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  • Chicago Defender (American newspaper)

    Chicago Defender, the most influential African American newspaper during the early and mid-20th century. The Defender, published in Chicago with a national editorial perspective, played a leading role in the widespread Great Migration of African Americans from the South to the North. Founded in

  • Chicago Edison Company (American company)

    Samuel Insull: …by Insull’s firm, now the Commonwealth Edison Company. Use of central power stations brought extension of his electrical power system to most of Illinois and parts of neighbouring states by 1917. His systems grew rapidly during the 1920s, not only because of central stations but also as a result of…

  • Chicago Eight (American anarchists)

    anarchism: Anarchism in the Americas: Four members of the “Chicago Eight” were hanged on November 11, 1887; one committed suicide in his cell; and three others were given long prison sentences. Excoriating the trial as unjust, Illinois Governor John Peter Altgeld pardoned the three surviving Haymarket prisoners in 1893. May Day—international workers’ day—was directly…

  • Chicago Fire Department

    fireboat: …high-speed, shallow-draft fireboat introduced in Chicago in 1961 is propelled and steered by underwater hydraulic jets.

  • Chicago fire of 1871 (American history)

    Great Chicago Fire, conflagration that began on October 8, 1871, and burned until early October 10, devastating an expansive swath of the city of Chicago. Chicago’s growth in the mid-19th century was unprecedented. The population reached nearly 30,000 in 1850 and was triple that a decade later.

  • Chicago Heights (Illinois, United States)

    Chicago Heights, city, Cook county, northeastern Illinois, U.S. It is a suburb of Chicago, about 30 miles (50 km) south of downtown. The city’s name derives from its proximity to Chicago and its elevation, which averages 95 feet (29 metres) above the surrounding area. The site was the intersection

  • Chicago Hope (American television program)

    David E. Kelley: …he created the medical show Chicago Hope. Juggling the scripts for Chicago Hope and Picket Fences became a difficult task, however, and at the end of the 1994–95 season Kelley stepped down as executive producer for both shows.

  • Chicago Housing Authority (city corporation, Chicago, Illinois)

    Cabrini-Green: In 2000 the Chicago Housing Authority (CHA) began demolishing Cabrini-Green buildings as part of an ambitious and controversial plan to transform all of the city’s public housing projects; the last of the buildings was torn down in 2011.

  • Chicago Imagists (Chicago art group)

    Roger Brown: A Chicago Imagist: In the late 1960s critics began to group together a generation of artists who had studied at SAIC, though for the most part their styles were fairly divergent. Thus, Brown became associated not only with the so-called Hairy Who (consisting of Jim Nutt,…

  • Chicago Indoor Baseball Team (American sports team)

    softball: …indoor baseball, first played in Chicago in 1887. It became known in the United States by various names, such as kitten ball, mush ball, diamond ball, indoor–outdoor, and playground ball. There were wide variances in playing rules, size and type of playing equipment, and dimensions of the playing field.

  • Chicago Institute (private school, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    University of Chicago Laboratory Schools: …the Laboratory School with the Chicago Institute, a private progressive normal school that had been founded by Francis W. Parker. As part of the university’s new School of Education, secondary schools were established in 1902 and under Dewey’s leadership were merged in 1903 into a set of laboratory schools. The…

  • Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis (organization, Illinois, United States)

    Franz Alexander: …in 1932 to establish the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, which he directed until 1956. Under his leadership, the institute attracted many analysts and students who conducted extensive research on emotional disturbance and psychosomatic disease, identifying various disorders with particular unconscious conflicts. This work is represented in his book Psychosomatic Medicine:…

  • Chicago Inter Ocean (American newspaper)

    Associated Press: The Chicago Inter Ocean, a newspaper that did not have AP membership, had brought an antimonopoly suit, and the AP moved to New York, where association laws permitted the group to continue its strict control of membership, including blackballing of applicants for membership by existing members.…

  • Chicago Legal News (American newspaper)

    Myra Bradwell: …career by founding the weekly Chicago Legal News, of which she was both editorial and business manager. It soon became the most important legal publication in the western United States. In 1869 she helped organize Chicago’s first women’s suffrage convention, and she and her husband were active in the founding…

  • Chicago literary renaissance (literary period)

    Chicago literary renaissance, the flourishing of literary activity in Chicago during the period from approximately 1912 to 1925. The leading writers of this renaissance—Theodore Dreiser, Sherwood Anderson, Edgar Lee Masters, and Carl Sandburg—realistically depicted the contemporary urban

  • Chicago Marathon (sports)

    Chicago Marathon, annual 26.2-mile (42.2-km) footrace through Chicago that is held each October. Along with the Berlin, Boston, London, New York City, and Tokyo marathons, the Chicago Marathon is one of the world’s six major marathons. The first Chicago Marathon—which was originally known as the

  • Chicago Mercantile Exchange (exchange, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Tea Party movement: Origins of the Tea Party: …from the floor of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Santelli heatedly stated that the bailout would “subsidize the losers’ mortgages” and proposed a Chicago Tea Party to protest government intervention in the housing market. The five-minute clip became an Internet sensation, and the “Tea Party” rallying cry struck a chord with…

  • Chicago Metropolitan Area (metropolitan area, United States)

    Chicago: City layout: …the metropolitan area, popularly called Chicagoland, to stretch from Kenosha, Wis., around the south end of the lake through northwestern Indiana to the Michigan state line. Early suburban development gave the appearance of a wagon wheel. On the outer rim is a broad arc of older industrial cities—Waukegan, Elgin, St.…

  • Chicago Orchestra (American orchestra)

    Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO), American symphony orchestra based in Chicago, Ill., renowned for its distinctive tone and its recordings under such conductors as Fritz Reiner and Sir Georg Solti. It was founded by Theodore Thomas in 1891 as the Chicago Orchestra and operated as the Theodore

  • Chicago Orphans (American baseball team)

    Chicago Cubs, American professional baseball team that plays its home games at Chicago’s Wrigley Field. Despite limited success, the Cubs have one of the most loyal fan bases and are among the most popular franchises in baseball. The Cubs play in the National League (NL) and have won three World

  • Chicago Packers (American basketball team)

    Washington Wizards, American professional basketball team based in Washington, D.C. The Wizards (then known as the Washington Bullets) made four trips to the National Basketball Association (NBA) finals in the 1970s and won an NBA championship in the 1977–78 season. Founded in 1961 as the Chicago

  • Chicago Park District (city agency, Chicago, Illiniois, United States)

    Chicago: City layout: …park administrations to create the Chicago Park District, which operates more than 500 parks covering some 7,000 acres (2,800 hectares). Beyond the city, county forest preserve districts and the federal government have set aside thousands of acres of natural woodlands and have re-created prairies.

  • Chicago Pile No. 1 (nuclear engineering)

    nuclear reactor: The first atomic piles: His reactor, later called Chicago Pile No. 1 (CP-1), was made of pure graphite in which uranium metal slugs were loaded toward the centre with uranium oxide lumps around the edges. This device had no cooling system, as it was expected to be operated for purely experimental purposes at…

  • Chicago Race Riot of 1919 (United States history)

    Chicago Race Riot of 1919, most severe of approximately 25 race riots throughout the U.S. in the “Red Summer” (meaning “bloody”) following World War I; a manifestation of racial frictions intensified by large-scale African American migration to the North, industrial labour competition, overcrowding

  • Chicago River (river, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago River, navigable stream that originally flowed into Lake Michigan after being formed by the north and south branches about 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the lake, in Chicago, northeastern Illinois, U.S. The Chicago River system flows 156 miles (251 km) from Park City (north) to Lockport (south);

  • Chicago Rush (American football team)

    Mike Ditka: …joined the ownership of the Chicago Rush, a member of the Arena Football League. He also worked frequently as an commentator on NFL telecasts and as a spokesperson for a vast number of products. Ditka: An Autobiography, cowritten by Don Pierson, appeared in 1986. In 1988 Ditka was inducted into…

  • Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (waterway, United States)

    Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, U.S. waterway linking the south branch of the Chicago River with the Des Plaines River at Lockport, Illinois. It has a length of 30 miles (48 km), a minimum width of 160 feet (50 metres), a minimum depth of 9 feet (2.7 metres), and 2 locks. The chief purpose of the

  • Chicago school (religion)

    Joachim Wach: …the founder of the so-called Chicago School, from which emerged such influential scholars as Mircea Eliade.

  • Chicago school (social science)

    political science: Developments in the United States: …what became known as the Chicago school developed in the mid-1920s and thereafter. The leading figure in this movement was Charles E. Merriam, whose New Aspects of Politics (1925) argued for a reconstruction of method in political analysis, urged the greater use of statistics in the aid of empirical observation…

  • Chicago School (architecture)

    Chicago School, group of architects and engineers who, in the late 19th century, developed the skyscraper. They included Daniel Burnham, William Le Baron Jenney, John Root, and the firm of Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan. Among the buildings representative of the school in Chicago are the Montauk

  • Chicago school (American literature)

    Chicago critics, group of pluralist, essentially formalist American literary critics—including Richard McKeon, Elder Olson, Ronald Salmon Crane, Bernard Weinberg, and Norman Maclean—who exerted a significant influence on the development of American criticism during the second half of the 20th

  • Chicago School of Analysis (mathematics)

    Antoni Zygmund: …Science for creating the so-called Chicago School of Analysis, which focused on Fourier analysis and its applications to partial differential equations. He wrote Trigonometric Series (1935 and later editions), Analytic Functions (1938, with Stanislaw Saks), and Measure and Integral (1977, with R.L. Wheeden). Zygmund held membership in the national academies…

  • Chicago school of critics (American literature)

    Chicago critics, group of pluralist, essentially formalist American literary critics—including Richard McKeon, Elder Olson, Ronald Salmon Crane, Bernard Weinberg, and Norman Maclean—who exerted a significant influence on the development of American criticism during the second half of the 20th

  • Chicago school of economics (economics)

    Chicago school of economics, an economic school of thought, originally developed by members of the department of economics at the University of Chicago, that emphasizes free-market principles. The Chicago school of economics was founded in the 1930s, mainly by Frank Hyneman Knight, and subsequently

  • Chicago School window (architecture)

    bay window: …a prominent feature of the Chicago School. The utilitarian program of William Le Baron Jenney, one goal of which was maximum admission of natural light, resulted in the creation of the cellular wall and a new emphasis on bay windows. An interesting example is Jenney’s Manhattan Building (Chicago, 1890), which…

  • Chicago Seven (law case)

    Chicago Seven, group of political activists who were arrested for their antiwar activities during the August 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois. A series of riots occurred during the convention, and eight protest leaders—Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, cofounders of the Youth

  • Chicago Seven (architecture)

    Stanley Tigerman: …a founder of the so-called Chicago Seven movement in architecture, a group of seven Chicago architects who, playfully adopting the name of a group of late-1960s political dissidents, protested against the dominance of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s Modernism in postwar Chicago. Tigerman co-organized landmark exhibitions, such as “Chicago Architects”…

  • Chicago soul (American music)

    “It's All Right”: Chicago Soul: Berry Gordy, Jr., and his Motown Records, based in Detroit, Michigan, overshadowed the Windy City during the 1960s. But several black music producers—including Roquel (“Billy”) Davis and Carl Davis (who were not related), Johnny Pate (who also was an arranger), and Curtis Mayfield

  • Chicago Spire (skyscraper design, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Santiago Calatrava: …build Calatrava’s design for the Chicago Spire, to have been the world’s tallest residential building (2,000 feet [610 metres]), did not come to fruition.

  • Chicago Stadium (stadium, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago Blackhawks: …1929 the team moved into Chicago Stadium, which was then the largest indoor sporting venue in the world, and it would serve as the team’s home until 1994.

  • Chicago Staleys (American football team)

    Chicago Bears, American professional gridiron football team based in Chicago that plays in the National Football Conference (NFC) of the National Football League (NFL). The Bears are one of football’s most successful franchises, having won eight NFL championships and one Super Bowl. The franchise

  • Chicago State University (university, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Chicago, Illinois, U.S. The university was established in 1867 as an experimental teacher-training school. It offers bachelor’s degree programs in health sciences, business, education, and arts and sciences. Master’s

  • Chicago Stock Exchange (stock exchange, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago Stock Exchange (CHX), largest of the regional stock exchanges in the United States. The Chicago Stock Exchange was founded in 1882 to trade primarily local securities, particularly stocks and bonds of utility, banking, and railroad companies. In 1949 the exchange merged with those of St.

  • Chicago Stock Exchange (historical building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    construction: Early steel-frame high-rises: For the 13-story Stock Exchange Building (1892), the engineer Dankmar Adler employed the caisson foundation used in bridge construction. A cylindrical shaft braced with board sheathing was hand-dug to bedrock and filled with concrete to create a solid pier to receive the heavy loads of the steel columns.

  • Chicago stockyards (Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    The Jungle: …exposé of conditions in the Chicago stockyards. Because of the public response, the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act was passed in 1906, and conditions in American slaughterhouses were improved.

  • Chicago style (jazz)

    Chicago style, approach to jazz group instrumental playing that developed in Chicago during the 1920s and moved to New York City in the ’30s, being preserved in the music known as Dixieland. Much of it was originally produced by trumpeter Jimmy McPartland, tenor saxophonist Bud Freeman, clarinetist

  • Chicago Sun-Times (American newspaper)

    Carl Rowan: …a syndicated columnist for the Chicago Sun-Times, and later that year he sued the paper for age and race discrimination; the case was settled out of court in 2000.

  • Chicago Symphony Chorus (American chorus)

    Chicago Symphony Orchestra: …and became director of the Chicago Symphony Chorus, the first such ensemble in the United States to be permanently affiliated with a major symphony orchestra. Duain Wolfe succeeded Hillis as director in 1994. CSO composers in residence have included John Corigliano (1987–91) and Shulamit Ran (1990–97), among others. In 2010…

  • Chicago Symphony Orchestra (American orchestra)

    Chicago Symphony Orchestra (CSO), American symphony orchestra based in Chicago, Ill., renowned for its distinctive tone and its recordings under such conductors as Fritz Reiner and Sir Georg Solti. It was founded by Theodore Thomas in 1891 as the Chicago Orchestra and operated as the Theodore

  • Chicago Theological Seminary (seminary, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Robie House: …property in 1926 to the Chicago Theological Seminary for use as married-student housing. The seminary twice proposed tearing down the house—in 1941 and 1957—leading to grassroots protests that included Wright himself, who supposedly quipped, “It all goes to show the danger of entrusting anything spiritual to the clergy.” The building…

  • Chicago Training School for City, Home, and Foreign Missions (school, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Lucy Jane Rider Meyer: …that year they opened the Chicago Training School for City, Home, and Foreign Missions. The time and place were opportune for such a school, and theirs grew rapidly and quickly gained the support of official Methodist bodies. Wesley Memorial Hospital, the Chicago Old People’s Home, and the Lake Bluff Orphanage…

  • Chicago Transit Authority (American rock group)

    Chicago, rock band, among the most popular American recording artists of all time, with sales of more than 100 million records. Initially a jazz-rock unit, Chicago thrived as it moved toward a lighter, ballad-oriented rock style. Its original members were Terry Kath (b. Jan. 31, 1946, Chicago,

  • Chicago Transit Authority (public-transit agency, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago: Transportation: …the General Assembly, created the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) to take over operation of the “L” carriers; independent bus companies were absorbed in 1952.

  • Chicago Tribune (American newspaper)

    Chicago Tribune, daily newspaper published in Chicago, one of the leading American newspapers and long the dominant, sometimes strident, voice of the Midwest. The newspaper—as well as its parent company and later media conglomerate, the Tribune Company—was founded in 1847 by three Chicagoans.

  • Chicago Water Tower (building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago Water Tower, one of the few buildings to survive the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Completed in 1869, the limestone structure with its ornate castellated Gothic Revival style is one of the most iconic buildings along Chicago’s famed “Magnificent Mile” of Michigan Avenue, and it is the

  • Chicago White Sox (American baseball team)

    Chicago White Sox, American professional baseball team based in Chicago that plays in the American League (AL). The White Sox have won three World Series titles, two in the early 1900s (1906, 1917) and the third 88 years later, in 2005. They are often referred to as the “South Siders,” a reference

  • Chicago White Stockings (American baseball team)

    Chicago White Sox, American professional baseball team based in Chicago that plays in the American League (AL). The White Sox have won three World Series titles, two in the early 1900s (1906, 1917) and the third 88 years later, in 2005. They are often referred to as the “South Siders,” a reference

  • Chicago White Stockings (American baseball team)

    Chicago Cubs, American professional baseball team that plays its home games at Chicago’s Wrigley Field. Despite limited success, the Cubs have one of the most loyal fan bases and are among the most popular franchises in baseball. The Cubs play in the National League (NL) and have won three World

  • Chicago window (architecture)

    bay window: …a prominent feature of the Chicago School. The utilitarian program of William Le Baron Jenney, one goal of which was maximum admission of natural light, resulted in the creation of the cellular wall and a new emphasis on bay windows. An interesting example is Jenney’s Manhattan Building (Chicago, 1890), which…

  • Chicago Woman’s Club (organization, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Fannie Barrier Williams: …for membership in the prestigious Chicago Woman’s Club. Debate within the club raged for more than a year; one of Williams’s stoutest supporters was Dr. Sarah Stevenson, the first woman member of the American Medical Association. In 1895 Williams became the club’s first African American member. She wrote regularly for…

  • Chicago Zoological Park (zoo, Brookfield, Illinois, United States)

    Brookfield Zoo, zoo located in Brookfield, Illinois, U.S., a western suburb of Chicago. Brookfield Zoo, opened in 1934, is known for its extensive use of open-air, unbarred enclosures. It is owned by the Forest Preserve District of Cook County and is operated by the Chicago Zoological Society.

  • Chicago, 1956 (photograph by Frank)

    Robert Frank: Photographs such as Chicago, 1956 in The Americans revealed Frank’s mature style, which was characterized by bold composition and ironic, sometimes bitter, social commentary. Their publication established Frank as a major creative photographer, and the book was widely hailed as a classic.

  • Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company (American railway)

    Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company, American railway company founded in 1859 by John Murray Forbes, who combined several smaller Midwestern railroads. It grew until it extended from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains. In 1901 James J. Hill bought control and sought to combine it

  • Chicago, City on the Make (poem by Algren)

    Nelson Algren: …nonfiction included the prose poem Chicago, City on the Make (1951) and sketches collected as Who Lost an American? (1963) and Notes from a Sea Diary: Hemingway All the Way (1965). Algren was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters three months before he died.

  • Chicago, flag of (United States municipal flag)

    U.S. municipal flag, consisting of a white field (background) with two light blue stripes and, centred and arrayed horizontally between the stripes, four red six-pointed stars. The width-to-length ratio of the flag is 1 to 2.In 1915 Chicago Mayor Carter Harrison, Jr., decided that the time had come

  • Chicago, Judy (American artist)

    Judy Chicago, American feminist artist whose complex and focused installations created some of the visual context of the women’s liberation movement in the 1970s and beyond. Reared in Chicago, Cohen attended the University of California, Los Angeles (B.A., 1962). Her change of name in the 1960s

  • Chicago, Lake (ancient lake, North America)

    Great Lakes: Geology: Lake Chicago, in what is now the southern Lake Michigan basin, and Lake Maumee, in present-day western Lake Erie and its adjacent lowlands, originally drained southward into the Mississippi River through the Illinois and Wabash drainages, respectively. As the ice retreat continued, Lake Maumee was…

  • Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad Company (American railway)

    Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad Company, U.S. railway operating in central and northern states. It began in 1863 as the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Company. It added Chicago to its route and name in 1863, and in 1927 it was incorporated under its present name. After acquiring

  • Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad Company (American railway)

    Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad Company, U.S. railroad company founded in 1847 as the Rock Island and La Salle Railroad Company to build a line from Rock Island to La Salle, Ill. By 1866 its lines extended from Chicago to Council Bluffs, Iowa. Management in the late 19th century was

  • Chicago, University of (university, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    University of Chicago, private, coeducational university, located on the south side of Chicago, Illinois, U.S. One of the United States’s most outstanding universities, the University of Chicago was founded in 1890 with the endowment of John D. Rockefeller. William Rainey Harper, president of the

  • Chicagofest (festival, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago: Renewal: …was later transformed into the Taste of Chicago, signaled the beginning of what has been a continuing city effort to lure suburban leisure spending back to the city through a series of outdoor special events.

  • Chicagoland (metropolitan area, United States)

    Chicago: City layout: …the metropolitan area, popularly called Chicagoland, to stretch from Kenosha, Wis., around the south end of the lake through northwestern Indiana to the Michigan state line. Early suburban development gave the appearance of a wagon wheel. On the outer rim is a broad arc of older industrial cities—Waukegan, Elgin, St.…

  • Chicama (archaeological site, Peru)

    Huaca Prieta, pre-Columbian site of the Late Preceramic Period (c. 3500–1800 bc) in northern Peru, located at the mouth of the Chicama River. Archaeological excavations have revealed subterranean pit dwellings there. The inhabitants of these dwellings did not cultivate maize (corn) or make p

  • Chicamba Real (dam, Revuè River, Mozambique)

    Chimoio: The Chicamba Real hydroelectric-power plant on the nearby Revuè River provides power for the city’s cotton, steel, and saw mills and for the manufacture of coarse textiles and processing of other agricultural and mineral products. Chimoio is connected by road and railway southeast to the port…

  • Chicana (people)

    Chicano, identifier for people of Mexican descent born in the United States. The term came into popular use by Mexican Americans as a symbol of pride during the Chicano Movement of the 1960s. The Chicano community created a strong political and cultural presence in response to years of social

  • Chicaneau, Pierre (French artist)

    pottery: Porcelain: factory at Saint-Cloud, founded by Pierre Chicaneau in the 1670s, made faience and a soft-paste porcelain that were yellowish in tone and heavily potted. Much use was made of molded decoration, which included sprigs of prunus blossom copied from the blanc de Chine of Tehua (see below China: Ming dynasty).…

  • Chicanel culture (Mesoamerican history)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The earliest Maya civilization of the lowlands: …culture of Petén is called Chicanel, evidence of which has been found at many Maya centres. Chicanel pottery includes dishes with wide-everted and grooved rims, bowls with composite silhouette, and vessels resembling ice buckets. Figurines are curiously absent.

  • Chicano (people)

    Chicano, identifier for people of Mexican descent born in the United States. The term came into popular use by Mexican Americans as a symbol of pride during the Chicano Movement of the 1960s. The Chicano community created a strong political and cultural presence in response to years of social

  • Chicano, El (film by Bray [2018])

    George Lopez: Lopez then appeared in El Chicano, a superhero film featuring an all-Latino cast, and the thriller River Runs Red (both 2018).

  • chicha (beverage)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Sacrifice: …certain foods, coca leaves, and chicha (an intoxicant corn beverage) were all used in sacrifices. Many sacrifices were daily occurrences for the ritual of the sun’s appearance. A fire was kindled, and corn was thrown on the coals and toasted. “Eat this, Lord Sun,” was the objuration of officiating priests,…

  • Chichagof Island (island, Alaska, United States)

    Alaskan mountains: Physiography of the southern ranges: Chicagof islands. Those islands have small glaciers and rugged coastlines indented by fjords. The archipelago is composed of southeast–northwest-trending belts of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary, metasedimentary, and volcanic rocks. Metamorphic facies rocks are exposed in the eastern sectors. Those have been intruded by igneous stocks…

  • Chichagov, Vasily Yakovlevich (Russian explorer)

    Arctic: Attempts from Svalbard and Greenland: …Svalbard under the command of Vasily Yakovlevich Chichagov. The next year, with three ships, Chichagov pushed north to 80°26′ N before being forced by ice to retreat. Seven years later Captain John Constantine Phipps of the Royal Navy, in two ships, Racehorse and Carcass, tried to reach the pole from…

  • chicharrón (food)

    Chicharrón, a dish of fried pork rinds popular in Spain and Central and South America. Recipes for chicharrón vary greatly. Most use pork; others use mutton, beef, or chicken. It consists of meat that has been seasoned, boiled, and deep-fried. Pork belly and rib cuts are common; generally a serving

  • Chichén Itzá (ancient city, Mexico)

    Chichén Itzá, ruined ancient Maya city occupying an area of 4 square miles (10 square km) in south-central Yucatán state, Mexico. It is located some 90 miles (150 km) east-northeast of Uxmal and 75 miles (120 km) east-southeast of the modern city of Mérida. The only source of water in the arid

  • Chicherin, Boris Nikolayevich (Russian historian)

    Boris Nikolayevich Chicherin, liberal Russian historian and philosopher who argued vigorously for social change. Although widely regarded as a brilliant scholar, Chicherin’s advocacy of the peaceful legislative reform of tsarist autocratic rule blighted his public career and led to his neglect by

  • Chicherin, Georgy Vasilyevich (Soviet diplomat)

    Georgy Vasilyevich Chicherin, diplomat who executed Soviet foreign policy from 1918 until 1928. An aristocrat by birth, Chicherin entered the imperial diplomatic service after graduating from the University of St. Petersburg (1897). He became involved in the Russian revolutionary movement, however,

  • Chichester (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Chichester, district, administrative county of West Sussex, historic county of Sussex, southern England. It comprises the smaller city of Chichester plus a wide rural area that, in the south, borders the English Channel. The district is mainly residential and agricultural with most of the land

  • Chichester (England, United Kingdom)

    Chichester, city, Chichester district, administrative county of West Sussex, historic county of Sussex, southern England. It lies on the coastal plain of the English Channel at the foot of the chalk South Downs about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the head of Chichester Harbour, with which it is connected by

  • Chichester Cathedral (cathedral, Chichester, England, United Kingdom)

    Chichester: Alongside is the cathedral, founded when the see was transferred from nearby Selsey in 1075 and dedicated in 1108. It is unique among English cathedrals in having a detached Perpendicular-style bell tower, a skillful replacement of the original 14th-century structure, which collapsed in 1861, and there are examples…

  • Chichester of Belfast, Arthur Chichester, Baron (English lord deputy of Ireland)

    Arthur Chichester, Baron Chichester, English lord deputy of Ireland from 1604 to 1614, who developed the plan for colonizing Ulster with English and Scottish settlers. A member of a family of Devonshire gentry, he served in the successful expedition against the Spanish port of Cádiz (1596), where

  • Chichester Psalms (work by Bernstein)

    Chichester Psalms, choral work in three movements by the American composer Leonard Bernstein, who conducted its premiere on July 15, 1965, at England’s Chichester Cathedral, which had commissioned the piece. It is scored for orchestra, chorus, and a boy alto soloist. The solo part is sometimes

  • Chichester, George Forrest, Jr. (American songwriter)

    George Forrest, (George Forrest Chichester, Jr.), American songwriter who enjoyed a fruitful 72-year partnership with Robert Wright; the two composed songs for such Broadway musicals as Gypsy Lady (1946), Magdalena (1948), Kismet (1953), notably “Stranger in Paradise” and “Baubles, Bangles and

  • Chichester, Sir Francis (British adventurer)

    Sir Francis Chichester, adventurer who in 1966–67 sailed around the world alone in a 55-foot sailing yacht, the “Gipsy Moth IV.” As a young man he worked in New Zealand as a miner, salesman, and land agent. Back in England in 1929, in December he began a solo flight to Australia. In 1931, having

  • Chichester, Sir Francis Charles (British adventurer)

    Sir Francis Chichester, adventurer who in 1966–67 sailed around the world alone in a 55-foot sailing yacht, the “Gipsy Moth IV.” As a young man he worked in New Zealand as a miner, salesman, and land agent. Back in England in 1929, in December he began a solo flight to Australia. In 1931, having

  • Chichester-Clark, Major James Dawson (prime minister of Northern Ireland)

    Baron Moyola of Castledawson, (Major James Dawson Chichester-Clark), Northern Irish politician (born Feb. 12, 1923, Moyola Park, Castledawson, County Londonderry, N.Ire.—died May 17, 2002, London, Eng.), was the moderate Unionist prime minister of Northern Ireland who, in August 1969, reluctantly c

  • Chichewa (language)

    Chewa: Their language, Chewa, is also called Chichewa, Nyanja, or Chinyanja and is important in Malawi.

  • Chichi rug

    Chichi rug, small, handmade floor covering woven in a cluster of villages in the vicinity of the Azerbaijanian city of Kuba. Most rugs labeled as Chichi in the West are characterized by a particular border in which large rosettes are flanked by diagonal bars, while the field is ordinarily dark blue

  • Chichibu (Japan)

    Chichibu, city, west-central Saitama ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It is located in a mountainous area on the Ara River in the eastern part of the Chichibu Basin. The Chichibu area has been known for centuries as a centre of sericulture. During the late 19th century silk textile

  • Chichibu Mountains (mountains, Japan)

    Kantō Range: The Chichibu Mountains in the north are the highest mountains of northeastern Japan, containing Mount Kimpō, which rises to 8,514 feet (2,595 m). The mountains are dissected by narrow, canyonlike valleys and are dominated by steep slopes. River terraces provide habitable regions in the interior. The…

  • Chichicastenango (Guatemala)

    Chichicastenango, town, west-central Guatemala, 6,447 feet (1,965 metres) above sea level. It was a market centre for the Cakchiquel Maya before the Spanish conquest. Chichicastenango still boasts one of the largest markets in Guatemala, serving Indian villages in the neighbouring highlands. It is

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