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  • chloroquine (drug)

    Chloroquine, synthetic drug used in the treatment of malaria. Chloroquine, discovered in 1934 and introduced into medicine in the 1940s, is a member of an important series of chemically related antimalarial agents, the quinoline derivatives. Chloroquine is administered orally as chloroquine

  • Chloros (Greece)

    Flórina, city and dímos (municipality), West Macedonia (Modern Greek: Dytikí Makedonía) periféreia (region), northwestern Greece. Originally a Byzantine foundation, it later passed to Ottoman control; by the 18th century, its population was chiefly Turkish and Albanian. In the 19th century, Flórina

  • chlorosis (anemia)

    blood disease: Hypochromic microcytic anemias: Under the name of chlorosis, this type of anemia was mentioned in popular literature and depicted in paintings, especially those of the Dutch masters, until the 20th century. Although it is not necessarily less common now, there is no doubt that it is less severe in Europe and North…

  • chlorosis (plant disease)

    Chlorosis, symptom of plant disease in which normally green tissue is pale, yellow, or bleached. It results from failure of chlorophyll to develop because of infection by a virus; lack of an essential mineral or oxygen; injury from alkali, fertilizer, air pollution, or cold; insect, mite, or

  • chlorosulfonated polyethylene (chemical compound)

    major industrial polymers: Polyethylene (PE): …in chlorinated polyethylene (CM) or chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM), a virtually noncrystalline and elastic material. In a process similar to vulcanization, cross-linking of the molecules can be effected through the chlorine or chlorosulfonyl groups, making the material into a rubbery solid. Because their main polymer chains are saturated, CM and CSM…

  • chlorothiazide (drug)

    pharmaceutical industry: Hypertension: …inhibitor more effective than acetazolamide, chlorothiazide was synthesized by a team of scientists led by Dr. Karl Henry Beyer at Merck & Co., Inc., and became the first successful thiazide diuretic. While acetazolamide causes diuresis by increasing sodium bicarbonate excretion, chlorothiazide was found to increase sodium chloride excretion. More importantly,…

  • chlorotrifluoroethylene (chemical compound)

    Chlorotrifluoroethylene, flammable, colourless gas that belongs to the family of organic halogen compounds, used in the manufacture of a series of synthetic oils, greases, waxes, elastomers, and plastics that are unusually resistant to attack by chemicals and heat. These products are polymers;

  • chlorotrimethysilane (chemical compound)

    silane: Chlorotrimethylsilane and vinyltrichlorosilane are used to impart water repellency to numerous materials such as cloth, paper, and glass.

  • chlorotris (chemical compound)

    Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson: …bonding, particularly his discovery of Wilkinson’s catalyst, a homogeneous hydrogenation catalyst for alkenes, had widespread significance for organic and inorganic chemistry and proved to have important industrial applications.

  • chloroxone (herbicide)

    weed: Chemical control: Introduced then were 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and IPC (isopropyl-N-phenylcarbamate), the first two selective as foliar sprays against broad-leaved weeds, the third selective against grass species when applied through the soil. The new herbicides were revolutionary in that their high toxicity allowed for effective weed control…

  • Chloroxylon swietenia (tree)

    Satinwood, (Chloroxylon swietenia), tree of the rue family (Rutaceae), native to Southeast Asia, India, and Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Satinwood is harvested for its hard yellowish brown wood, which has a satiny lustre and is used for fine cabinetwork and farming tools. Many parts of the plant are used in

  • chlorpheniramine (2-dimethylaminoethyl)

    Chlorpheniramine, synthetic drug used to counteract the histamine reaction, as in allergies. Chlorpheniramine, introduced into medicine in 1951, is administered orally or by intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection in the form of chlorpheniramine maleate. It is effective in controlling

  • chlorpromazine (drug)

    Chlorpromazine, potent synthetic tranquilizing drug that acts selectively upon the higher centres in the brain as a depressant of the central nervous system. It is used in the treatment of persons with psychotic disorders. Chlorpromazine was first synthesized in 1950 and became generally available

  • chlorpromazine hydrochloride (drug)

    chlorpromazine: Chlorpromazine hydrochloride, sometimes marketed under the trade name Thorazine, may be administered orally or rectally or by injection.

  • chlortetracycline (antibiotic)

    trench fever: Treatment with chlortetracycline brings permanent relief of the symptoms, but the patient continues to carry rickettsiae and remains infectious for lice. First recognized in 1915, trench fever was a major medical problem during World War I. It reappeared in epidemic form among German troops on the Eastern…

  • Chlorura chlorurusa (bird)

    towhee: The green-tailed towhee (P. chlorurus), also western, is gray, white, and greenish, with a red-brown cap.

  • Chlorus (Roman emperor)

    Constantius I, Roman emperor and father of Constantine I the Great. As a member of a four-man ruling body (tetrarchy) created by the emperor Diocletian, Constantius held the title of caesar from 293 to 305 and caesar augustus in 305–306. Of Illyrian descent, Constantius had a distinguished military

  • Chlotachar I (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar I, Merovingian king of Soissons from 511 and of the whole Frankish kingdom from 558, who played an important part in the extension of Frankish hegemony. The youngest of Clovis I’s sons, Chlotar shared in the partition of his father’s kingdom in 511, receiving the old heartlands of the

  • Chlotachar II (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar II, Merovingian king of Neustria and sole ruler of the Franks from 613. An infant when his father, Chilperic I, was assassinated in 584, he was assured the succession by the power of his mother, Fredegund, and by the protection of his uncle, Guntram, king of Burgundy. Fighting off an attack

  • Chlotachar III (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar III, Merovingian king of Neustria and Burgundy, who succeeded his father, Clovis II, in 657. After the retirement of his mother, Balthild, to a monastery in 664 or 665, he came—and remained—under the domination of the Neustrian mayor of the palace,

  • Chlotachar IV (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar IV, allegedly the Merovingian king of Austrasia, placed on the throne by the mayor of the palace, Charles Martel, in 718/719 in order to check the pretensions of the Neustrian Chilperic II. His exact genealogy is

  • Chlotar I (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar I, Merovingian king of Soissons from 511 and of the whole Frankish kingdom from 558, who played an important part in the extension of Frankish hegemony. The youngest of Clovis I’s sons, Chlotar shared in the partition of his father’s kingdom in 511, receiving the old heartlands of the

  • Chlotar II (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar II, Merovingian king of Neustria and sole ruler of the Franks from 613. An infant when his father, Chilperic I, was assassinated in 584, he was assured the succession by the power of his mother, Fredegund, and by the protection of his uncle, Guntram, king of Burgundy. Fighting off an attack

  • Chlotar III (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar III, Merovingian king of Neustria and Burgundy, who succeeded his father, Clovis II, in 657. After the retirement of his mother, Balthild, to a monastery in 664 or 665, he came—and remained—under the domination of the Neustrian mayor of the palace,

  • Chlotar IV (Merovingian king)

    Chlotar IV, allegedly the Merovingian king of Austrasia, placed on the throne by the mayor of the palace, Charles Martel, in 718/719 in order to check the pretensions of the Neustrian Chilperic II. His exact genealogy is

  • Chlothilde, Saint (queen of the Franks)

    Saint Clotilda, ; feast day June 3), queen consort of Clovis I, king of the Franks, in whose momentous conversion to Christianity she played a notable part. Clotilda was the granddaughter of Gundioc, king of Burgundy, who was related to the Visigothic kings and shared their Arian Christian faith.

  • Chlothilde, Saint (queen of the Franks)

    Saint Clotilda, ; feast day June 3), queen consort of Clovis I, king of the Franks, in whose momentous conversion to Christianity she played a notable part. Clotilda was the granddaughter of Gundioc, king of Burgundy, who was related to the Visigothic kings and shared their Arian Christian faith.

  • Chlotilda, Saint (queen of the Franks)

    Saint Clotilda, ; feast day June 3), queen consort of Clovis I, king of the Franks, in whose momentous conversion to Christianity she played a notable part. Clotilda was the granddaughter of Gundioc, king of Burgundy, who was related to the Visigothic kings and shared their Arian Christian faith.

  • Chlotilde, Saint (queen of the Franks)

    Saint Clotilda, ; feast day June 3), queen consort of Clovis I, king of the Franks, in whose momentous conversion to Christianity she played a notable part. Clotilda was the granddaughter of Gundioc, king of Burgundy, who was related to the Visigothic kings and shared their Arian Christian faith.

  • CHM

    machine tool: Chemical machining (CHM): This nonelectrical process removes metal from selected or overall areas by controlled chemical action. Masking tape can be used to protect areas not to be removed. The method is related to the process used for making metal printing and engraving plates. Two types…

  • Chmielnicki, Bohdan (Cossack leader)

    Bohdan Khmelnytsky, leader (1648–57) of the Zaporozhian Cossacks who organized a rebellion against Polish rule in Ukraine that ultimately led to the transfer of the Ukrainian lands east of the Dnieper River from Polish to Russian control. Although he had been educated in Poland and had served with

  • Chnodomar (Alemanni king)

    ancient Rome: The rule of Constantine’s sons: …made a mistake in sending Chnodomar, the Alemannic king, against Magnentius in 351, for his tribes had gone on to ravage Gaul. Julian, however, soon revealed himself to be a great military leader by winning several well-fought campaigns between 356 and 361, most notably at Strasbourg in 357, and by…

  • Chnum-Re (Egyptian god)

    Re, in ancient Egyptian religion, god of the sun and creator god. He was believed to travel across the sky in his solar bark and, during the night, to make his passage in another bark through the underworld, where, in order to be born again for the new day, he had to vanquish the evil serpent

  • chō (Japanese tax)

    Chō, produce tax of early Japan, payable in commodities other than rice—usually raw silk and cotton, though occasionally timber and fish. Although instituted earlier in some areas of the country, the tax was not generally adopted until the Taika reforms (645–649 ce) established strong imperial

  • cho (musical instrument)

    Taegŭm, large transverse bamboo flute with a distinctive sound, widely used in Korean music. The taegǔm is about 31 inches (80 cm) long. It has a mouthpiece opening and six finger holes, as well as two to five open holes toward the end. A special aperture covered with a reed membrane gives the

  • Cho Chŏng-kyu (Korean artist)

    Korean art: Painting: In the 19th century, Cho Chŏng-kyu, Chang Sŭng-ŏp, Cho Sŏk-chin, and Ch’ae Yong-sin were among the more active professional painters. Their paintings were mannered and exhibited an academic style lacking individuality. They painted many excellent portraits of Korean dignitaries in a style that blended the indigenous with European-style

  • Cho Choong Hoon (South Korean businessman)

    Cho Choong Hoon, South Korean businessman (born Feb. 11, 1920, Seoul, Korea—died Nov. 17, 2002, Seoul, S.Kor.), founded the Hanjin Group, which became the eighth largest conglomerate in the country and included 21 companies, including Korean Air Lines, for which he served as chairman from 1969 to

  • Cho Lon (Vietnam)

    Cho Lon, city, southern Vietnam, immediately west of Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), from which it is separated by a small water channel. Founded in 1778 by Chinese emigrants, it later was unified commercially and physically by streetcars, roads, canals, and railways and in 1932 became one

  • Cho Oyu (mountain, Asia)

    Cho Oyu, mountain, one of the world’s highest (26,906 feet [8,201 m]), in the Himalayas on the Nepalese–Tibetan (Chinese) border about 20 miles (30 km) northwest of Mt. Everest. The Nangpa La, a glacier saddle (pass) 19,050 feet high lying south of the peak, forms part of the trade route between

  • Cho Sok (Korean painter)

    Cho Sok, noted Korean painter of the Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910) famous for his depiction of birds. A scholar by training, Cho was offered numerous official posts but always declined, preferring to spend his days painting. Magpies were his favourite subject, so much so that almost any painting with

  • Cho Sŏk-chin (Korean painter)

    Cho Sok-chin, noted painter of the late Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910) whose paintings were nostalgic re-creations of the decadent traditional Confucian style of China and Korea. Born into a family of court painters, Cho was early sent to China to study with the old masters. On his return, he

  • Cho Sok-chin (Korean painter)

    Cho Sok-chin, noted painter of the late Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910) whose paintings were nostalgic re-creations of the decadent traditional Confucian style of China and Korea. Born into a family of court painters, Cho was early sent to China to study with the old masters. On his return, he

  • Cho Su-Sam (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Later Chosŏn: 1598–1894: …Chŏng Nae-Gyo, Chang Hon, and Cho Su-Sam, formed fellowships of poets and composed poetry with great enthusiasm. They referred to their poems as p’ungyo (“poems of the people,” also called talk songs) and published a number of collections of these works (e.g., Sodae p’ungyo [1737; “Poems of a Peaceful People”]).

  • Cho, David Yonggi (South Korean religious leader)

    David Yonggi Cho, Korean religious leader and Christian evangelist who founded (1958) the Yoido Full Gospel Church (YFGC) in Seoul. He presided over the megachurch until 2008. Cho was raised Buddhist. When he was 17, he became gravely ill from tuberculosis. He subsequently recovered, and,

  • Cho, Seung-Hui (South Korean student)

    Virginia Tech shooting: …people dead, including the shooter, Seung-Hui Cho. It was one of the deadliest mass shootings in the United States.

  • choanocyte (biology)

    reproductive behaviour: Protozoans and sponges: …up by specialized cells called choanocytes and carried to the egg. Fertilization takes place when a choanocyte fuses with the egg. The free-swimming larval stage that is produced is of short duration, after which the organism settles on the bottom and becomes a new adult sponge.

  • choanoflagellate (protozoan)

    Choanoflagellate, any protozoan of the flagellate order Choanoflagellida (sometimes classified in the order Kinetoplastida) having a transparent food-gathering collar of cytoplasm around the base of the flagellum. Many choanoflagellates are solitary and sessile (attached to a surface), with or

  • Choanoflagellida (protozoan)

    Choanoflagellate, any protozoan of the flagellate order Choanoflagellida (sometimes classified in the order Kinetoplastida) having a transparent food-gathering collar of cytoplasm around the base of the flagellum. Many choanoflagellates are solitary and sessile (attached to a surface), with or

  • Choate Rosemary Hall (school, Wallingford, Connecticut, United States)

    Choate Rosemary Hall, in Wallingford, Conn., private, coeducational college-preparatory school (grades 9–12 and a postgraduate year) for boarding and day students. The Choate School, for boys only, was founded and endowed by Judge William Gardiner Choate in 1896. Many Choate graduates are admitted

  • Choate, Pat (American economist)

    Ross Perot: presidential election with Pat Choate as his vice presidential nominee, Perot received 8 percent of the popular vote, while the Republican candidate, Bob Dole, took 41 percent, and Clinton was reelected with 49 percent of the vote and 379 electoral college delegates. Following the election, Perot distanced himself…

  • Chobe National Park (national park, Botswana)

    Chobe National Park, national preserve, northern Botswana. The preserve, which acquired national park status in 1968, borders Namibia and touches Zimbabwe and Zambia, covering 4,500 square miles (11,700 square km). It is noted for its wildlife, particularly its large elephant

  • Chobe River (river, Africa)

    Botswana: Land: …the main channel of the Chobe River up to the Zambezi was disputed with Namibia until a 1999 ruling by the International Court of Justice favoured Botswana. The point at which the borders of Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe meet in the middle of the river has never been precisely…

  • Chobham armour

    tank: Armour: …Britain under the name of Chobham armour. Armour of its kind was first adopted in the early 1970s in the M1 and Leopard 2; it then came into general use in place of simple steel armour.

  • chobo (Japanese music)

    Japanese music: Onstage music: …gidayū musicians, called here the chobo, are placed on their traditional platform offstage left or behind a curtained alcove above the stage-left exit. If other genres are used, the performers are placed about the stage according to the scenery needs of the play. There are some plays in which several…

  • Chocano, José Santos (Peruvian poet)

    José Santos Chocano, Peruvian poet famous for his attempt to synthesize in poetry the history and culture of Latin America. Imprisoned for his political beliefs before he was 20, an experience for which he bitterly attacked his opponents in his volume Iras santas (1895; “Holy Wrath”), Chocano

  • Chocho (people)

    Chocho, Middle American Indians of northern Oaxaca in southern Mexico, speaking a Popolocan language. The region is rough, broken highland terrain of harsh climate. The Chocho are agricultural, using plows and hoes to cultivate staple crops of corn (maize), beans, and peas, as well as a variety of

  • chocho (plant)

    Chayote, (Sechium edule), perennial vine of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), cultivated for its edible fruits. Chayote is native to the New World tropics and is also grown as an annual plant in temperate climates. The fruits are boiled, baked, or sautéed as a vegetable and can be eaten raw. The

  • Chocim, Battle of (Turkish history)

    Osman II: Realizing that his defeat at Chocim (Khotin, Ukraine) in 1621 largely stemmed from the lack of discipline and the degeneracy of the Janissary corps, he proceeded to discipline them by cutting their pay and closing their coffee shops. Then he announced a plan to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca,…

  • chock (mountaineering)

    mountaineering: Techniques: Anchors include the chock, which is a small piece of shaped metal that is attached to rope or wire cable and wedged by hand into a crack in the rock; the piton, which is a metal spike, with an eye or ring in one end, that is hammered…

  • Choclo virus (infectious agent)

    hantavirus: …Central America, caused by the Choclo virus (carried by Oligoryzomys fulvescens, another pygmy rice rat).

  • Chocó (people)

    Chocó, Cariban-speaking Indian people of the Panamanian and Colombian lowlands. The Northern Chocó, the most populous, live in villages along the lower reaches of rivers flowing into the Golfo de San Miguel (in Panama) and the rivers of Colombia’s Pacific coast; the Southern Chocó are concentrated

  • Chocó (department, Colombia)

    South America: Tropical climates: The Chocó region of Colombia—one of the wettest areas in the world—receives in excess of 400 inches (10,200 mm), and it rains more than 300 days per year. In the Amazon region, rains do not fall evenly over the basin. The southern part receives most of…

  • Chocó language (language)

    South American Indian languages: Cariban: The most important group today—Chocó in western Colombia—is distantly related to the rest of the stock. Other languages are Carib in Suriname, Trio in Suriname and Brazil, and Waiwai, Taulipang, and Makushí (Macusí) in Brazil. A relationship with Tupian seems certain.

  • Chocolat (film by Hallström [2000])

    Juliette Binoche: …in the successful romantic comedy Chocolat (2000), playing opposite Johnny Depp, and later appeared in both French- and English-language films, including the thriller Caché (2005; Hidden), the family dramas Bee Season (2005) and L’Heure d’été (2008; Summer Hours), and the comedy Dan in Real Life (2007).

  • chocolate (food)

    Chocolate, food product made from cocoa beans, consumed as candy and used to make beverages and to flavour or coat various confections and bakery products. Rich in carbohydrates, it is an excellent source of quick energy, and it also contains minute amounts of the stimulating alkaloids theobromine

  • Chocolate Drop Hill (Japanese fortification)

    Battle of Okinawa: Intensification and collapse of Japanese resistance: …in the battle for “Chocolate Drop Hill,” a fortified Japanese mound guarding the approaches to Shuri. American forces fought their way to the base of this 130-foot (40-metre) hill three times in five days and were thrown back each time. In one six-hour period, land and naval guns blanketed…

  • chocolate liquor (food)

    chocolate: …Sons combined cocoa butter with chocolate liquor and sugar to produce sweet (eating) chocolate—the base of most chocolate confectionary—and in 1876 Daniel Peter of Switzerland added dried milk to make milk chocolate. The proliferation of flavoured, solid, and coated chocolate foods rapidly followed.

  • Chocolate Mill (Rhode Island, United States)

    Central Falls, city, Providence county, northeastern Rhode Island, U.S. It forms part of the lower Blackstone River valley community, which includes the city of Pawtucket and the towns (townships) of Cumberland and Lincoln. Central Falls was originally a part of Smithfield, when that town was set

  • chocolate pot (metalwork)

    Chocolate pot, vessel in which hot chocolate is served. It is similar in form and stylistic development to the coffeepot, but it has a hinged or sliding finial covering an aperture through which is introduced a molionet, or stick for stirring and crushing the chocolate. The earliest surviving

  • chocolate pudding fruit (plant)

    sapote: Black sapote (Diospyros nigra), also known as chocolate pudding fruit, is a member of the family Ebenaceae and is found throughout the Caribbean and Central America. White sapote, or casimiroa (Casimiroa edulis), ranges from Mexico to Costa Rica and is in the Rutaceae family.

  • Chocolate Soldier, The (work by Straus)

    Oscar Straus: …composer known for his operetta The Chocolate Soldier.

  • Chocolate to Morphine: Understanding Mind-Active Drugs (work by Weil)

    Andrew Weil: In a subsequent work, Chocolate to Morphine: Understanding Mind-Active Drugs (1983), Weil aroused the ire of a Florida senator, who demanded that the book, a veritable encyclopaedia of various drugs and their effects on humans, be removed from schools and libraries.

  • chocolate vine (plant)

    Akebia: Five-leaf akebia, or chocolate vine (A. quinata), has five leaflets to each leaf arranged like the fingers on a hand; three-leaf akebia (A. trifoliata) has three leaflets to a leaf. The purplish flowers are unisexual and occur in small clusters, and the oblong purple fruits…

  • Chocolate, Kid (Cuban boxer)

    Kid Chocolate, Cuban professional boxer, world junior lightweight (130 pounds) champion from 1931 to 1933. Kid Chocolate officially turned professional in 1927 after winning all 100 of his recorded amateur bouts in Cuba, 86 by knockout; however, some boxing historians question these numbers and

  • Chocquet, Victor (French art collector)

    art collection: Among such visionaries were Victor Chocquet (a minor French government official who was an important patron of the Impressionists) in the late 19th century and the dealer-collectors Paul Durand-Ruel, Ambroise Vollard, and Daniel-Kenry Kahnweiler in the early 20th century. The volume and scope of art collecting have continued to…

  • Choctaw (people)

    Choctaw, North American Indian tribe of Muskogean linguistic stock that traditionally lived in what is now southeastern Mississippi. The Choctaw dialect is very similar to that of the Chickasaw, and there is evidence that they are a branch of the latter tribe. In the mid-18th century, there were

  • Choctaw Indians, Mississippi Band of (Native American organization)

    Mississippi: Population composition: The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, the state’s only federally recognized Native American group, has reservation lands in the vicinity of Jackson.

  • Choctawhatchee River (river, United States)

    Choctawhatchee River, river in southeastern Alabama and northwestern Florida, U.S., rising in Barbour County, Ala., and flowing southwest to Geneva, where it is joined by the Pea River. It then flows south into Florida and west to the east end of Choctawhatchee Bay, where it empties into an inlet

  • Chode Privileges (Czech history)

    Chodsko: The 14th-century “Chode Privileges” granted by King John of Bohemia to the Chods (a Czech-speaking ethnic group) as guardians of the frontier helped shape a distinctive culture and a spirit of Czech nationalism. The documents of the privileges were kept at Chode Castle in Domažlice, Chodsko’s main…

  • Chodkiewicz, Jan Karol (Polish general)

    Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, Polish hetman who won remarkable victories against the Swedes and the Turks despite the vacillating policies and inadequate support of his king, Sigismund III Vasa of Poland. The son of a prominent Ruthenian military family active in Lithuania, Chodkiewicz made a name for

  • Chodor carpet

    Chaudor carpet, floor covering handmade by the Chaudor (Chodor) Turkmen. Usually, they are made either in carpet size or as bag faces (the fronts of bags used for storage in tents or for baggage on camels). They are characterized by their colouring, which ranges from plum through violet-brown

  • Chodorov, Jerome (American playwright)

    Jerome Chodorov, American playwright (born Aug. 10, 1911, New York, N.Y.—died Sept. 12, 2004, Nyack, N.Y.), authored more than a dozen successful Broadway plays, most notably the comedy My Sister Eileen (1940) and its musical adaptation Wonderful Town (1953). Chodorov, who was blacklisted in the 1

  • Chodowiecki, Daniel (German artist)

    Daniel Chodowiecki, German genre painter and engraver of Polish descent who developed a particular talent for recording the life and manners of the German middle class. Largely self-taught, Chodowiecki achieved his first popular success with the sentimental painting The Parting of Jean Calas from

  • Chodowiecki, Daniel Nikolaus (German artist)

    Daniel Chodowiecki, German genre painter and engraver of Polish descent who developed a particular talent for recording the life and manners of the German middle class. Largely self-taught, Chodowiecki achieved his first popular success with the sentimental painting The Parting of Jean Calas from

  • Chodsko (historical region, Czech Republic)

    Chodsko, historic border area of Západočeský kraj (region), Czech Republic. It roughly corresponds to Domažlice okres (district), along the border with Germany. The 14th-century “Chode Privileges” granted by King John of Bohemia to the Chods (a Czech-speaking ethnic group) as guardians of the

  • Chōeiken (Japanese artist)

    Suzuki Harunobu, Japanese artist of the Ukiyo-e movement (paintings and wood-block prints of the “floating world”), who established the art of nishiki-e, or polychrome prints. He created a fashion for pictures of lyrical scenes with figures of exquisite grace. It is believed that Harunobu studied

  • Choéphores (opera by Milhaud)

    Darius Milhaud: …the Aeschylean tragedies Agamemnon (1913), Choéphores (1915), and Les Euménides (1917–22). Whips and hammers are introduced into the orchestration of this trilogy, a work of great dramatic force, in which the chorus is required to groan, whistle, and shriek. His other operas include Christophe Colomb (1930; text by Claudel); Le…

  • Choephoroi (play by Aeschylus)

    Libation Bearers, play by Aeschylus, second in the trilogy known as the

  • Choerades (Turkey)

    Giresun, city and seaport, northeastern Turkey. It lies along the Black Sea about 110 miles (175 km) west of Trabzon. The older parts of the city lie on a peninsula crowned by a ruined Byzantine fortress, sheltering the small natural harbour. Nearby is Giresun Island, in ancient times called Ares.

  • Choerilus (Greek epic poet)

    Choerilus, Greek epic poet of the Aegean island of Samos, author of a lost verse chronicle, the Persica, which probably related the story of the Persian wars as narrated in prose by the historian Herodotus. Because Choerilus’s work treated recent historical events, it represented a notable

  • Choerilus (Athenian tragic poet)

    Choerilus, one of the earliest recorded Athenian tragic poets, of whose work only one title (Alope) and one disputed fragment remain. Choerilus is said to have produced his first play about 523 bc and to have competed against the tragedian Aeschylus about 498. Some sources credit him with 13

  • Choeropsis liberiensis (mammal)

    hippopotamus: Pygmy hippopotamus: The rare pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis, also known as Choeropsis liberiensis), the other living species of the family Hippopotamidae, is about the size of a domestic pig. The pygmy hippo is less aquatic than its larger relative, although, when pursued, it hides in water. Less gregarious, it…

  • Choeung Ek Genocidal Center (museum, Cambodia)

    Cambodia: Cultural institutions: Also important is the Choeung Ek Genocidal Center, located at another former execution site just southwest of the capital. The Hindu-Buddhist ruins of the Khmer state of Angkor (9th–15th century) were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1992. In 2008 the Temple of Preah Vihear, dedicated to the…

  • Chōfu (Japan)

    Chōfu, city, south-central Tokyo to (metropolis), east-central Honshu, Japan. It is bordered by Tokyo city (east) and the Tama River (south) and the cities of Fuchū (west) and Mitaka (north) in the metropolis. During the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867), Chōfu was a post town on the Kōshū Highway.

  • Choga Zambil (archaeological site, Iran)

    Choghā Zanbīl, ruined palace and temple complex of the ancient Elamite city of Dur Untashi (Dur Untash), near Susa in the Khūzestān region of southwestern Iran. The complex consists of a magnificent ziggurat (the largest structure of its kind in Iran), temples, and three palaces. The site was added

  • Choghā Zanbīl (archaeological site, Iran)

    Choghā Zanbīl, ruined palace and temple complex of the ancient Elamite city of Dur Untashi (Dur Untash), near Susa in the Khūzestān region of southwestern Iran. The complex consists of a magnificent ziggurat (the largest structure of its kind in Iran), temples, and three palaces. The site was added

  • Chogori (mountain, Asia)

    K2, the world’s second highest peak (28,251 feet [8,611 metres]), second only to Mount Everest. K2 is located in the Karakoram Range and lies partly in a Chinese-administered enclave of the Kashmir region within the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China, and partly in the Gilgit-Baltistan

  • chŏgori (jacket)

    dress: Korea: …traditional dress in Korea, the chŏgori (jacket), paji (trousers), and turumagi (overcoat), were probably worn at a very early date, but the characteristic two-piece costume of today did not begin to evolve until the period of the Three Kingdoms (c. 57 bce–668 ce). During the early part of this period…

  • chogyal (spiritual king)

    Sikkim: History: …1642, Phuntsog Namgyal, the first chogyal (temporal and spiritual king), came from the Bhutia community. The Namgyal dynasty ruled Sikkim until 1975.

  • Chogye (Buddhist sect)

    Bojo Guksa: …Buddhist priest who founded the Chogye-jong (Chogye Sect), now one of the largest Buddhist sects in Korea. It is derived from Ch’an, the Chinese form of Buddhism, known as Sŏn in Korea and as Zen in Japan.

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