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  • Amanita verna (mushroom)

    amanita: ocreata, A. verna, and A. virosa). They develop a large white fruiting body and are found in forests during wet periods in summer and autumn. Death cap (A. phalloides), also deadly, is found in woods or their borders. It has a green or brown cap and…

  • Amanita virosa (mushroom)

    amanita: verna, and A. virosa). They develop a large white fruiting body and are found in forests during wet periods in summer and autumn. Death cap (A. phalloides), also deadly, is found in woods or their borders. It has a green or brown cap and appears in summer…

  • Amanitaceae (family of fungi)

    Agaricales: Other families and genera: The family Amanitaceae contains many species that are poisonous. The genus Amanita contains the destroying angels (A. bisporigera, A. ocreata, A. verna, and A. virosa) and the death cap (A. phalloides), which are among the deadliest mushrooms known.

  • Amano Hiroshi (Japanese materials scientist)

    Amano Hiroshi, Japanese materials scientist who was awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics for inventing blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). He shared the prize with Japanese materials scientist Akasaki Isamu and Japanese-born American materials scientist Shuji Nakamura. Amano became a student in

  • Amano Yukiya (Japanese diplomat)

    Yukiya Amano, Japanese expert in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation who was director general (2009–19) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Amano joined Japan’s Foreign Ministry after graduating from Tokyo University’s law faculty in 1972. In 1988 he was appointed director for

  • Amano, Yukiya (Japanese diplomat)

    Yukiya Amano, Japanese expert in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation who was director general (2009–19) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Amano joined Japan’s Foreign Ministry after graduating from Tokyo University’s law faculty in 1972. In 1988 he was appointed director for

  • Amanpour, Christiane (journalist)

    Christiane Amanpour, English-born journalist who, as a correspondent for CNN, was one of the leading war reporters of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. She later hosted the ABC news program This Week (2010–11) and the PBS interview series Amanpour & Company (2018– ). Amanpour’s father, an

  • amantadine (drug)

    Amantadine, drug used to treat infections caused by influenza type A virus, the most common cause of influenza epidemics. Amantadine and its derivative, rimantadine, can be used successfully in the prevention and treatment of influenza A; however, these agents have no effect against influenza B

  • amante fedele, L’  (work by Bontempelli)

    Massimo Bontempelli: His L’amante fedele (1953; “The Faithful Lover”), a collection of surrealistic stories, won Italy’s highest literary award, the Strega Prize.

  • amantes de Teruel, Los (work by Hartzenbusch)

    Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch: …ended with the production of Los amantes de Teruel (1837), a vivid dramatization of a legend, followed by successes with comedias de magia (“comedies of magic”)—e.g., Los polvos de la madre Celestina, 1840—and adaptations of Golden Age plays. He entered the Spanish Academy (1847) and became director of the national…

  • amantes pasajeros, Los (film by Almodóvar [2013])

    Pedro Almodóvar: …comedy Los amantes pasajeros (I’m So Excited!), set aboard an airplane preparing for an emergency landing, followed in 2013. Three years later he helmed and wrote Julieta, a drama about an estranged mother and daughter; it was based on several short stories by Alice Munro. Almodóvar then worked with…

  • Amants, heureux amants (work by Larbaud)

    French literature: The avant-garde: …influenced in its turn Larbaud’s Amants, heureux amants (1923; “Lovers, Happy Lovers”).

  • Amants, Les (film by Malle [1958])

    Louis Malle: His second, Les Amants (1958; The Lovers), was a commercial success and established Malle and its star, Jeanne Moreau, in the film industry. The film’s lyrical love scenes, tracked with exquisite timing, exhibit Malle’s typically bold and uninhibited treatment of sensual themes. Social alienation and isolation was the subject of…

  • Amānullāh Khan (ruler of Afghanistan)

    Amānullāh Khan, ruler of Afghanistan (1919–29) who led his country to full independence from British influence. A favoured son of the Afghan ruler Ḥabībullāh Khan, Amānullāh took possession of the throne immediately after his father’s assassination in 1919, at a time when Great Britain exercised an

  • Amapá (state, Brazil)

    Amapá, estado (state), northern Brazil. It is bounded on the north by a small portion of Suriname and by French Guiana, on the northeast by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south and west by the Brazilian state of Pará, and on the southeast by the Amazon River. Formerly a part of Pará state, Amapá was

  • Amapá Biodiversity Corridor (area, Brazil)

    Amapá: …park is part of the Amapá Biodiversity Corridor, a protected area that was established in 2003. The corridor covers more than 70 percent of the state.

  • Amapala (Honduras)

    Amapala, port, southwestern Honduras, on Isla de Tigre (Tiger Island) in the Gulf of Fonseca. It is the main Pacific port of Honduras, serving both coastal and overseas trade. The coastal marshes abound in wild ducks, and there is deep-sea fishing in the Pacific waters of the gulf. Pop. (2001)

  • Amar Das (Sikh Guru)

    Amar Das, third Sikh Guru (1522–74), appointed at the advanced age of 73, noted for his division of the Punjab into administrative districts and for encouraging missionary work to spread the faith. He was much revered for his wisdom and piety, and it was said that even the Mughal emperor Akbar

  • Amar Jawan Jyoti (Indian memorial)

    India Gate: The flames demarcate the Amar Jawan Jyoti, a small monument that has served as India’s tomb of the unknown soldier since 1971.

  • Amar Singh, Rānā (Mewār ruler)

    India: Submission of Mewar: The Rana Amar Singh then initiated negotiations (1615). He recognized Jahāngīr as his suzerain, and all his territory in Mughal possession was restored, including Chitor—although it could not be fortified. Amar Singh was not obliged to attend the imperial court, but his son was to represent him;…

  • Amar y Borbón, Josefa (Spanish author)

    Spanish literature: New critical approaches: Josefa Amar y Borbón defended women’s admission to learned academies, asserting their equal intelligence in “Discurso en defensa del talento de las mujeres y de su aptitud para el gobierno y otros cargos en que se emplean los hombres” (1786; “Discourse in Defense of the…

  • Amar-Suena (king of Ur)

    history of Mesopotamia: The 3rd dynasty of Ur: …Ur-Nammu and his successors Shulgi, Amar-Su’ena, Shu-Sin, and Ibbi-Sin, this dynasty lasted for a century (c. 2112–c. 2004). Ur-Nammu was at first “governor” of the city of Ur under Utu-hegal. How he became king is not known, but there may well be some parallels between his rise and the career…

  • Amara, Lucine (American opera singer)

    Lucine Amara, American operatic soprano, prima donna of the Metropolitan Opera (Met) in New York. She was regarded as one of the finest lyric sopranos of her generation. Amara studied singing in San Francisco, where she sang in the chorus of the San Francisco Opera (1945–46) and made her concert

  • ʿAmārah Dunqas (Funj dynasty leader)

    Funj Dynasty: …White Nile, was founded by ʿAmārah Dunqas in 1504–05. The Funj expanded northward from this region at the same time the ʿAbdallabi dynasty was extending its dominion southward from the region of Sūbah.

  • ʿAmārah, Al- (Iraq)

    Al-ʿAmārah, city, capital of Maysān muḥāfaẓah (governorate), southeastern Iraq. Situated on a low ridge beside the Tigris River, it is Iraq’s chief port on that waterway south of Baghdad. It is a trade centre for agricultural produce, livestock, wool, and hides and is known for weaving and

  • Amaral dos Barretos (Brazil)

    Barretos, city, north-central São Paulo estado (state), Brazil. It lies near the Pardo River at 1,713 feet (522 metres) above sea level. Known at various times as Amaral dos Barretos, Espírito Santo de Barreto, and Espírito Santo dos Barretos, the settlement was given town status and was made the

  • Amaral Martins, António Jacinto do (Angolan poet)

    António Jacinto, white Angolan poet, short-story writer, and cabinet minister in his country’s first postwar government. The son of Portuguese settlers in Angola, Jacinto became associated with militant movements against Portuguese colonial rule and was arrested in 1961. He was sent to São Paulo

  • Amaral, Delcídio do (Brazilian politician)

    Petrobras scandal: Delcídio do Amaral of the PT, an important ally of Rousseff, who became the first sitting senator to be arrested since at least the 1980s. Amaral and Esteves were accused of obstructing the scandal investigation by attempting to pressure a former Petrobras executive not to…

  • Amaral, Francisco Xavier do (East Timorese independence leader and politician)

    Francisco Xavier do Amaral, East Timorese independence leader and politician (born 1937, Turiscai, Portuguese Timor—died March 6, 2012, Dili, East Timor [Timor-Leste]), was the founding president (1974) of the anticolonial Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin) and the first

  • Amaral, Tarsila do (Brazilian artist)

    Tarsila do Amaral, Brazilian painter who blended local Brazilian content with international avant-garde aesthetics. Amaral, who is usually simply called Tarsila, began studying academic painting in 1916. In 1920 she traveled to Paris, where she took classes at the Académie Julian, returning to

  • amaranth (dye)

    dye: Food dyes: The azo dye amaranth was banned in 1976 after a long court battle but is still approved in many countries—including Canada, whose list includes one other azo dye, Ponceau SX, which is banned in the United States.

  • amaranth (plant)

    Amaranth, (genus Amaranthus), genus of 60–70 species of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae, distributed nearly worldwide. Several amaranth species are useful as food crops and are grown both for their leaves and for their edible seeds, which are a nutritious pseudocereal (nongrass seeds

  • amaranth family (plant family)

    Amaranthaceae, amaranth family of flowering plants (order Caryophyllales) with about 175 genera and more than 2,500 species, mostly herbs and subshrubs, distributed nearly worldwide. A number of species, including beets and quinoa, are important food crops, and several are cultivated as garden

  • Amaranthaceae (plant family)

    Amaranthaceae, amaranth family of flowering plants (order Caryophyllales) with about 175 genera and more than 2,500 species, mostly herbs and subshrubs, distributed nearly worldwide. A number of species, including beets and quinoa, are important food crops, and several are cultivated as garden

  • Amaranthus (plant)

    Amaranth, (genus Amaranthus), genus of 60–70 species of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae, distributed nearly worldwide. Several amaranth species are useful as food crops and are grown both for their leaves and for their edible seeds, which are a nutritious pseudocereal (nongrass seeds

  • Amaranthus albus (plant)

    Amaranthaceae: …many weedy plants known as pigweed, especially rough pigweed (A. retroflexus), prostrate pigweed (A. graecizans), and white pigweed (A. albus), which are common in waste areas throughout Europe and parts of the Americas.

  • Amaranthus caudatus (plant)

    Amaranthaceae: Some species—namely, Inca wheat, or love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus), red amaranth (A. cruentus), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)—are high-protein pseudo-grain crops of interest to agricultural researchers. Quinoa in particular, touted as a health food, grew in popularity worldwide during the early 21st century.

  • Amaranthus cruentus (plant)

    Amaranthaceae: …wheat, or love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus), red amaranth (A. cruentus), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)—are high-protein pseudo-grain crops of interest to agricultural researchers. Quinoa in particular, touted as a health food, grew in popularity worldwide during the early 21st century.

  • Amaranthus graecizans (plant)

    pigweed: Prostrate pigweed, or mat amaranth (A. graecizans), grows along the ground surface with stems rising at the tips; spiny pigweed, or spiny amaranth (A. spinosus), has spines at the base of the leafstalks; and rough pigweed, or redroot (A. retroflexus), is a stout plant up…

  • Amaranthus hybridus (plant)
  • Amaranthus hypochondriacus (plant)

    Amaranthaceae: …herbs, including the ornamentals love-lies-bleeding, prince’s feather (A. hybridus), and Joseph’s coat (A. tricolor). The genus also contains many weedy plants known as pigweed, especially rough pigweed (A. retroflexus), prostrate pigweed (A. graecizans), and white pigweed (A. albus), which are common in waste areas throughout Europe and parts of the…

  • Amaranthus palmeri (plant)

    amaranth: At least one species, Palmer’s amaranth (A. palmeri), has developed resistance to the common herbicide glyphosate and is a troublesome pest in genetically modified cotton and soybean crops in the United States.

  • Amaranthus retroflexus (plant)

    pigweed: …base of the leafstalks; and rough pigweed, or redroot (A. retroflexus), is a stout plant up to 3 metres (about 10 feet) tall.

  • Amaranthus spinosus (plant)

    pigweed: …stems rising at the tips; spiny pigweed, or spiny amaranth (A. spinosus), has spines at the base of the leafstalks; and rough pigweed, or redroot (A. retroflexus), is a stout plant up to 3 metres (about 10 feet) tall.

  • Amaranthus tricolor (plant)

    Amaranthaceae: hybridus), and Joseph’s coat (A. tricolor). The genus also contains many weedy plants known as pigweed, especially rough pigweed (A. retroflexus), prostrate pigweed (A. graecizans), and white pigweed (A. albus), which are common in waste areas throughout Europe and parts of the Americas.

  • Amarapura (Myanmar)

    Amarapura, town, central Myanmar (Burma). It lies on the left bank of the Irrawaddy River. A suburb of Mandalay, it is also known as Taung myo (Southern Town) or Myohaung (Old City). Founded by King Bodawpaya in 1783 as his new capital, it supplanted Ava, 6 miles (10 km) southwest. Its population

  • Amarapura (Buddhism)

    Buddhism: Sri Lanka: The Amarapura sect, founded in the early 19th century, opened its ranks to members of lower castes. The third division, the Ramanya sect, is a small modernist group that emerged in the 19th century. In addition, several reform groups were established among the laity. These groups…

  • Amaravalli (India)

    Amreli, city, southwestern Gujarat state, west-central India. It lies in the southeast-central part of the Kathiawar Peninsula, 125 miles (200 km) southwest of Ahmadabad. Amreli is primarily a commercial centre. Its industries include the manufacture of khadi (coarse cotton cloth), tanning, silver

  • Amaravathi (India)

    Amaravati, village, central Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. It is situated on the Krishna River, about 18 miles (29 km) west-northwest of Vijayawada and 20 miles (32 km) north-northwest of Guntur. Amaravati, meaning “Abode of the Gods,” was said to be the site where the mythical beings devas,

  • Amaravati (India)

    Amaravati, village, central Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. It is situated on the Krishna River, about 18 miles (29 km) west-northwest of Vijayawada and 20 miles (32 km) north-northwest of Guntur. Amaravati, meaning “Abode of the Gods,” was said to be the site where the mythical beings devas,

  • Amarāvatī sculpture

    Amarāvatī sculpture, Indian sculpture that flourished in the Andhra region of southeastern India from about the 2nd century bc to the end of the 3rd century ad, during the rule of the Sātavāhana dynasty. It is known for its superb reliefs, which are among the world’s finest examples of narrative

  • Amarcord (film by Fellini [1973])

    Roger Corman: and Whispers (1972), Federico Fellini’s Amarcord (1973), and Volker Schlöndorff’s The Tin Drum (1979). Corman sold New World Pictures in 1983 and founded Concorde-New Horizons, a company devoted strictly to movie production.

  • Amargosa Range (mountains, United States)

    Amargosa Range, group of mountains in eastern California and southern Nevada, U.S., separating Death Valley from the Amargosa Desert. Part of the Basin Ranges of eastern California, the Amargosa Range extends 110 miles (180 km) from Grapevine Peak (8,705 feet [2,653 m]), south-southeastward to the

  • Amargosa River (river, United States)

    Death Valley: Physical environment: The Amargosa River brings some water into the southern end of the valley from desert areas to the east, but most of its flow is underground. Salt Creek, draining the northern arm of the valley, also has only short stretches of perennial surface flow.

  • Amarigna language

    Amharic language, one of the two main languages of Ethiopia (along with the Oromo language). It is spoken principally in the central highlands of the country. Amharic is an Afro-Asiatic language of the Southwest Semitic group and is related to Geʿez, or Ethiopic, the liturgical language of the

  • Amarillo (Texas, United States)

    Amarillo, city, seat (1887) of Potter county (and partly in Randall county), on the high plains of northern Texas, U.S. The chief city of the Texas Panhandle, Amarillo is located on a sandy playa, or dry lake bed, and the tawny colour of its soil lends the city its name (Spanish: Yellow). At first

  • Amarillo Ramp (work by Smithson)

    Robert Smithson: …an Earthwork to be titled Amarillo Ramp. This piece was finished posthumously (1973) by Holt, Tony Shafrazi, and Richard Serra.

  • Amarillo Slim (American gambler)

    Amarillo Slim, (Thomas Austin Preston, Jr.), American gambler (born Dec. 31, 1928, Johnson, Ark.—died April 29, 2012, Amarillo, Texas), was a colourful and astute poker player best remembered for his slender frame, huge Stetson hat, and pithy remarks he made during game play. He became an

  • ʿAmarīnah, Tall al- (ancient site, Egypt)

    Tell el-Amarna, site of the ruins and tombs of the city of Akhetaton (“Horizon of Aton”) in Upper Egypt, 44 miles (71 km) north of modern Asyūt. On a virgin site on the east bank of the Nile River, Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) built the city about 1348 bce as the new capital of his kingdom when he

  • Amarinya language

    Amharic language, one of the two main languages of Ethiopia (along with the Oromo language). It is spoken principally in the central highlands of the country. Amharic is an Afro-Asiatic language of the Southwest Semitic group and is related to Geʿez, or Ethiopic, the liturgical language of the

  • Amarkantak (India)

    South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: North Indian style of central India: Another important site is Amarkantak, where there are a large group of temples, the most important of which is the Karṇa. Although generally of the 11th century, they are quite simple, lacking the rich sculptural decoration so characteristic of the period. By contrast, the Virāṭeśvara temple at Sohāgpur, with…

  • Amarna Age (Egyptian history)

    Palestine: Late Bronze Age: …is often known as the Amarna Age and is vividly illustrated by several hundred letters written in cuneiform script, found in Egypt at Tell el-Amarna, site of the capital of the “heretic king” Akhenaton. The unusual concern of the pharaohs with the affairs of Palestine was chiefly a result of…

  • Amarna Letters (Egyptian texts)

    Amarna Letters, cache of clay tablets discovered at Tell el-Amarna in Egypt and dating to the reigns of kings Amenhotep III and Akhenaton of the 18th dynasty. The Amarna Letters provide invaluable insight into the nature of diplomatic relations among the great nations and petty states of the 14th

  • Amarna style

    Amarna style, revolutionary style of Egyptian art created by Amenhotep IV, who took the name Akhenaton during his reign (1353–36 bce) in the 18th dynasty. Akhenaton’s alteration of the artistic and religious life of ancient Egypt was drastic, if short-lived. His innovations were centred upon a new

  • Amarna, Tall al- (ancient site, Egypt)

    Tell el-Amarna, site of the ruins and tombs of the city of Akhetaton (“Horizon of Aton”) in Upper Egypt, 44 miles (71 km) north of modern Asyūt. On a virgin site on the east bank of the Nile River, Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) built the city about 1348 bce as the new capital of his kingdom when he

  • Amarna, Tell el- (ancient site, Egypt)

    Tell el-Amarna, site of the ruins and tombs of the city of Akhetaton (“Horizon of Aton”) in Upper Egypt, 44 miles (71 km) north of modern Asyūt. On a virgin site on the east bank of the Nile River, Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) built the city about 1348 bce as the new capital of his kingdom when he

  • Amarnath, Lala (Indian cricketer)

    Lala Amarnath, (Nanik Bhardwaj Amarnath), Indian cricketer (born Sept. 11, 1911, Lahore, India—died Aug. 5, 2000, New Delhi, India), was a popular and flamboyant all-rounder and the first cricket captain of independent India after partition. In a solid first-class career (1929–64) Amarnath, a r

  • Amarnath, Nanik Bhardwaj (Indian cricketer)

    Lala Amarnath, (Nanik Bhardwaj Amarnath), Indian cricketer (born Sept. 11, 1911, Lahore, India—died Aug. 5, 2000, New Delhi, India), was a popular and flamboyant all-rounder and the first cricket captain of independent India after partition. In a solid first-class career (1929–64) Amarnath, a r

  • Amarsipidae (fish family)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Nomeidae, Ariommidae, Amarsipidae, and Tetragonuridae Eocene to present; slender to ovate, deep-bodied fishes; dorsal fin continuous or spinous portion set off from soft portion by deep notch; in the most generalized species, which resemble Kyphosidae, the soft dorsal is preceded by about 6 low, stoutish spines; other…

  • Amaru (South American mythology)

    Native American religions: Initiation: …time a formless water serpent, Amaru, was the first female being. Her female followers stole ritual flutes, kuai, from the males of that age and initiated Amaru by placing her in a basket while they blessed food for her. Insects and worms tried to penetrate the basket, and eventually a…

  • Amaryllidaceae (plant family)

    Amaryllidaceae, amaryllis family of perennial herbs in the flowering plant order Asparagales, containing 73 genera and at least 1,600 species, distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Members of the family have bulbs or underground stems, several strap- or lance-shaped

  • Amaryllis (literary character)

    Amaryllis, in Roman literature, a stock female character, a natural, pretty young woman who was usually a shepherdess. Amaryllis is mentioned in classical pastoral poetry and in later works, such as Thomas Campion’s “I Care Not for These Ladies” (1601) and John Milton’s “Lycidas”

  • Amaryllis at the Fair (novel by Jefferies)

    Richard Jefferies: He also dictated a novel, Amaryllis at the Fair (1887), which is sometimes compared to Thomas Hardy’s regional novels. Earlier novels by Jefferies include the beautiful Dewy Morn, 2 vol. (1884), and Green Ferne Farm (1880).

  • Amaryllis belladonna (plant)

    Amaryllidaceae: …many garden ornamentals, especially the belladonna lily (Amaryllis belladonna), snowdrop (Galanthus), snowflake (Leucojum), and daffodil (Narcissus). Many tropical lilylike plants also belong to the subfamily, such as the Cape tulip, or blood lily (Haemanthus),

  • amaryllis family (plant family)

    Amaryllidaceae, amaryllis family of perennial herbs in the flowering plant order Asparagales, containing 73 genera and at least 1,600 species, distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Members of the family have bulbs or underground stems, several strap- or lance-shaped

  • Amaseia (Turkey)

    Amasya, city, capital of Amasya il (province), northern Turkey, on the Yeşil River, also called the Iris River. Capital of the kings of Pontus until about 183 bce, it was made a free city and the administrative centre of a large territory by Pompey in 65 bce. In the 2nd century ce it received the

  • Amasia (Turkey)

    Amasya, city, capital of Amasya il (province), northern Turkey, on the Yeşil River, also called the Iris River. Capital of the kings of Pontus until about 183 bce, it was made a free city and the administrative centre of a large territory by Pompey in 65 bce. In the 2nd century ce it received the

  • Amasis (king of Egypt)

    Amasis, king (reigned 570–526 bce) of the 26th dynasty (664–525 bce; see ancient Egypt: The Late period [664–332 bce]) of ancient Egypt, a general who seized the throne during a revolt against King Apries. The account of the 5th-century-bce Greek historian Herodotus reveals Amasis as a shrewd and

  • Amasis Painter (Greek artist)

    Amasis Painter, ancient Greek vase painter who, with Exekias, was among the most accomplished of Archaic vase painters. He was responsible for the decoration of several of the black-figure amphorae (two-handled jars), cenochoae (wine pitchers), and lekythoi (oil flasks) of the Amasis Potter.

  • amastoid skull (anatomy)

    artiodactyl: Specializations of the head: Amastoid skulls are found in most suiform groups (including entelodonts, anthracotheres, and all living suiform groups); mastoid skulls occur in some early suiform groups, oreodonts, and all remaining artiodactyls that have lived since the end of the Eocene Epoch (about 33.9 million years ago). Hippopotamuses…

  • Amasya (Turkey)

    Amasya, city, capital of Amasya il (province), northern Turkey, on the Yeşil River, also called the Iris River. Capital of the kings of Pontus until about 183 bce, it was made a free city and the administrative centre of a large territory by Pompey in 65 bce. In the 2nd century ce it received the

  • Amasya, Peace of (Ottoman Empire [1555])

    Ottoman Empire: Süleyman I: …agreed in 1555 to the Peace of Amasya, by which he retained Iraq and eastern Anatolia but renounced Ottoman claims to Azerbaijan and the Caucasus and agreed to allow Shīʿite Persian pilgrims to visit Mecca and Medina as well as their own holy places in Iraq. Thus, the same geographic…

  • Amaterasu (Shintō deity)

    Amaterasu, (Japanese: “Great Divinity Illuminating Heaven”), the celestial sun goddess from whom the Japanese imperial family claims descent, and an important Shintō deity. She was born from the left eye of her father, Izanagi, who bestowed upon her a necklace of jewels and placed her in charge o

  • Amaterasu Ōmikami (Shintō deity)

    Amaterasu, (Japanese: “Great Divinity Illuminating Heaven”), the celestial sun goddess from whom the Japanese imperial family claims descent, and an important Shintō deity. She was born from the left eye of her father, Izanagi, who bestowed upon her a necklace of jewels and placed her in charge o

  • Amateur (film by Hartley [1994])

    Isabelle Huppert: Versatility in the 1990s and 2000s: …a nun turned pornographer in Amateur. The following year she portrayed a town gossip and murderer in La Cerémonie, for which she received a French César Award. She later played a career woman dating a young bartender in L’École de la chair (1998; The School of Flesh). In 2001 Huppert…

  • Amateur Action Bulletin Board Service (online service)

    United States v. Thomas: …they had created, named the Amateur Action Bulletin Board Service (AABBS). The service was operated from a dedicated computer and phone line, which allowed dial-in access (using modems) to the BBS from individuals’ homes. Once connected, individuals could read and post messages as well as download any materials (such as…

  • Amateur Athletic Association (British sports organization)

    Amateur Athletic Association (AAA), British national governing organization for the sport of track and field (athletics). Founded in 1880, it took over as the governing power from the Amateur Athletic Club, founded in 1866. The association was the first such organization in the world. The AAA was

  • Amateur Athletic Club (British sports organization)

    athletics: Modern development: …amateurs, and in 1866 the Amateur Athletic Club (AAC) was founded and conducted the first English championships. The emphasis in all these meets was on competition for “gentlemen amateurs” who received no financial compensation. In 1880 the AAC yielded governing power to the Amateur Athletic Association (AAA).

  • Amateur Athletic Union of the United States (American sports organization)

    Amateur Athletic Union of the United States (AAU), alliance of national and district associations, amateur athletic groups, and educational institutions formed in the United States in 1888 for the purpose of certifying athletes as amateurs in various sports. The AAU now serves as the governing body

  • Amateur Boxing Association (British organization)

    boxing: Amateur boxing: In 1880 the Amateur Boxing Association (ABA), the sport’s first amateur governing body, was formed in Britain, and in the following year the ABA staged its first official amateur championships.

  • Amateur Emigrant, The (work by Stevenson)

    Robert Louis Stevenson: Early life: …arduous journey appeared later in The Amateur Emigrant, 1895, and Across the Plains, 1892). His adventures, which included coming very near death and eking out a precarious living in Monterey and San Francisco, culminated in marriage to Fanny Osbourne (who was by then divorced from her first husband) early in…

  • Amateur Hockey Association of Canada (sports organization)

    ice hockey: Early organization: …first national hockey organization, the Amateur Hockey Association (AHA) of Canada (which limited players to seven a side), was formed in Montreal in 1885, and the first league was formed in Kingston during the same year, with four teams: the Kingston Hockey Club, Queen’s University, the Kingston Athletics, and the…

  • Amateur Hockey Association of the United States (sports organization)

    Olympic Games: St. Moritz, Switzerland, 1948: …Committee, another supported by the Amateur Hockey Association of the United States (AHAUS). While the IOC declared both teams ineligible, the Swiss Olympic Committee ruled that the AHAUS team could compete; the U.S. national team could participate only in the opening ceremonies. The IOC refused to sanction the competition, claiming…

  • Amateur Hour (American radio and television show)

    Television in the United States: Reality TV: …competition in the tradition of The Original Amateur Hour, which had aired on the radio in the 1930s and ’40s and then on television from 1948 through 1970, spending some time on each of the four networks. As was the case with The Original Amateur Hour, American Idol was responsible…

  • amateur radio (communications)

    Amateur radio, noncommercial two-way radio communications. Messages are sent either by voice or in International Morse Code. Interest in amateur radio arose around the turn of the 20th century, shortly after Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi successfully sent the first transatlantic wireless

  • Amateur Skittle Association (British athletics organization)

    skittles: …game was assumed by the Amateur Skittle Association, which specified the dimensions of the alley and the distance between each of the nine pins in the diamond frame.

  • Amateur Softball Association of America

    softball: The Amateur Softball Association of America, organized in 1933, came to be the recognized governing agency for promotion and control of organized national competition.

  • amateur sport

    athletics: Organization and tournaments: …is still restricted to the amateur athlete, although the definition of “amateur” continues to evolve. The IAAF over time has reduced its definition of an amateur athlete to the simplest possible terms: “An amateur is one who abides by the eligibility rules of the IAAF” is the complete rule, allowing…

  • Amateur Swimming Association (British sports organization)

    swimming: History: …in 1869, ultimately became the Amateur Swimming Association, the governing body of British amateur swimming. National swimming federations were formed in several European countries from 1882 to 1889. In the United States swimming was first nationally organized as a sport by the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) on its founding in…

  • Amathus (ancient city, Cyprus)

    Amathus, ancient city located near Limassol, Cyprus, among sandy hills and sand dunes, which may explain its name (Greek amathos, “sand”). Founded by the Phoenicians (c. 1500 bc), Amathus maintained strong sympathies with the Phoenician mainland and refused to join various Cypriot revolts against

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