general of the Order of Christ, which had replaced the Crusading order of the Templars in Portugal. While this did not oblige him to take religious vows, it was reported that he afterward resolved to lead a chaste and ascetic life. However, the traditional view of Henry as…

  • Christ, two natures of (theology)

    Acacian Schism: …reference to the distinction of Christ’s human and divine essences, as enunciated by the Council of Chalcedon (451), and in so doing made important concessions to the miaphysites. The Henotikon was widely accepted in the East but proved unacceptable to Rome and the Western church. Consequently, Acacius was deposed (484)…

  • Christabel (poem by Coleridge)

    Christabel, unfinished Gothic ballad by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in Christabel; Kubla Khan, A Vision; The Pains of Sleep (1816). The first part of the poem was written in 1797, the second in 1800. In it Coleridge aimed to show how naked energy might be redeemed through contact with

  • Christabel; Kubla Khan, A Vision; The Pains of Sleep (poem by Coleridge)

    Christabel, unfinished Gothic ballad by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in Christabel; Kubla Khan, A Vision; The Pains of Sleep (1816). The first part of the poem was written in 1797, the second in 1800. In it Coleridge aimed to show how naked energy might be redeemed through contact with

  • Christadelphians (Protestant religious group)

    Christadelphian, (Greek: “Brother of Christ”) member of a Christian group founded about 1848 by John Thomas, who, after studying medicine in London, emigrated to Brooklyn, New York. He at first joined the followers of Thomas and Alexander Campbell, founders of the Disciples of Christ (Christians),

  • Christal Glasse for Christian Women (work by Stubbs)

    Philip Stubbs: His Christal Glasse for Christian Women (1591), a biographical account of his wife, depicts her as an even narrower Puritan than he was himself. On her deathbed she declared her affection for a puppy to have been sinful vanity. His style and conventional subject matter make…

  • Christaller, Walter (German economic geographer)

    location theory: …contribution to location theory was Walter Christaller’s formulation of the central place theory, which offered geometric explanations as to how settlements and places are located in relation to one another and why settlements function as hamlets, villages, towns, or cities.

  • Christchurch (New Zealand)

    Christchurch, city, Canterbury regional council, eastern South Island, New Zealand, on the Avon River. It was the last and most successful colonizing project inspired by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and his New Zealand Company. Christchurch was founded by the Canterbury Association, which was formed in

  • Christchurch (England, United Kingdom)

    Christchurch, town and borough (district), administrative county of Dorset, historic county of Hampshire, England. It lies at the confluence of the Rivers Stour and Avon (East, or Hampshire, Avon) and adjoins the English Channel resort of Bournemouth. The site was significant during prehistoric

  • Christchurch (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Christchurch: Christchurch, town and borough (district), administrative county of Dorset, historic county of Hampshire, England. It lies at the confluence of the Rivers Stour and Avon (East, or Hampshire, Avon) and adjoins the English Channel resort of Bournemouth.

  • Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–2011 (New Zealand)

    Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to 7.1) that struck on

  • Christchurch Mansion (mansion, Ipswich, England, United Kingdom)

    Christchurch Mansion, in Ipswich, Suffolk, Eng., Tudor mansion built between 1548 and 1550 by Edmund Withipoll and now maintained as an art gallery and museum that is part of the Ipswich Museum of Art. The mansion houses a collection of local antiquities, including paintings and memorials of

  • Christelycke leringhen op den 25. Psalm (work by Menno Simons)

    Menno Simons: Life: …creatuere (“The New Birth”), and Christelycke leringhen op den 25. Psalm (“Meditation on the Twenty-fifth Psalm”). Late in 1536 or early in 1537, he received believer’s baptism, was called to leadership by the peaceful Anabaptist group founded in 1534 by Obbe Philips, and was ordained by Obbe. He also married.…

  • Christenberry, William (American photographer and artist)

    William Christenberry, (William Andrew Christenberry), American photographer and artist (born Nov. 5, 1936, Tuscaloosa, Ala.—died Nov. 28, 2016, Washington, D.C.), was known for simple, richly coloured photographs of decaying buildings in Alabama’s rural Hale county. Christenberry was considered a

  • Christenberry, William Andrew (American photographer and artist)

    William Christenberry, (William Andrew Christenberry), American photographer and artist (born Nov. 5, 1936, Tuscaloosa, Ala.—died Nov. 28, 2016, Washington, D.C.), was known for simple, richly coloured photographs of decaying buildings in Alabama’s rural Hale county. Christenberry was considered a

  • Christendom (European history)

    Roman Catholicism: The concept of Christendom: By the 10th century the religious and cultural community known as Christendom had come into being and was poised to enter a prolonged period of growth and expansion. Important progress had taken place well before this period, however. Beginning in the last years of…

  • Christenheit oder Europa, Die (work by Novalis)

    Novalis: In the essay Die Christenheit oder Europa (1799; “Christendom or Europe”), Novalis calls for a universal Christian church to restore, in a new age, a Europe whose medieval cultural, social, and intellectual unity had been destroyed by the Reformation and the Enlightenment.

  • christening (Christianity)

    Baptism, a sacrament of admission to Christianity. The forms and rituals of the various Christian churches vary, but baptism almost invariably involves the use of water and the Trinitarian invocation, “I baptize you: In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” The candidate

  • Christensen, Benjamin (Danish director)

    Benjamin Christensen, Danish motion-picture director known for his exploration of the macabre. Christensen began his career as an opera singer in 1902 but later became an actor and then a director. By 1913 he was known as the writer, star, and director of a film exploring the unknown, Det

  • Christensen, Harold (American dancer)

    Harold Christensen, American dancer and teacher who, with his brothers, Willam and Lew, was instrumental in establishing ballet in the western United States. Christensen studied dancing with the famous choreographer George Balanchine and appeared with the Metropolitan Opera Ballet (1934), Ballet

  • Christensen, Inger (Danish poet)

    Inger Christensen, Danish poet whose linguistically sophisticated work explores the interconnections of language, fiction, and reality. The daughter of a tailor living on Denmark’s Jutland coast, she graduated from Vejle Gymnasium in 1954 and studied at Teachers’ College in Århus. While a student

  • Christensen, Leonard (Norwegian explorer)

    European exploration: Polar regions: In 1894 Leonard Christensen, captain of a Norwegian whaler, landed a party at Cape Adare, the first to set foot on Antarctica. In the first decade of the 20th century, various explorers, including Britons such as William Bruce, Robert Falcon Scott, and Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton, the…

  • Christensen, Lew (American dancer, teacher, and choreographer)

    Lew Christensen, American dancer, teacher, and choreographer whose work with the San Francisco Ballet Company helped establish ballet in the western United States. Trained at the School of American Ballet, New York City, Christensen first performed in vaudeville with his brothers, Willam and

  • Christensen, Lew Farr (American dancer, teacher, and choreographer)

    Lew Christensen, American dancer, teacher, and choreographer whose work with the San Francisco Ballet Company helped establish ballet in the western United States. Trained at the School of American Ballet, New York City, Christensen first performed in vaudeville with his brothers, Willam and

  • Christensen, Willam (American dancer)

    Willam Christensen, American dancer, choreographer, and teacher who, along with his brothers, Harold and Lew, established the San Francisco Ballet Company. Christensen studied with the great ballet master and reformer Michel Fokine. He performed in vaudeville with his brothers before joining the

  • Christensen, William Farr (American dancer)

    Willam Christensen, American dancer, choreographer, and teacher who, along with his brothers, Harold and Lew, established the San Francisco Ballet Company. Christensen studied with the great ballet master and reformer Michel Fokine. He performed in vaudeville with his brothers before joining the

  • Christensenia (fern genus)

    Marattiaceae: The genus Christensenia has the synangia circular in outline, rather than oval, and features unusual palmately compound leaves.

  • Christentumsgesellschaft (German society)

    Protestantism: Germany: …promote piety by organizing the Christentumsgesellschaft (“A Society for Christianity”), the German counterpart of the British Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Out of it grew the Basel Mission Society. G.C. Storr (1746–1804) and J.F. Flatt (1759–1821) represented the “Old Tübingen school” of biblical Supernaturalism.

  • Christian (religious adherent)

    Ahl al-Kitāb: religionists—Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, as well as the imprecisely defined group referred to as Sabians—who are possessors of divine books (i.e., the Torah, the Gospel, and the Avesta), as distinguished from those whose religions are not based on divine revelations.

  • Christian and Missionary Alliance (Protestant group)

    Christian and Missionary Alliance, missionary and evangelistic movement that developed from the work of Albert B. Simpson (died 1919), a Presbyterian minister who left that church to become an independent evangelist in New York City. In 1887 Simpson and others organized two societies, one for home

  • Christian art, early

    Early Christian art, architecture, painting, and sculpture from the beginnings of Christianity until about the early 6th century, particularly the art of Italy and the western Mediterranean. (Early Christian art in the eastern part of the Roman Empire is usually considered to be part of Byzantine

  • Christian August (crown prince of Sweden)

    Charles XIII: …naming Duke Christian August (later Charles August) heir apparent, and, on his early death in 1810, one of Napoleon’s marshals, Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, whom Charles adopted as his son. From then until his death, Charles was eclipsed by the crown prince, even in his symbolic role.

  • Christian August Heinrich Kurt, Graf von Haugwitz (Prussian minister and diplomat)

    Christian, count von Haugwitz, Prussian minister and diplomat, the principal author of Prussian foreign policy from 1792 to 1806, who was held largely responsible for the catastrophic war against Napoleon (1806) that made Prussia a French satellite. After studying at the universities of Halle and

  • Christian Brethren (religious community)

    Plymouth Brethren: …Exclusive Brethren; the others, called Open Brethren, maintained a congregational form of church government and less rigorous standards for membership. Exclusive Brethren have suffered further divisions.

  • Christian Broadcasting Network (American television network)

    Pat Robertson: …founded (1960) what became the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), which aired his talk show, The 700 Club.

  • Christian Brothers (Roman Catholicism)

    Christian Brother, member of either of two separate but similar congregations of Roman Catholic laymen devoted to teaching youth. The Institute of the Brothers of Christian Schools (F.S.C.) was founded by St. Jean-Baptiste de La Salle at Reims, France, in 1684 for the education of boys, especially

  • Christian calendar (Christianity)

    Church year, annual cycle of seasons and days observed in the Christian churches in commemoration of the life, death, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ and of his virtues as exhibited in the lives of the saints. The church year has deep roots in the primitive human impulse to mark certain times with

  • Christian canon (sacred literature)

    scripture: Characteristics: …many instances been gathered into canons (standard works of the faith), which, after being determined either by general agreement or by official religious bodies, become fixed—i.e., limited to certain works that are alone viewed as fully authoritative and truly beyond all further change or alteration. The works not admitted to…

  • Christian caste (Indian society)

    Christian caste, in India, the social stratification that persists among Christians, based upon caste membership at the time of an individual’s own or of an ancestor’s conversion. Indian Christian society is divided into groups geographically and according to denomination, but the overriding

  • Christian catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt (institution, Alexandria, Egypt)

    School of Alexandria, the first Christian institution of higher learning, founded in the mid-2nd century ad in Alexandria, Egypt. Under its earliest known leaders (Pantaenus, Clement, and Origen), it became a leading centre of the allegorical method of biblical interpretation, espoused a

  • Christian Catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Eastern Greco-Russian Church (work by Philaret)

    Philaret: …theological work was the “Christian Catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Eastern Greco-Russian Church,” treating the 4th-century Nicene Creed, the theology of prayer, and the Mosaic Law. First published in 1823, Philaret’s “Catechism” was subjected to several revisions to expunge its Lutheran influences, but after 1839 it exercised widespread influence…

  • Christian Catholic Church (American church)

    Christian Catholic Church, conservative American Christian sect founded in Chicago in 1896 by John Alexander Dowie. A Congregational minister from Australia, Dowie became interested in faith healing and established a tabernacle and “healing rooms” in Chicago, where he attracted a large following.

  • Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) (Protestant denomination)

    Disciples of Christ: The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) affirms a free and voluntary covenantal relationship binding members, congregations, regions, and general units in one ecclesiastical body committed to a mission of witness and service. Recognizing its status as a denomination, it acknowledges the right of “dissent in love”…

  • Christian Coalition (American political organization)

    Christian fundamentalism: The mid-20th century to the present: Shortly afterward he founded the Christian Coalition, which succeeded the Moral Majority as the leading organization of the movement and became closely associated with the Republican Party. Fundamentalists were strong supporters of President George W. Bush and played an important role in the election of Republicans at all levels of…

  • Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood (Russian religious sect)

    Dukhobor, (Russian: “Spirit Wrestler”), member of a Russian peasant religious sect, prominent in the 18th century, that rejected all external authority, including the Bible, in favour of direct individual revelation. The liturgical reforms of Patriarch Nikon in 1652 and the opening of Russia to

  • Christian democracy (political movement)

    Christian democracy, political movement that has a close association with Roman Catholicism and its philosophy of social and economic justice. It incorporates both traditional church and family values and progressive values such as social welfare. For this reason, Christian democracy does not fit

  • Christian Democrat Group (political party, Europe)

    European People’s Party (EPP), transnational political group representing the interests of allied conservative parties in Europe, particularly in the European Union (EU). The EPP was formed in 1953 as the Christian Democrat Group, which acted as a transnational political party in the Common

  • Christian Democratic Appeal (political party, Netherlands)

    Jaap de Hoop Scheffer: …a candidate for the right-of-centre Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and was elected to the House of Representatives (Second Chamber) of the States General, the national legislature. He became the party’s spokesman on foreign policy as well as refugee policy and European justice matters.

  • Christian Democratic Movement (political party, Slovakia)

    Slovakia: Political process: …a Democratic Slovakia, and the Christian Democratic Movement.

  • Christian Democratic Party (political party, Belgium)

    Herman Van Rompuy: …section of the centre-right Flemish Christian Democrat party. He left banking in 1975, and within three years he was working in the Christian Democrats’ national office. From 1988 to 1993 Van Rompuy served as president of that party.

  • Christian Democratic Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Popular Party, former centrist Italian political party whose several factions were united by their Roman Catholicism and anticommunism. They advocated programs ranging from social reform to the defense of free enterprise. The DC usually dominated Italian politics from World War II until the

  • Christian Democratic Party (political party, El Salvador)

    El Salvador: Military dictatorships: …from the rise of the Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano; PDC) and the victory of its candidate, José Napoleón Duarte, in the 1964 mayoral election in the city of San Salvador. At the same time, the Rivera government oversaw the formation of the Democratic Nationalist Organization (Organización Democrática Nacionalista;…

  • Christian Democratic Party (political party, Venezuela)

    Luis Herrera Campíns: …party, also known as the Christian Democrats, became the second largest political party in Venezuela (after the Democratic Action party) in the decades after World War II. In 1952 Herrera Campíns was arrested and sent into exile as a result of his activities against the dictatorial regime of President Marcos…

  • Christian Democratic Party (political party, Panama)

    Panama: Transitions to democracy and sovereignty: …of the largest party, the Christian Democrats (Partido Demócrata Cristiano; PDC), led by Vice President Ricardo Arias Calderón. This left the administration without a legislative majority and allowed the remnants of Noriega’s Democratic Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Democrático; PRD) to regain some political power. As a result, accomplishments were meagre…

  • Christian Democratic Party (political party, Chile)

    Chile: Government: …the CPD umbrella include the Christian Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Cristiano; PDC), one of Chile’s strongest parties; the Social Democratic Radical Party (Partido Radical Social Demócrata; PRSD), which was formerly known as the Radical Party (the centrist PRSD drifted to the left after 1965, was repressed in 1973, but made…

  • Christian Democratic People’s Party (political party, Switzerland)

    Christian Democratic People’s Party, Swiss centre-right political party that endorses Christian democratic principles. With FDP. The Liberals, the Social Democratic Party, and the Swiss People’s Party, the Christian Democratic People’s Party (CVP) has governed Switzerland as part of a grand

  • Christian Democratic People’s Party (political party, Hungary)

    Hungary: Political process: …Free Democrats, Independent Smallholders’ Party, Christian Democratic People’s Party, Federation of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége; Fidesz), and Hungarian Socialist Party—the latter being the party of reformed ex-communists. The same six parties were returned to Parliament in 1994, and for the following decade most of them remained represented in the…

  • Christian Democratic Union (political party, Germany)

    Christian Democratic Union (CDU), German centre-right political party that supports a free-market economy and social welfare programs but is conservative on social issues. The CDU has also been a strong advocate of European integration and has cultivated close relations with the United States while

  • Christian Democrats (political party, Panama)

    Panama: Transitions to democracy and sovereignty: …of the largest party, the Christian Democrats (Partido Demócrata Cristiano; PDC), led by Vice President Ricardo Arias Calderón. This left the administration without a legislative majority and allowed the remnants of Noriega’s Democratic Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Democrático; PRD) to regain some political power. As a result, accomplishments were meagre…

  • Christian der Jüngere (German military commander)

    Christian of Brunswick, duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, Protestant military commander, and soldier of fortune during the early part of the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), who made his reputation predominantly through his wholesale plundering and burning. “The mad Halberstadter” (der tolle

  • Christian Dior (French company)

    John Galliano: …as designer in chief at Dior fashion house in 1996, the luxury-goods conglomerate Louis Vuitton Möet Hennessy (LVMH) bought Galliano’s company from Bult. Bernard Arnault, head of LMVH, which owned both Givenchy and Dior, hoped that the then 36-year-old Galliano would attract a younger clientele, not only to couture but…

  • Christian Doctrine (work by Augustine)

    rhetoric: The Middle Ages: Book IV of On Christian Doctrine is usually considered the first rhetorical theory specifically designed for the minister. Of course, the kind of truth to which Augustine sought to give verbal effectiveness was the “revealed” truth as contained in the Scriptures. The first three books of On Christian…

  • Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation, The (work by Ritschl)

    Albrecht Ritschl: …were presented in his major work, Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versöhnung (The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation), 3 vol. (1870–74).

  • Christian education

    Sunday school, school for religious education, usually for children and young people and usually a part of a church or parish. The movement has been important primarily in Protestantism. It has been the foremost vehicle for teaching the principles of the Christian religion and the Bible. Although

  • Christian Endeavor, International Society of

    International Society of Christian Endeavor, interdenominational organization for Protestant youth in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. It was founded in 1881 by Francis Edward Clark, who served as president until 1927. Members of the society pledged to try to make some useful contribution t

  • Christian Era (chronology)

    calendar: Adoption in various countries: …numbering years consecutively through the Christian era. The method was adopted by some scholars but seems only to have become widely used after its popularization by the Venerable Bede of Jarrow (673?–735), whose reputation for scholarship was very high in Western Christendom in the 8th century. This system of bce/ce…

  • Christian ethics

    Moral theology, Christian theological discipline concerned with identifying and elucidating the principles that determine the quality of human behaviour in the light of Christian revelation. It is distinguished from the philosophical discipline of ethics, which relies upon the authority of reason

  • Christian Faith, The (work by Schleiermacher)

    Christianity: Apologetics: defending the faith: …comprehensive account of Christian doctrine, The Christian Faith (1821–22; 1831). In his wake, Protestant systematic theology in the 19th and 20th centuries generally sought to operate within the “plausibility structures” of “modernity.” Sometimes it got no further than apologetically oriented considerations of method.

  • Christian flag (Christianity)

    Christian flag, while there is no one official flag of all Christian churches, by common usage a so-called Christian flag has come to be recognized by a number of them. It consists of a white rectangular field with a blue rectangle in the upper corner at the mast side which contains a red Latin

  • Christian Frederik (king of Denmark)

    Christian VIII, king of Denmark during the rise of the liberal opposition to absolutism in the first half of the 19th century. While still crown prince of Denmark and recent stadtholder (governor) of Norway, Christian accepted election as king of Norway in 1814 by the Norwegian independence f

  • Christian Front (American organization)

    Christian Front, in American history, anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi organization active from about 1938 until the United States entered World War II. Under the banner of anticommunism, it openly and clandestinely encouraged boycotts of Jewish merchants, used the slogan “Buy Christian,” and published t

  • Christian Hero, The (tract by Steele)

    Sir Richard Steele: Early life and works.: …1701 a moralistic tract, “The Christian Hero,” of which 10 editions were sold in his lifetime. This tract led to Steele’s being accused of hypocrisy and mocked for the contrast between his austere precepts and his genially convivial practice. For many of his contemporaries, however, its polite tone served as…

  • Christian humanism

    history of Europe: Northern humanism: , humanism outside Italy—was essentially Christian in spirit and purpose, in contrast to the essentially secular nature of Italian humanism. In fact, however, the program of Christian humanism had been laid out by Italian humanists of the stamp of Lorenzo Valla, one of the founders of classical philology, who showed…

  • Christian I (Scandinavian king)

    Christian I, king of Denmark (1448–81), Norway (1450–81), and Sweden (1457–64, 1465–67), and founder of the Oldenburg dynasty, which ruled Denmark until 1863. He tried to gain control over Sweden and maintain a union of the Scandinavian nations but was defeated by rebellious Swedish nobles (

  • Christian Identity (religious movement)

    Christian Identity, North American new religious movement characterized by a belief in white supremacy and anti-Semitism. Followers of Christian Identity believe that the covenant recounted in the Bible was actually made between God and the Anglo-Saxons and other European peoples, who are the real

  • Christian II (Scandinavian king)

    Christian II, king of Denmark and Norway (1513–23) and of Sweden (1520–23) whose reign marked the end of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523), a political union of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. After serving as viceroy in Norway (1502, 1506–12), Christian succeeded his father, John, king of Denmark and

  • Christian II (elector of Saxony)

    alchemy: Modern alchemy: …1603 the elector of Saxony, Christian II, imprisoned and tortured the Scotsman Alexander Seton, who had been traveling about Europe performing well-publicized transmutations. The situation was complicated by the fact that some alchemists were turning from gold making not to medicine but to a quasi-religious alchemy reminiscent of the Greek…

  • Christian III (Scandinavian king)

    Christian III, king of Denmark and Norway (1534–59) who established the state Lutheran Church in Denmark (1536) and, by forming close ties between the church and the crown, laid the foundation for the absolutist Danish monarchy of the 17th century. The eldest son of Frederick I, king of Denmark and

  • Christian III Bible

    biblical literature: Scandinavian versions: …commissioned by royal command (the Christian III Bible, Copenhagen). A revision appeared in 1589 (the Frederick II Bible) and another in 1633 (the Christian IV Bible).

  • Christian Index (American magazine)

    Christian Front: …“Buy Christian,” and published the Christian Index, a directory of non-Jewish merchants in part of New York City. It received support from the Brooklyn Tablet, a Roman Catholic weekly newspaper. The Front became associated with the activities of the Reverend Charles E. Coughlin of Royal Oak, Mich., who regularly preached…

  • Christian IV (Scandinavian king)

    Christian IV, king of Denmark and Norway (1588–1648), who led two unsuccessful wars against Sweden and brought disaster upon his country by leading it into the Thirty Years’ War. He energetically promoted trade and shipping, left a national heritage of fine buildings, and won repute as a plucky,

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