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  • Chisholm, George G. (American geographer)

    hinterland: George G. Chisholm (Handbook of Commercial Geography, 1888) transcribed the German word hinterland (land in back of), as hinderland, and used it to refer to the backcountry of a port or coastal settlement. Chisholm continued to use hinderland in subsequent editions of his Handbook, but…

  • Chisholm, Hugh (British editor)

    Hugh Chisholm, English newspaper and encyclopaedia editor noted for his editorship of the 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Graduating from the University of Oxford in 1888, Chisholm became assistant editor of the St. James’s Gazette in 1892 and editor in 1897. In 1900 he joined The

  • Chisholm, Melanie Jayne (British entertainer)

    Spice Girls: …England), Sporty Spice (byname of Melanie Jayne Chisholm; b. January 12, 1974, Liverpool, England), Posh Spice (byname of Victoria Adams [later Victoria Beckham]; b. April 7, 1975, Hertfordshire, England), Scary Spice (byname of Melanie Janine Brown; b. May 29, 1975, Yorkshire, England), and Baby Spice (byname of Emma Lee Bunton;…

  • Chisholm, Roderick Milton (American philosopher and logician)

    problem of moral responsibility: Libertarianism: …proposed by the American philosopher Roderick Chisholm (1916–99) in his seminal paper “Human Freedom and the Self” (1964), these theories hold that free actions are caused by the agent himself rather than by some prior event or state of affairs. Although Chisholm’s theory preserves the intuition that the ultimate origin…

  • Chisholm, Shirley (American politician and activist)

    Shirley Chisholm, American politician, the first African American woman to be elected to the U.S. Congress. Shirley St. Hill was the daughter of immigrants; her father was from British Guiana (now Guyana) and her mother from Barbados. She grew up in Barbados and in her native Brooklyn, New York,

  • Chishpish (king of Persia)

    Teispes, early Achaemenid Persian king (reigned c. 675–c. 640), the forefather of the great kings Darius I and Cyrus II. He was, perhaps, the son of Achaemenes, whose name was given to the Achaemenid dynasty. Teispes ruled the district of Anshan in Elam (north of the Persian Gulf) and tried to m

  • Chishtīyah (Sufi order)

    Chishtīyah, Muslim Ṣūfī order in India and Pakistan, named for Chisht, the village in which the founder of the order, Abū Isḥāq of Syria, settled. Brought to India by Khwājah Muʿīn-ad-Dīn Chishtī in the 12th century, the Chishtīyah has become one of the most popular mystical orders in the country.

  • Chishtiyyah (Sufi order)

    Chishtīyah, Muslim Ṣūfī order in India and Pakistan, named for Chisht, the village in which the founder of the order, Abū Isḥāq of Syria, settled. Brought to India by Khwājah Muʿīn-ad-Dīn Chishtī in the 12th century, the Chishtīyah has become one of the most popular mystical orders in the country.

  • Chisimaio (Somalia)

    Kismaayo, seaport, southern Somalia. It lies along the Indian Ocean near the mouth of the Jubba River. Founded in 1872 by the sultan of Zanzibar, the town was taken by the British in 1887; it later became a part of Jubaland and was within Italian Somaliland (1927–41). In the 1960s its harbour

  • Chisimayu (Somalia)

    Kismaayo, seaport, southern Somalia. It lies along the Indian Ocean near the mouth of the Jubba River. Founded in 1872 by the sultan of Zanzibar, the town was taken by the British in 1887; it later became a part of Jubaland and was within Italian Somaliland (1927–41). In the 1960s its harbour

  • Chișinău (national capital, Moldova)

    Chișinău, city and capital of Moldova (Moldavia). It is situated along the Bâcu (Byk) River, in the south-central part of the country. The first documentary reference to Chișinău dates from 1466, when it was under the rule of the Moldavian prince Ștefan III. After Ștefan’s death the city fell under

  • Chisocheton (plant genus)

    Sapindales: Distribution and abundance: …and southern Africa to Australia; Chisocheton (50 species) in Indo-Malaysia; and Guarea (50 species) in tropical America and tropical Africa.

  • Chisos Mountains (mountains, Texas, United States)

    Chisos Mountains, mountain system covering 40 square miles (104 square km) along the Rio Grande in southwestern Texas, U.S. The Chisos form the state’s third highest mountain group, culminating at Emory Peak (7,825 feet [2,385 metres]). The mountains are within Big Bend National Park. Their

  • Chissano, Joaquim (president of Mozambique)

    Joyce Banda: Joaquim Chissano) and being named Africa’s third most powerful woman by Forbes magazine in 2011.

  • Chistopol (Russia)

    Chistopol, city and administrative centre, Chistopol rayon (sector), Tatarstan, west-central Russia. Formed in 1781 when the village of Chistoye Pole became the town of Chistopol, it is today a port along a large reservoir on the Kama River, just above its confluence with the Volga. The city’s main

  • Chiswick (area, Hounslow, London, United Kingdom)

    Hounslow: During the English Civil Wars, Chiswick (on the present border between Ealing and Hounslow) was the site of the Battle of Turnham Green, which was fought at Brentford, Turnham Green, and Acton in 1642; as a result of the battle, the Parliamentarians blocked the advance of Charles I into London.…

  • Chiswick House (estate, Hounslow, London, United Kingdom)

    Richard Boyle, 3rd earl of Burlington: …he designed his villa at Chiswick (now in the outer London borough of Hounslow), one of the most influential Palladian buildings in England (completed 1729). The Assembly Rooms at York with the Egyptian Hall (1731–36) are considered the culmination of Burlington’s career.

  • chit (Hinduism)

    Hinduism: Philosophical sutras and the rise of the Six Schools of philosophy: The universe, consisting of chit (consciousness) and achit (what is not conscious; this category includes matter and time), forms the body of brahman, or Vishnu.

  • Chita (Russia)

    Chita, city and administrative centre of the former Chita oblast (region), far eastern Russia. In 2008 Chita region merged with Agin-Buryat autonomous okrug (district) to form Zabaykalsky kray (territory). The city lies at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda rivers. It was founded in 1653 as a

  • Chita (former oblast, Russia)

    Chita, former oblast (region), far eastern Russia. In 2008 it merged with Agin Buryat autonomous okrug (district) to form Zabaykalye kray

  • Chita (work by Hearn)

    Lafcadio Hearn: Chita (1889), an adventure novel about the only survivor of a tidal wave, dates from this time.

  • Chita Republic (historical state, Russia)

    Far Eastern Republic, nominally independent state formed by Soviet Russia in eastern Siberia in 1920 and absorbed into the Soviet Union in 1922. At the time of the Far Eastern Republic’s creation, the Bolsheviks controlled Siberia west of Lake Baikal, while Japan held much of the Pacific coast,

  • chital (mammal)

    Chital, (Cervus axis, sometimes Axis axis), Asiatic deer, belonging to the family Cervidae (order Artiodactyla). It lives in grasslands and forests in India and Sri Lanka in herds of up to 100 or more. It stands 90–95 cm (35–37 inches) at the shoulder. Its spotted coat is reddish brown above and

  • Chitala chitala (fish)

    osteoglossomorph: Life cycle and reproduction: In Chitala chitala (Notopteridae), one parent, probably the male, clears an area of the bottom near some submerged object (such as a rock, plant stem, or piling), on which the eggs are later laid in circular bands; the male guards the developing embryos.

  • Chitaldrug (India)

    Chitradurga, city, eastern Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in an upland region, about 20 miles (32 km) north of Vanivilasa Lake. Chitradurga is a cotton-trading centre and terminus of a spur railway line in the Hagari River valley, and it has industries that include cotton ginning

  • chitalishte (cultural centre)

    Balkans: Creating national identities: …the full meaning of the chitalishte, an institution that not only provided books and newspapers but also organized education for adults and staged plays, debates, and discussions. Nor was it by any means always the case that the new schools were culturally exclusive. In Bulgaria, at least in the early…

  • chitarrone (musical instrument)

    Chitarrone, large bass lute, or archlute, developed in Rome about 1600. It was usually about 6 feet (less than 2 m) tall, with a normal lute body. The chitarrone had six to eight strings running over the fingerboard to a pegbox (the part of the instrument in which the tuning pegs are set)

  • Chitcha (region, Colombia)

    jewelry: Central and South American: pre-Columbian: …as the oldest, followed by Chitcha. In the latter area, the “Quimbaya treasure” and objects from the upper Cauca River (Calima style) represent jewelry of the greatest importance and magnificence. Other significant centres in Colombia include the Muisca region; Calima, famous for its breastplates, tiaras, and brooches; and Tolima. Although…

  • Chitembwe-Mwera Highlands (hills, Malaŵi)

    Dowa Highlands, central Malaŵi, rectangular formation covering an area of about 360 square miles (930 sq km); they comprise rolling hills crowned by high ridges including the heights of Dowa (5,571 feet [1,698 m]) and Ntchisi peaks. The highlands are bounded on three sides by steep slopes, f

  • chitemene (agriculture)

    Zambia: Archaeology and early history: …woodland through the adoption of chitemene cultivation, widespread in Zambia even today. That technique depends heavily on the use of iron axes, because seed is sown in the ashes of branches lopped from trees.

  • Chitepo, Herbert (Zimbabwean author and poet)

    Zimbabwe: Cultural life: …of the liberation struggle) was Herbert Chitepo, both as abstract painter and epic poet. Stanlake Samkange’s novels reconstruct the Shona and Ndebele world of the 1890s, while those of the much younger Charles Mungoshi explore the clash of Shona and Western cultures in both the Shona and English languages. Folk…

  • Chithrafarna (Persian satrap)

    Tissaphernes, Persian satrap (governor) who played a leading part in Persia’s struggle to reconquer the Ionian Greek cities of Asia Minor that had been held by Athens since 449. In 413 Tissaphernes, who was then satrap of Lydia and Caria, formed an alliance with Sparta, and by the next year he h

  • Chitimacha (people)

    Chitimacha, North American Indian tribe of the Macro-Algonquian linguistic phylum. Their estimated population in 1650 was 3,000; at that time one of the most powerful tribes on the northern Gulf of Mexico coast (west of what is now Florida), they inhabited the area around Grand Lake in what is now

  • Chitimukulu (African chief)

    Bemba: …under a supreme chief, the Chitimukulu, who was a member of a single, matrilineal, royal clan. The power of members of this clan rested on the sacredness of their persons and on their prayers to ancestral spirits at relic shrines, which were thought to have influence on the fertility of…

  • chitin (chemical compound)

    Chitin, white, horny substance found in the outer skeleton of insects, crabs, and lobsters and in the internal structures of other invertebrates. It is a polysaccharide consisting of units of the amino sugar glucosamine. As a by-product of crustacean processing, chitin is used as a flocculating

  • Chitinskaya Respublika (historical state, Russia)

    Far Eastern Republic, nominally independent state formed by Soviet Russia in eastern Siberia in 1920 and absorbed into the Soviet Union in 1922. At the time of the Far Eastern Republic’s creation, the Bolsheviks controlled Siberia west of Lake Baikal, while Japan held much of the Pacific coast,

  • chitlin circuit (American entertainment)

    tap dance: Nightclubs: …black entertainers in the “chitlin circuit” (venues that catered to black audiences); TOBA nurtured such performers as Leonard Reed and Willie Bryant, creators of the Shim Sham Shimmy (c. 1927; the “national anthem of tap”), and the Whitman Sisters. The “Chop Suey circuit” of Chinese nightclubs—primarily in San Francisco…

  • chiton (mollusk)

    Chiton, any of numerous flattened, bilaterally symmetrical marine mollusks, worldwide in distribution but most abundant in warm regions. The approximately 600 species are usually placed in the class Placophora, Polyplacophora, or Loricata (phylum Mollusca). Chitons are usually oval in shape. On the

  • chiton (clothing)

    Chiton, garment worn by Greek men and women from the Archaic period (c. 750–c. 500 bc) through the Hellenistic period (323–30 bc). Essentially a sleeveless shirt, the chiton was a rectangular piece of linen (Ionic chiton) or wool (Doric chiton) draped by the wearer in various ways and kept in p

  • Chitor (India)

    Chittaurgarh, city, southern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It lies in an upland region on a tributary of the Banas River, about 65 miles (100 km) northeast of Udaipur. Chittaurgarh, formerly called Chitrakut (for Chitrang, a chieftain of the Rajputs), lies at the foot of a hillslope on which

  • Chitose (Japan)

    Chitose, city, west-central Hokkaido, northern Japan. It lies about 22 miles (35 km) southeast of Sapporo, on the railway to Tomakomai, which is about 12 miles (19 km) to the south. Because of the extension of Sapporo and the growth of the commercial and industrial harbour of Tomakomai after World

  • Chitradurga (India)

    Chitradurga, city, eastern Karnataka state, southern India. It is situated in an upland region, about 20 miles (32 km) north of Vanivilasa Lake. Chitradurga is a cotton-trading centre and terminus of a spur railway line in the Hagari River valley, and it has industries that include cotton ginning

  • Chitrakut (India)

    Chittaurgarh, city, southern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It lies in an upland region on a tributary of the Banas River, about 65 miles (100 km) northeast of Udaipur. Chittaurgarh, formerly called Chitrakut (for Chitrang, a chieftain of the Rajputs), lies at the foot of a hillslope on which

  • Chitral (Pakistan)

    Chitral, town, northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. The town lies along the Kunar River (also known as the Chitral River) in a valley 2 miles (3 km) wide, at an elevation of about 4,900 feet (1,490 metres) above sea level. Chitral has a government woolen and sericulture centre, the fort

  • Chitral River (river, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Drainage: Panjshēr (Panjshīr), the Alīngār, the Konar, and the Panjkora, follow the northeast-to-southwest direction and are then suddenly deflected toward the east-west axis by the Kābul River, into which they flow. The Yarkhun and Ghizar river valleys also take the same east-to-west direction. The Chitral River drains the southern slopes of…

  • Chitrār (Pakistan)

    Chitral, town, northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. The town lies along the Kunar River (also known as the Chitral River) in a valley 2 miles (3 km) wide, at an elevation of about 4,900 feet (1,490 metres) above sea level. Chitral has a government woolen and sericulture centre, the fort

  • Chitré (Panama)

    Chitré, town, southwestern Panama, situated at the base of the Azuero Peninsula. It lies on the left bank of the Villa River, near Parita Bay (of the Gulf of Panama). Chitré serves as a marketing centre for the vegetables and livestock that are produced in the area; it also produces ice, beverages,

  • chitta (Buddhism)

    Indian philosophy: God, self, and body: …distinguished from the mind (chitta): the mind is viewed as an object, an aggregate. This argument is used to prove the existence of a self other than the mind. The mental state is not self-intimating; it is known in introspection. It cannot know both itself and its object. It…

  • Chittagong (Bangladesh)

    Chittagong, city that is the chief Indian Ocean port of Bangladesh. It lies about 12 miles (19 km) north of the mouth of the Karnaphuli River, in the southeastern arm of the country. Chittagong is the second largest city in Bangladesh, after Dhaka. Pop. (2001) city, 2,023,489; metro. area,

  • Chittagong Hill Tracts (district, Bangladesh)

    Bangladesh: Ethnic groups: …of these peoples inhabit the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the southeast, the most sparsely settled area of the country. Some of the groups are related to the peoples of Myanmar (Burma), and many follow Buddhism, although both Hinduism and Christianity also have a significant following. Of the dozen or so…

  • chittamwood (plant)

    Sideroxylon: lanuginosa, variously known as chittamwood, shittamwood, gum elastic, and false buckthorn, is sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. It grows to about 15 metres (50 feet) tall. The leaves are 3.75–10 cm (1.5–4 inches) long, are dark lustrous green above and rusty beneath, and persist until late in the fall.…

  • Chittar (Tamil mystic)

    Hinduism: Vernacular literatures: …18th centuries, when the Tamil Chittars (name derived from Sanskrit siddha, “perfected one”), who were eclectic mystics, composed poems noted for the power of their naturalistic diction. The Tamil sense and style of these poems belied the Sanskrit-derived title of their authors, a phenomenon that could stand as a symbol…

  • Chittaurgarh (India)

    Chittaurgarh, city, southern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It lies in an upland region on a tributary of the Banas River, about 65 miles (100 km) northeast of Udaipur. Chittaurgarh, formerly called Chitrakut (for Chitrang, a chieftain of the Rajputs), lies at the foot of a hillslope on which

  • Chittenden (county, Vermont, United States)

    Chittenden, county, northwestern Vermont, U.S. It lies between Lake Champlain (constituting the border with New York state) to the west and the Green Mountains to the east. The terrain is characterized by lowlands in the west, including a few islands and bay inlets in Lake Champlain, and mountains

  • chitterlings (food)

    offal: …cookery, with pork intestines, or chitterlings, being considered perhaps an archetypal fare of the rural poor. In this context, the parts are typically prepared by boiling or frying and served highly seasoned. Several of the same foods, such as calf’s liver for frying and jellied tripe and pickled beef tongue…

  • Chittoor (India)

    Chittoor, city, southern Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. It is situated in an upland region near a tributary of the Palar River, about 35 miles (55 km) southwest of Tirupati and 80 miles (130 km) west-northwest of Chennai (Madras) in Tamil Nadu state. Chittoor is a transportation hub, with a

  • Chittorgarh (India)

    Chittaurgarh, city, southern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It lies in an upland region on a tributary of the Banas River, about 65 miles (100 km) northeast of Udaipur. Chittaurgarh, formerly called Chitrakut (for Chitrang, a chieftain of the Rajputs), lies at the foot of a hillslope on which

  • Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (film by Hughes [1968])

    Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, British musical film, released in 1968, that was based on the only children’s book written by James Bond creator Ian Fleming. After buying a car that he names Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, eccentric inventor Caractacus Potts (played by Dick Van Dyke) invents a story in order to

  • Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (book by Fleming)

    children's literature: Contemporary times: …with his headlong pop extravaganza Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (1964), come to mind.

  • Chiu chu-chi (Chinese monk)

    Ch’ang-ch’un, Taoist monk and alchemist who journeyed from China across the heartland of Asia to visit Genghis Khan, the famed Mongol conqueror, at his encampment north of the Hindu Kush mountains. The narrative of Ch’ang-ch’un’s expedition, written by his disciple-companion Li Chih-chang, presents

  • Chiu-ch’üan (China)

    Jiuquan, city, western Gansu sheng (province), China. An important staging post on the ancient Silk Road to Central Asia, Jiuquan was founded in 111 bce as a military outpost. From 602 ce onward it was the seat of Suzhou prefecture, and under the Tang dynasty (618–907) it was given its present

  • Chiu-chiang (China)

    Jiujiang, river port and city, northern Jiangxi sheng (province), southeastern China. It lies along the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) to the west of its junction with Lake Poyang and the tributary system of the Gan River. Jiujiang is an important river port, although it does not have a good natural

  • Chiu-ling Shan (mountains, China)

    Jiuling Mountains, range in northern Jiangxi province, China. The range runs southwest-northeast from east of Changsha in Hunan province to the valley of the Xiu River west of Lake Poyang, a distance of some 155 miles (250 km). It lies south of, and parallel to, the Mufu Mountains, from which it is

  • Chiu-lung (peninsula, Hong Kong, China)

    Kowloon Peninsula, part of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, southeastern China. It constitutes the Chinese mainland portion of the Hong Kong region and is located north of Hong Kong Island and east of the mouth of the Pearl (Zhu) River Delta. Geographically, it consists of two portions:

  • Chiu-lung Chiang (river, China)

    Jiulong River, river in southeastern Fujian province, China. The river rises in the mountains northwest of Zhangzhou, draining a large interior basin above Zhangping. The Xinqiao River and the Yanshi River and their tributaries drain the northeast and the southwest of the basin, respectively. The

  • Chiuta, Lake (lake, Africa)

    Lake Chiuta, lake on the border between Mozambique and Malawi in southeastern Africa, drained northward by the Lugenda River. It is narrow (2–8 miles [3–13 km] wide) and about 40 miles (64 km) long; its southern shore is marshy and

  • Chiva (Uzbekistan)

    Khiva, city, south-central Uzbekistan. It lies west of the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) on the Palvan Canal, and it is bounded on the south by the Karakum Desert and on the northeast by the Kyzylkum desert. A notorious slave market was centred there from the 17th to the 19th century. The city is

  • chivalry (society)

    Chivalry, the knightly class of feudal times. The primary sense of the term in Europe in the Middle Ages is “knights,” or “fully armed and mounted fighting men.” Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. Later the word came to be used in its general sense of

  • chivara (Buddhism)

    religious dress: Buddhism: The robe (chivara) illustrates two main types of religious action, each symbolized by the character of the materials used. First, the wearing of “cast-off rags” was one of the “four resources” of a monk, being an exercise in ascetic humility similar to the other three, which are…

  • chive (plant)

    Chive, (Allium schoenoprasum), small perennial plant of the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), related to the onion. Chives are grown as ornamentals for their attractive flowers and as a potherb for their flavourful leaves. The leaves can be used fresh or dried and are a common seasoning for eggs,

  • Chivington Massacre (United States history [1864])

    Sand Creek Massacre, (November 29, 1864), controversial surprise attack upon a camp of Cheyenneand Arapaho people in southeastern Colorado Territory by a force of about 675 U.S. troops, mostly Colorado volunteers, under Col. John M. Chivington. The camp contained approximately 750 Cheyenne and

  • Chivington, John M. (United States colonel)

    Sand Creek Massacre: John M. Chivington.

  • Chiwara (Bambara religion)

    Chiwara, antelope figure of the Bambara (Bamana) people of Mali that represents the spirit that taught humans the fundamentals of agriculture. The Bambara honour Chiwara though art and dance. According to Bambara legend, Chiwara used his antlers and pointed stick to dig into the earth, making it

  • Chixoy River (river, Guatemala)

    Chixoy River, river in central Guatemala, rising as the Negro River in the southern part of the Altos (mountains) Cuchumatanes, west of Huehuetenango. First flowing eastward, it forms part of the borders between the Quiché and Huehuetenango regions and between Quiché and Baja Verapaz. Southwest of

  • Chixoy, Río (river, Guatemala)

    Chixoy River, river in central Guatemala, rising as the Negro River in the southern part of the Altos (mountains) Cuchumatanes, west of Huehuetenango. First flowing eastward, it forms part of the borders between the Quiché and Huehuetenango regions and between Quiché and Baja Verapaz. Southwest of

  • Chiyonofuji (Japanese sumo wrestler)

    Chiyonofuji, (Mitsugu Akimoto), Japanese sumo wrestler (born June 1, 1955, Hokkaido, Japan—died July 31, 2016, Tokyo, Japan), dominated sumo during the 1980s and amassed a total of 31 career championships, third on the all-time list (behind Hakuho and Taiho). Chiyonofuji earned the nickname “the

  • Chiyou (Chinese mythology)

    Chinese literature: Literary use of myths: Huangdi (“The Yellow Emperor”) and Chiyou (“The Wormy Transgressor”), for example, became a part of Daoist lore and eventually provided models for chapters of two works of vernacular fiction, Shuihuzhuan (The Water Margin, also translated as All Men Are Brothers) and Xiyouji (1592; Journey to the West, also partially translated…

  • Chkalov (Russia)

    Orenburg, city and administrative centre of Orenburg oblast (region), western Russia, on the Ural River at the Sakmara confluence. Founded as a fortress in 1735 at the Ural-Or confluence, where Orsk now stands, it was moved to its present site in 1743. It was originally the military centre of the

  • Chkheidze, Nikolay Semyonovich (Russian revolutionary)

    Nikolay Semyonovich Chkheidze, Menshevik leader who played a prominent role in the revolutions of Russia (1917) and Georgia (1918). Chkheidze, a schoolteacher who helped to introduce Marxism into Georgia in the 1890s, was elected to the Russian State Duma (legislature) in 1907. There he became the

  • Chladni, Ernst F. F. (German physicist)

    meteoritics: …this background, the German physicist Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni began the science of meteoritics in 1794, when he defended the trustworthiness of accounts of falls. A shower of stones that fell in 1803 at L’Aigle, Fr., finally convinced the scientific world of the reality of meteorites. Interest was intensified by…

  • Chladni, Ernst Florens Friedrich (German physicist)

    meteoritics: …this background, the German physicist Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni began the science of meteoritics in 1794, when he defended the trustworthiness of accounts of falls. A shower of stones that fell in 1803 at L’Aigle, Fr., finally convinced the scientific world of the reality of meteorites. Interest was intensified by…

  • Chlamydera maculata (bird)

    bowerbird: …and its relatives; and the spotted bowerbird (Chlamydera maculata) and its relatives. Satin and regent bowerbirds make a paint of vegetable pulp, charcoal, and saliva and apply it to the interior walls; a daub of green leaves may be used—a rare instance of a bird using a tool.

  • Chlamydia (microorganism)

    Chlamydia, a genus of bacterial parasites that cause several different diseases in humans. The genus is composed of three species: C. psittaci, which causes psittacosis; Chlamydia trachomatis, various strains of which cause chlamydia, trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum, and conjunctivitis; and C.

  • Chlamydia pneumoniae (microbiology)

    Chlamydia: C. pneumoniae was identified as a separate Chlamydia species in the 1980s. It causes various respiratory-tract infections, most commonly a mild, atypical pneumonia with symptoms of fever, cough, and sore throat.

  • Chlamydia psittaci (microbiology)

    Chlamydia: …is composed of three species: C. psittaci, which causes psittacosis; Chlamydia trachomatis, various strains of which cause chlamydia, trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum, and conjunctivitis; and C. pneumoniae, which causes respiratory-tract infections.

  • Chlamydia trachomatis (microorganism)

    infectious disease: Chlamydial organisms: …are caused by the species C. trachomatis, which is a frequent cause of genital infections in women. If an infant passes through an infected birth canal, it can produce disease of the eye (conjunctivitis) and pneumonia in the newborn. Young children sometimes develop ear infections, laryngitis, and upper respiratory tract…

  • Chlamydomonas (genus of green algae)

    Chlamydomonas, genus of biflagellated single-celled green algae (family Chlamydomonadaceae) found in soil, ponds, and ditches. Chlamydomonas species can become so abundant as to colour fresh water green, and one species, C. nivalis, contains a red pigment known as hematochrome, which sometimes

  • Chlamydosaurus kingii (reptile)

    Frilled lizard, (Chlamydosaurus kingii), type of reptile found in Australia and New Guinea that can run standing up on its hind legs with its forelegs and tail in the air. The scaly membrane around its neck is used as a large part of the lizard’s defensive posture. Normally, the neck frill, often

  • Chlamydoselachidae (shark family)

    chondrichthyan: Annotated classification: Chlamydoselachidae (frilled sharks) Distinguished by 6 gill slits, the margins of the first being continuous across the throat. Size to about 2 metres (about 6.5 feet). 2 genera, 2 species; 1 modern species known, rather rare. Moderately deep water of the eastern North Atlantic from…

  • Chlamydoselachoidei (shark suborder)

    chondrichthyan: Annotated classification: Suborder Chlamydoselachoidei Family Chlamydoselachidae (frilled sharks) Distinguished by 6 gill slits, the margins of the first being continuous across the throat. Size to about 2 metres (about 6.5 feet). 2 genera, 2 species; 1 modern species known, rather rare. Moderately deep water of the eastern North…

  • Chlamyphorus truncatus (mammal)

    armadillo: Natural history: …long, including the tail, the pink fairy armadillo, or lesser pichiciego (Chlamyphorus truncatus), of central Argentina, is only about 16 cm (6 inches). In contrast, the endangered giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) can be 1.5 metres (5 feet) long and weigh 30 kg (66 pounds). It lives in the Amazon basin…

  • chlamys (clothing)

    dress: Ancient Greece: The smaller one—the chlamys—was of dark wool and was worn pinned on one shoulder, usually leaving the right arm free. The larger wrap was the himation, worn by both sexes. Draped in many different ways, it covered the body and could be drawn up over the head. In…

  • Chlef (Algeria)

    Ech-Cheliff, town, northern Algeria. It lies along the Chelif River, south of the Mediterranean Sea port of Ténès. It was founded by the French in 1843 on the site of the ancient Roman settlement of Castellum Tingitanum and is now an important rail junction midway between Algiers and Oran, as well

  • Chleuh (people)

    Atlas Mountains: The people: The Ishelhiyen (Shluh) of the High Atlas in Morocco inhabit the river valleys that cut down deeply into the massif. Their villages, with populations of several hundred inhabitants in each, are often located at an altitude of more than 6,500 feet. They consist of terraced houses,…

  • Chleuh language

    Berber languages: …languages include Tashelhit (Tashelhiyt, Tashelhait, Shilha), Tarifit, Kabyle, Tamazight, and Tamahaq. The family may also include extinct languages such as the Guanche languages of the Canary Islands, Old Libyan (Numidian), and Old Mauretanian, which are known from inscriptions but have not yet been studied thoroughly enough to make any affirmative

  • Chlidonias niger (bird)

    tern: The black tern, S. nigra (sometimes Chlidonias niger), about 25 cm (10 inches) long, with a black head and underparts (white below in winter) and gray wings and back, breeds in temperate Eurasia and North America and winters in tropical Africa and South America. It is…

  • Chlodio (king of Franks)

    Chlodio, king of a tribe of Salian Franks, considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty. Chlodio’s tribe renounced the suzerainty of Rome and spread southward into Gaul until they reached Cambrai. Their defeat (c. 431) by the Roman general Aetius at Helena in the area of Arras prevented

  • Chlodion (king of Franks)

    Chlodio, king of a tribe of Salian Franks, considered the founder of the Merovingian dynasty. Chlodio’s tribe renounced the suzerainty of Rome and spread southward into Gaul until they reached Cambrai. Their defeat (c. 431) by the Roman general Aetius at Helena in the area of Arras prevented

  • Chlodomer (Merovingian king)

    Chlodomer, Merovingian king of Orléans from 511. The eldest son of Clovis I by Clotilda, Chlodomer shared in the fourfold partition of his father’s kingdom in 511, receiving lands in western and central France; his was the only one of the four kingdoms to form a single geographical unit on both

  • Chlodomir (Merovingian king)

    Chlodomer, Merovingian king of Orléans from 511. The eldest son of Clovis I by Clotilda, Chlodomer shared in the fourfold partition of his father’s kingdom in 511, receiving lands in western and central France; his was the only one of the four kingdoms to form a single geographical unit on both

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